- Student Projects Summer 2016
- Digital Stories Spring 2016
- Digital Stories Fall 2015
- Digital Stories Spring 2015
- Western Hemisphere
- Eastern Hemisphere
- Research Projects
- Service Learning
GE 176 course looks at the world for the regional features, landmarks, cultures, and changes over time, space, and place. Any Pulsipher Editions give excellent reference maps and text for World Regional Geography.
Dr. Linda Davis-Stephens, Instructor
Text online study pages
Research topics, digital stories, and other geography projects posted by Summer 2016 CCC students from online course.
Digital Story student productions usually use iMovie for Mac or Moviemaker for PC that are free downloads.
Three minutes is the typical length, personal voice over telling about a place of choice, music in the background; one of the slides shows a map of where the place is. Student productions are published to youtube or vimeo then shared using embed code for future students to view too.
GE 176 / World Regional Geography
Final Research Project Summer 2016
June 25, 2016
Warm, welcoming and a hell of a lot of fun, everything you never heard about Serbia (Србија) is true. Exuding a feisty mix of élan and inat (Serbian trait of rebellious defiance), this country doesn’t do ‘mild’: Belgrade is one of the world’s wildest party destinations, the northern town of Novi Sad hosts the rocking EXIT festival, and even its hospitality is emphatic – expect to be greeted with rakija (fruit brandy) and a hearty three-kiss hello.
Serbia is landlocked country in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula in southern Europe. Serbia is bordered by Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,
Croatia, Hungary, the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Romania. Serbian rivalry with the Austro-Hungarian Empire contributed to the outbreak of the First World War, after which Serbia was absorbed into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later known as Yugoslavia from 1929–2003, with the capital Belgrade). In the early 1990s, in times of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, four out of the six countries seceded the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On the break-up of Yugoslavia Serbia remained in the federation with Montenegro until 2006.With an area of 77,474 km² Serbia is slightly smaller than the Czech Republic, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of South Carolina. Serbia has a population of about 7 million people. Largest city and capital is Belgrade. Spoken languages are Serbian (88%) and partially all languages of the surrounding countries. Main religion is Eastern Orthodox, 84%. The Constitution of Serbia defines it as a secular state with guaranteed religious freedom. Orthodox Christians with 6,079,396 comprise 84.5% of country's population. The Serbian Orthodox Church is the largest and traditional church of the country, adherents of which are overwhelmingly Serbs. Other Orthodox Christian communities in Serbia include Montenegrins, Romanians, Vlachs, Macedonians and Bulgarians. Roman Catholics number 356,957 in Serbia, or roughly 6% of the population, mostly in Vojvodina, northern part which is home to minority ethnic groups such as Hungarians, Croats, Bunjevci, as well as to some Slovaks and Czechs. Protestantism accounts for about 1% of the country's population, chiefly among Slovaks in Vojvodina as well as among Reformed Hungarians. Greek Catholic Church is adhered by around 25,000 citizens (0.37% of the population), mostly Rusynsin Vojvodina. Muslims, with 222,282 or 3% of the population, form the third largest religious group. Islam has a strong historic following in the southern regions of Serbia, primarily in southern Raška. Bosniaks are the largest Islamic community in Serbia; estimates are that some third of country's Roma people are Muslim.
The official language is Serbian, a standardized form of Serbo-Croatian, native to 88% of the population. Serbian is the only European language with active digraphia, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets
Serbia is not a mass-tourism destination but nevertheless has a diverse range of touristic products. In 2014, total of almost 2.2 million tourists were recorded in accommodations, of which just over 1 million were foreign. Foreign exchange earnings from tourism were estimated at $1.14 billion. Tourism is mainly focused on the mountains and spas of the country, which are mostly visited by domestic tourists, as well as Belgrade which is preferred choice of foreign tourists. The most famous mountain resorts are Kopaonik, Stara Planina, and Zlatibor. There are also many spas in Serbia, the biggest of which is Vrnjačka Banja, Soko Banja, and Banja Koviljača. City-break and conference tourism is developed in Belgrade (which was visited by 517,401 foreign tourists in 2013, more than a half of all international visits to the country) and to a lesser degree Novi Sad. Other touristic products that Serbia offer are natural wonders like Đavolja varoš, Christian pilgrimage to the many Orthodox monasteries across the country and the river cruising along the Danube. There are several internationally popular music festivals held in Serbia, such as EXIT (with 25–30,000 foreign visitors coming from 60 different countries) and the Guča trumpet festival.
Just like many other countries, Serbian national sport is "Football" or as it's called in the US "Soccer". Sport in Serbia revolves mostly around team sports. Among the most popular sports in Serbia are football, basketball, water polo, volleyball, handball and tennis. The two main football clubs in Serbia are Red Star Belgrade and FK Partizan, both from capital Belgrade. Recent sports hosted by Serbia are the following: 2014 European Rowing Championships, 2013 World Women's Handball Championship, 2013 Davis Cup World Group final, 2013 European Individual Chess Championship for Women, 2012 European Women's Handball Championship. It started hosting international games since 2005. Novak Djokovic is the tennis player, who is 3 years in a row first in the world.
Maybe Serbia is a small country but it is great place to visit.
There are some videos of Serbia and Serbian music
Final research project
The island nation of Jamaica is renowned for its beautiful sights such as: Blue Mountain coffee, the reggae music of Bob Marley, dreadlocked natives drinking rum under a tropical sun, steel drums, pirate legends, and the Jamaican bobsled team. A land of elegant beaches surrounded by the crystal blue waters of the Caribbean, but what people don't realize is Jamaica is a third world nation still struggling to free itself from three hundred years of British colonial rule. The history of Jamaica is violent and gruesome. Slavery and revolt, racial struggle and economic disaster have left a legacy that Jamaicans must still cope with.
Jamaica was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1494, and settled in 1509. The Spanish set out to find gold in Jamaica and managed to virtually annihilate the native Indian population during a century and a half of rule. The British invaded the island in 1655, driving off the Spanish in the name of Oliver Cromwell. Jamaican identity is permanently intertwined with Britain, remaining a colony until 1962. The nation is still a part of the British Commonwealth. What many people don’t know about Jamaica is that it has a Spanish town, which was formerly the capital, Sevilla la Nueva, now called New Seville. Jamaica's social and economic development began here under the Spanish rule.
Jamaica is an island in the West Indies, 90 mi (145 km) south of Cuba and 100 mi (161 km) west of Haiti. It is a little smaller than Connecticut. The island is made up of coastal lowlands, a limestone plateau, and the Blue Mountains, a group of volcanic hills, in the east.
One of the most unique things about Jamaican culture is the food. Since a part of Jamaica is Spanish and part is not, the food is very original and is almost always very spicy. Some of the most typical dishes in Jamaica are curry chicken, jerk chicken, and curry goat. The most common beverages in Jamaica are soda, carrot juice, and beat juice.
Language is another way in which Jamaica demonstrates its melded culture. Although Jamaica's official language is English, many of its residents speak with their own linguistic style. There are even differences from village to village. The main ingredients of Jamaica's language stew are Spanish, African, English (including Irish, British and American idioms), and even Rastafarian. Another thing that sets Jamaica apart from other countries is its music. Jamaica is most popular know for reggae music which is growing more popular across the globe. Bob Marley is one of the most famous reggae musicians to come from Jamaica, known for his band, Bob Marley and the Wailers. Another type of music Jamaica had, though, it doesn’t get as much recognition is ska. What makes Jamaica what it is today is its unique history, blend of people, and culture. Had the Spanish stayed in Jamaica and settled it successfully, today’s Jamaica would be much different. The blend of cultures is what makes it so unique.
The economy of Jamaica is in great difficulties and has been for some time. Jamaica is one of the most indebted countries in the world with debts totaling US $19 billion. Unemployment and poverty levels are high, Over the last 30 years, real per capita GDP increased at an average of just one percent per year, making Jamaica one of the slowest growing developing countries in the world. The country accumulated public debt stood around 140% of GDP.
Linda Davis- Stephens
26 July 2016
Sitting just a short 93 miles south of Florida, Cuba is the Caribbean’s largest island with an area of 42,426 sq mi. Cuba has a rich history that begins with its colonization at the hands of the Spanish after being discovered on Columbus’ expedition in 1492. This is what gives Cuba much of its ethnic and cultural norms that have been associated with it in modern times. Cuba achieved Independence in 1902 following the end of the Spanish- American war. Then, in 1959 Castro took control of the government after almost a yearlong revolution attempt, creating the Communist Cuba that is now one of the last remaining Communist countries. This revolution resulted in the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, where the world was on the brink of nuclear war for days due to Soviet missiles being deployed on the Island. This led to a 54-year trade embargo by the U.S., which has only recently been lifted, along with an embassy reopened.
While its messy political history is what may be known best about Cuba, it’s geography and demographics are generally overlooked. As an Island nation, Cuba houses 11.2 million people, with Havana its largest city and capitol, housing 2.2 million of the total population. The people of Cuba enjoy a temperate tropical climate that’s average temperature is 69 degrees Fahrenheit in January and 80 degrees in July. The terrain is dominated by mountains, tropical forests, and beaches.
Demographically, Cuba is 64% white, 9% black, and 27% Mulatto, or mixed race according to Wikipedia. Due to the Spanish influence, nearly 60% of Cuba’s population identifies as Catholic. In fact, Spanish heritage has influenced much of the culture of Cuba, not only is Spanish the official language, but cuisine can be described as Caribbean heavily influenced by Spanish dishes. Cuba is perhaps best known for their people’s love of baseball and affinity for the sport, with many making it to the U.S. major leagues, the highest achievement of any player. Although, the infamous “Cuban Cigars”, are also a calling card of the island nation. This may be influenced by the trade embargo, leaving people wanting what they can’t have.
Cuba is a country with a rich and messy past, telling its tale at every turn. It represents a last stronghold of a fleeting idea, along with the hope for a renewed place in the world under new leadership. A country that has blended and melted cultures over the years to create its own identity, heralded in the traditions of its ancestors. Although, it is a place shrouded in mystery to the outside world, cut off and ignored for much of the 20th century, Cuba has and will continue to be a country that reinvents itself.
World Regional Geography
Lake of the Ozarks
Lake of the Ozarks in Missouri is a place that stands out to me because my family and I would vacation here.
Lake of the Ozarks is a reservoir impounding the Osage River in the northern part of the Ozarks. The condo that we normally stay at is in Lake Ozark. The roads that you can travel to circle around the lake itself have many towns and stores to stop at along the way. One place that you can stop at is the Lake of the Ozarks State Park. Now this is not your typical playground park, this is a wide area of land that you can walk the trails next to the lake. There are also caves and other scenery along the way, but it is a great experience for the family to get outdoors and have an adventure in nature with a beautiful view of the lake the whole time. You also have the opportunity to camp at this beautiful park, which means a bonfire and s’mores!
Another place to visit, which is also a cool outdoor hiking adventure, is Ha Ha Tonka. Prepare your legs for a lot of walking; it is a 15 mile walking trail with so much scenery. The scenery includes an old stone castle that burnt down and left half of the walls, a beautiful and cool experience to see. Keep walking and you will eventually run into the option of walking down over 200 steps on the side of a hill to get down the lake. When you’re down there you can walk right along a cove of the lake and see many different caves. You can also walk across a bridge to walk up rock steps and see more beautiful scenery. The only bad part about it is, you have to climb back up the 200+ step stairway, but that’s okay because the important thing is you should be having fun!
And finally, the last place I suggest visiting is the Bagnel Dam Strip, which is about a mile or longer of many different stores. The stores include clothing stores, candy stores and even arcade stores. The clothing stores are not your typical clothing stores, they include crazy t-shirt designs and funny sayings on them. The candy stores you won’t want to miss out on, they include fudge, salt water taffy and many other assortments of candy. Make sure to stock up on all of it! The arcades are your typical arcade games, there are even batting cages that you can participate in. At the end of this adventurous walk, there is a zip line that you can do that goes across the hillside with beautiful scenery.
I would recommend this trip for anyone who is open to new adventures. A lot of these places require lots of walking and very little cell service so you actually get the time to be with loved ones and see so much! It will be the trip of a lifetime, I promise.
GE176/world regional Geography
Final Research Project7/26/2016
I chose to do some research on Jamaica because I had some family that had recently went there for a vacation type of think. Jamaica has a population of 2.9 million people, 20% of the population is in poverty. Many of the people in Jamaica craft or make things that they can sell to the tourists on the street. Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean. Its landscape consists of mountains that are surrounded by coastal plains. Jamaica is divided into 14 different parishes they range in size from 1,212 km^2 to 420 km^2. The weather in Jamaica is very hot and humid. The most recent surveys show that 92.1% of the population is of the black ethnic group. Many of them coming from western Africa or Europe. Although that is true the immigration rate has increased and many of the new comers are from China or Haiti.
Christianity is the religion that is practiced the most in on the island. This is interesting to me because when I think of a Christian oriented country so to say I think of a well mannered and people who have good morals, this is not what my family had to say about the people that they interacted with while they were there. They said that it was not uncommon to be walking down the street or traveling and seeing someone smoking a joint. They said that the people were pretty well mannered for the most part but it did not seem like they had very good if any morals in their life. My family members said that there is a fine line between the people who are in poverty and the ones that are doing well for themselves. They would tell how they would leave the cities and there would be huts with tarp or cardboard in some cases draped over them and that’s where a family would live three or four people in a little hut.
After doing a little research on the island of Jamaica, even though the beaches look pretty, I do not think that it would be first on my list of places to visit. Below are a few pictures that I have found online of Jamaica. The one is a comparison of the island to Kansas, Northwest Kansas to be more specific.
Final Research Project
GE 176/ World Regional Geography
People have been living in Brazil for what scientist say for 8000 years, the people who are believed to be the first to settle in Brazil where nomadic and semi- nomadic, believed to come from Asia in search for hunting grounds. The Portuguese called them Indians. In the 1690's gold was found and that is when Brazil was finally recognized for its mineral and trading potential. Coffee and sugar also became major producer, this gave locals work and helped establish the country. Economic abidance stopped when the economy crashed. Today Brazil is a Democracy, and is used to boast one of the world's fastest growing economies.
Brazil has a surface area of 3,287,612 square miles in which 3,266,199 square miles is land and 21,410 square miles is water. It is the Fifth largest country both in area and population. As a country it is split into five regions; Central-West, Northeast, North, Southeast, and Southern Brazil, and each of these are split into 26 states and Federal Government.
The Amazon Rainforest plays a major role in Brazils natural resources with it being home to almost ones-third of the animal population and also makes up about half of the world's rain forests. The Amazon River also plays a huge role. It carries more water to the Atlantic Ocean than any other river; the river is 2000 miles long.
Currently Brazil has a population of about 190 million people. Of these more than half are white and fewer than 40%are mixed black and white and less than 10% are black. Roman Catholic faith is practiced by approximately 80% of the population. European settlers taught the indigenous tribes Catholicism, built churches and, established traditions and customs. Portuguese is the official language because in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries mass quantities of Portuguese settled there.
This country seems to be very generous and polite in the etiquettes that I read about. Her are some pictures and a video that show this beautiful country.
The Beauty of Scotland
The Islands of Skye are located in Scotland. The coastlines are very different than others. They are covered with interesting facets, like cliffs, waterfalls, bays, caves, mountain ranges, as well as much more. There are three general geographical regions, with some of the oldest rocks layered among younger, a volcanic reservoir, and lava flows. This variety adds to the complexity and overall beauty of the islands. In addition, the historical expanse on the islands has gone long uncovered and unaltered, providing details and obvious looks into a time before. Vikings, battles, feuds, royal homes, old villages, can all be studied here.
Another interesting location in Scotland is the notorious Edinburgh. Edinburgh is not only home to rich cultural life, historic landmarks, and a thriving community. Edinburgh also is located over an expansive landscape that was the result of volcanic activity millions of years ago, followedby intense glaciation. The Water of Leith Walkway is also a popular aspect of Edinburgh, particularly to joggers, bikers, and hikers. In addition to these geographical aspects, Edinburgh offers a look into a beautiful and regal lifestyle. The Edinburgh Castle is a very hard sought after attraction, combining scenic views of the natural formations as well as the immensely impressive manmade castle.
Another feature of Scotland that interests geographers and travelers alike is the Enchanted Forest, a combination of manmade beauty and naturally occurring wonders. The intense forestation of this Scotland landmark offers a look into the biological as well as geographical traits. This location and the forest affect wildlife, geography, and especially the cultural activities that take place there. The beauty of the forest makes it a prime a location for gatherings and celebrations, like the incredible Scotland Premier Sound and Light Exhibit.
Scotland offers a beautiful look into the relationship between geography and culture. From the Islands of Skye to the “Enchanted” Forest, Scotland has a variety of outlets in which geographers and travelers will take interest in. Scotland is not only a dot on a map, but a beautiful and rich location.
GE 176/World Regional Geography
Final Research Project7/19/2016
Haiti, one of the poorest countries, according to America’s Human Development index has face one devastating event after another since their revolution in 1804. From the beginning there were disputes between the “light-skinned Mulattos” and the black citizens, then disputes with the neighboring Santo Domingo, dictatorships, AIDS epidemic, a devastating earthquake and a Cholera outbreak. Between tourists not willing to risk the AIDS epidemic in the 80’s and then the Cholera outbreak in 2011 and the devastating loss of people from the magnitude 7.0 earthquake in 2010 killing 230,000 people, it’s no surprise that Haiti is a struggling country.
Haiti was the first black led republic in the world and the first independent nation in Latin America. The main languages are French and Haitian Creole. There are 10,032,619 people according to the 2015 census and the capital is Port-au-Prince. Approximately two-thirds of the population lives in the rural areas which makes their limited plains very densely populated, which puts a strain on the environment. The small amount of plains in Haiti are productive agriculturally, allowing Haitians to farm cassava, plantains, bananas, maize, yams, sweet potatoes and rice.
Haiti occupies the smaller, western part of Hispaniola that is shared with Dominican Republic and located in the Caribbean Sea. It is approximately the size of Maryland at 10,714 square miles and has generally rugged topography. Haiti is two-third mountains with four main mountain ranges: Cordillera Septentrional, Massif du Nord, Matheux Mountains and Massif de la Selle. The mountains are mainly limestone, but there are a few volcanic formations present. The highest point is Pic la Selle at 8,793ft.
Haiti has an irregular coastline that forms two peninsulas. There are rocky shores, natural harbors and renowned coral reefs. There are many short, non-navigable rivers. The climate is humid with the average temperature in the 70’s and 80’s. Haiti doesn’t have much for vegetation or wildlife due to deforestation during the 20th century. This is still the case because of the heavy population in the rural areas.
GE 176/World Regional Geography
Final Research ProjectJuly 24, 2016
I would love to show my research about one of the small Caribbean Island: Puerto Rico. I chose Puerto Rico because there are so many beautiful places in the island, and I want you to know the island more.
On the map, Puerto Rico is located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the U.S. Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands. Puerto Rico is only 100 miles long by 35 miles wide, making it the smallest island of the Greater Antilles. Puerto Rico (Spanish for "rich port") consists of an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and several islands: Vieques, Culebra, Mona and numerous islets.
The population is made up about 1.3% of the total population of the United States. It is note that Puerto Rico is an independent country, but the fact is Puerto Rico is part of US. It brings about the economic geography in Puerto Rico is in difficulty from US government policies. The major differences between Puerto Rico and the 50 states are exemption from some aspects of the Internal Revenue Code (which is organized according to topic and covers all relevant rules pertaining to income, gift, estate, sales, payroll and excise taxes), its lack of voting representation in either house of the U.S. Congress and in presidential elections, and its lack of assignation of some revenues reserved for the states.
The climate and life expectancy. The climate of Puerto Rico which is one of the tropical locations in the world, and it might help to improve the life expectancy of the island. San Juan (the capital) has a normal daily mean temperature of 80 degrees F. Rainfall varies by region, but on the south coast it only averages 32 in. a year, while the highlands average 108 in. San Juan’s average rainfall is 54 in. Health conditions in Puerto Rico have improved remarkably since 1940, when the average life expectancy was only 46 years. A resident of Puerto Rico born in 2006 is expected to live 78.4 years (74.46 years for males, 82.54 years for females).
Recently, Puerto Rico is facing a severe fiscal crisis. As this study was being completed, most knowledgeable observers were convinced that the commonwealth and other public-sector entities on the island would fail to service their debts on time and in full, making default and debt restructuring inevitable.
The history of the Puerto Rico is interesting. On November 19, 1493 Christopher Columbus discovered the island in his second voyage to the New World. He named the island San Juan Bautista. He found the island populated by Taíno or Arawak Indians. The Taínos were peaceful and they welcomed the conquistadores and shared their homes and food and gave the Spaniards many gifts. For four centuries the island was a colony of Spain, before becoming a U.S. territory in 1898. Juan Ponce de León colonized Borinquen in 1508 and became its first governor. The Spaniard conquistadores were looking for gold. They made slaves of the Indians gradually killing them from overwork. Soon, African families were brought to the island as slaves. The island remained economically undeveloped until 1830, when sugarcane and other plantation were developed. Many families from Spain and European nations moved to the island, slowly marrying Taíno Indians, forming a new ethnic group called Criollos. When Puerto Ricans started to push for independence, Spain granted the island powers of self-government in 1897. But during the Spanish-American War of 1898 American troops invaded the island and Spain surrendered to the U.S. Since then, Puerto Rico has remained a U.S. territory. Its people were granted American citizenship under the Jones Act in 1917; were allowed to vote for their own governor, beginning in 1948; and now fully manage their internal affairs under a constitution. In 1952 Puerto Rico’s Constitution established self government. In 1954 Puerto Rican nationalists carried out an armed attack in the US Congress but over the years the people of Puerto Rico have voted to retain Commonwealth status. This is why Puerto Rico is a melting pot of cultures, especially from Spain.
Last, I want to show how beautiful the island is. Puerto Rico is also called the Island of Enchantment. So why is “Island of Enchantment”? Some people say this is because its beautiful beaches, amazing ambiance, and landmark. Some of themany enchanting landmarks and beaches of the beautiful island are the San Juan beach is known for its amazing white sand and clear blue waters and the Bioluminescent Bay in Fajardo where contains up to 720,000 single-celled bioluminescent dinoflagellates per gallon of water. These half-plant, half-animal organisms emit a flash of bluish light when agitated at night. Gozanlandia in San Sebastián is a great place to visit because many amazing waterfalls you will find on this tropical wonderland.
Your posted work here is a personal, virtual reflection on geography, your sense of place in the world today and/or the past/future locations important to you. Your posted work will be public, indefinitely, on the internet.
There are guides to digital storytelling online at places like
If you need help using Windows Movie Maker this is a good tutorial:
Post your name(s) and video here, just above the previous student post.
singryd, fatoumatta and Jay
Esperanza, Malorie, Matt
Fatoumatta Darboe, Jay Bahtka, Sunguyal
Beau Brown, Derek Queen, Alexander Boswell
Student Digital Storytelling
Your posted work here is a personal, virtual reflection on geography, your sense of place in the world today and/or the past/future locations important to you. Your posted work will be public, indefinitely, on the internet.
There are quides to digital storytelling online at places like
If you need help using Windows Movie Maker this is a good tutorial:
Post your name(s) and video here, just above the previous student post.
John Peden & Brook Bahe- Hawaii
Katrina Delgado- Matamoros, Mexico
The Galapagos Islands
Jason Manning & Katie Hopkins
The Geography of Sparta
Geography of Hawaii
Vienna: The City of Music
Hanami in japan
Dust Bowl (Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico)
Blair Norris, Adam Simmerman, Sarah Churchwell, and Jenessa Williams
Evolution of Music
"Finding a sense of place in a digital world"
Student groups post their digital productions here based on class topics discovered, explored, and presented; topics relevant to biogeography, the nature of a place—flora and fauna, on land or off shore.
Image of map
Brief summary paragraphs (3-5)
Next student post here.Dani Roberson- The Pacific Northwest
The Pacific Northwest can be roughly described as the area east of the Pacific Ocean and west of the Rocky Mountains; Alaska is sometimes included in this definition. Some of the regions that fall into the Pacific Northwest are the U.S states of Washington, Oregon, northern California, western Idaho and Alaska, but the Pacific Northwest also includes the Canadian province of British Columbia. Geography in the Pacific Northwest includes everything from arid plateaus, high altitudes of the many majestic mountain ranges, and beautiful expansive coastlines. Of all the Geographic features in the Pacific Northwest, there in an exceptional number of mountain rangers above all other features.
The Pacific Northwest holds the Rocky Mountains (as stated before), the Cascade Range, the Olympic Mountains, the Coast Mountains, and the Columbia Mountains. Within the Cascade Range lies one of the most famous volcanoes, Mt. St. Helens, which erupted in 1980. If one were to look east of the Cascade Range you would see a large plateau that slowly tapers off towards the north and grows larger as on its south side. Columbia River flows through this plateau, creating what is known as the gorge.
Since the Pacific Northwest is known for its rain, it would be to no surprise that much of the area is covered in forests. One of the more commonly found trees in Oregon would be the Douglas fir, while in northern California it would be the redwoods. Within the Pacific Northwest you can find many different animals such as wolves, grizzly bears, moose, black bears, coyotes, river otters, and deer. The Pacific Northwest is a beautiful place with many different features spread throughout it, all of which very worthy of a visit.
Rocky Mountain National Park is located in the north central region of Colorado in the United States. It is a massive park consisting of smaller parks that offer a wide range of tourism opportunities for families, hikers, motorcycle riders, campers, photographers, and many, many more. Aside from the numerous mountains, lakes, and rivers, RMNP is home to many species of plants and animals
In this massive park, 60 species of mammals call this place home. Animals range from big animals like elk, moose, and black bears, all the way down to mountain lions, bobcats, and coyotes. These animals have grown accustomed to the constant attention the park receives, and you’ll notice when you see a family of deer walking around town, or black bears taking a swim in the pond behind a restaurant. They seem to care less about humans being near by, and this fascinates tourists who have never before seen such an animal up close and personal.
RMNP is home to over 900 species of plants. One of the main species (in my opinion) is trees. The mountains have thousands of trees of different types. Some of these include the ponderosa pine, douglas fir, and lodgepole pine trees. These trees consume the mountains in a beautiful scenery of tall trunks ending in beautiful green at the top. Another aspect of the park is snow. At high altitudes and right conditions, tourists will see snow and maybe get to experience skiing.
This information is only a fraction of what there is to see or know, but that is up to the tourists to go see and experience for themselves. Pictures and information don’t do justice to the true beauty there is to experience at this park in Colorado.
Trevor Smeeton & Sydney Ajanga
Puerto Rico, also know as the Island of Enchantment is about 1,000 mi. south of Miami, Florida. Its total area is about 3,515 sq. mi. including 56 sq. mi. of inland water. Puerto Rico is home to about 3,912,054 people.
The three main ethnic strands are from the heritage of Puerto Rico. There are the Taino Indians who fled after the Spanish conquest. There are the black Africans whom were imported as slaves under Spanish rule. Then there are the Spanish themselves. Since 1917 Puerto Rico have been considered as US citizens. Even though they are considered US citizens they do not play federal income tax to the US and they do not vote in US presidential elections.
Spanish and English are the official languages of Puerto Rico, but Spanish remains dominant among the residents. The climate of Puerto Rico is one of the tropical locations in the world. San Juan (the capital) has a normal daily mean temperature of 80 degrees F. Rainfall varies by region but on the south coast it only averages 32 in. a year, while the highlands average 108 in. San Juan’s average rainfall is 54 in. Health conditions in Puerto Rico have improved remarkably since 1940, when the average life expectancy was only 46 years. A resident of Puerto Rico born in 2006 is expected to live 78.4 years (74.46 years for males, 82.54 years for females).
Olympic National Park
Olympic National Park is a national park located on the Olympic Peninsula. The Olympic Peninsula is part of Washington State. There are three ecosystems in this small area they are: subalpine forest and wildflower meadow, temperate forest and the rugged pacific shore. The Olympic National park was declared as a biosphere reserve by the united nations. There are some animals that have only evolved in this region. The Olympic mountain milkvetch, Olympic marmot, Olympic Mazama pocket gopher, Olympic mud minnow, Beardslee, and crescent trout are animals that have only evolved in this area and nowhere else on Earth. The mountain goat that was not originally from this area was introduced around the 1920s and has been damaging the meadows. The park staff is making efforts to control this boom in mountain goats. The plants in this area include conifers that can reach over 20 stories tall. Because the region has three different ecosystems it means there are many types of plants that can grow in this small region. Over 1450 types of plants grow in the national park which is about as many as some places with 30 times the size of the park.
Saguaro National Park
The Saguaro National Park, located near Tucson AZ, at the foot of the Rincon Mountain Range is a very interesting and historical place. It is a smaller part of the Sonoran Desert, a very hot and dry location.This doesn’t mean it doesn’t have plenty of wildlife though! Although it doesn’t receive much moisture it does get rain showers and even a little bit of snow of snow, depending on the time of year. It was signed into existence in March of 1993, by President Hoover. The need for this establishment was long overlooked however. When the park was founded it was almost entirely diminished. It used to be full of a particular species of cactus known as the Saguaro, but cattle and careless people had destroyed many young cacti over the years. With the population dying off rapidly something needed to be done. Now, 20 years later the cacti forest is growing in strength and returning to it’s original state. These cacti provide habitat to many species of birds, and shelter to other species of desert plants. Some of the most common animals in the national park are as follow: Coyotes, mountain lions, rabbits, roadrunners, woodpeckers, rattlesnakes, skunks, javelinas(wild pig), scorpions, and a plethora of other wildlife; many of which are endangered species. The park serves not only as a safe haven for wildlife but also a popular tourist destination. Tourists can bike, or walk through the paved park on foot. I haven’t been able to bike through it yet but I’d sure like to. I would encourage anyone that visits Tucson to go see it as well, as the desert is truly a beautiful, exciting place!
The country of Haiti is part of an island that also homes the Dominican Republic. The census from July of 2015 is 10,110,019 for this small country. 20% of the Population lives in the countries capital, Port-au-Prince. It is a third world country which means it is in extreme poverty with 80% of the population living in poverty. This contributes to a high infant mortality rate with 10% of children dying before age of five. It has been shown that the average daily earnings for a worker in Haiti is $2.75. Every five years a new president is elected. Christopher Columbus discovered this country in 1492 and named it "Hispaniola". In 1697 France took control of the country. In 1804 Haiti gained its independence, it is the second oldest independent nation in the western hemisphere after the United States. In 2010 not only did a devastating earthquake destroy most of the country and caused many fatalities, but it also was stricken with a cholera outbreak which is still present today.
The terrain is mountainous and the tempetarue is warm and tropical. The population is shown to be 95% black or mixed and only 5% white. There is a strong sense of culture in this country. It is show that over half the country practices voodoo, which is a combination of african slave traditions and catholic values. Many families live together with extended family. Their diet consists of fruits, vegetables and some spiced meats. Haiti produces coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum, and wood. Most of the population is poorly educated with only 10% of the students that attend elementary school going on to graduate high school.
Central High Plains
This beach is anchored at one end by the famous 700 foot Pão de Açucar(Sugarloaf Mountain) that sits just off the coast, and on the other end by the old Copacabana Fort.
The 2.5 mile long beach in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is one of the most recognizable beaches in the world. Made famous by the nightclubs, casinos, and hotels in the 1950s - Copacabana Beach is lined from one end to the other with tourist class and luxury hotels, indoor and outdoor restaurants, bars, and nightclubs.
Some people think that "Copa" has seen its better days, but you wouldn't know it based on the thousands of people who flock here every month from all over the world. Copacabana is especially popular with foreigners, many of whom "winter" in Rio de Janeiro.
The beach itself is quite wide in places and much more flat than in neighboring Ipanema Beach. On the east end it transitions into Leme Beach and ends with the 300 foot (115m) Morro do Leme (Leme Mountain). The streets turn inland at Morro do Leme, which has no coastal road or path around it. Pão de Açúcar (Sugar Loaf) can be seen just off the coast on this end of the beach.
This beach in Brazil is marked by Postos 2 - 6 (life guard posts) about every kilometer. Copacabana Beach is illuminated at night by very large lights, giving the entire scene a surreal look and feel. Despite being well lit, it is considered not safe to walk the beach at night, and it's better to stay on the hotel side of the sidewalk late at night.
You can bring your camera to take pictures, but it's not as safe here as in Ipanema Beach. For more information visit our Rio de Janeiro Photo Tips page.
Most of the tourists and Cariocas (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil residents) congregate from just east of the famous Copacabana Palace Hotel at Posto 2, down to about Posto 5.
In front of the Copacabana Palace Hotel, is the well established gay section of the beach. It's marked by the rainbow flag and is a hive of activity on sunny days.
The most popular sport on this beach is soccer, and you can find games being played every few hundred yards throughout the day into the early evening.
Further down at Posto 6, it's a calmer area and caters to the affluent crowds of beach goers who stay at the expensive hotels on the west end of Copacabana Beach.
Also at Posto 6, is what's left of a small fishing village. This very special place is best visited early in the morning as fishermen head out to sea in their small boats, and in the early evening when they return to clean and sell their catch right on the beach.
Copacabana Beach is also the site during the year for large music concerts featuring Brazilian bands and such international acts as the Rolling Stones. For these concerts, large sound stages are set up right on the beach, and hundreds of thousands of people will show up for the all day and into the evening party.
This is also the sight of perhaps the largest New Year's Eve party in the world. Every year, Revéillon is celebrated on the beach with many thousands of people wearing traditional white, enjoying spectacular fireworks at midnight, and partying until dawn to watch the sunrise.
And swimming! This Rio de Janeiro Brazilian beach has calmer waves and waters than neighboring Ipanema Beach, which makes for great wading, swimming, and body surfing. Vendors line the beach renting umbrellas, lounge chairs, and all manner of drinks and snacks.
You can also get more information and picture by just clicking the link below
The Bahamas is a coral-based archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, comprising 700 islands and cays that range from uninhabited to resort-packed. The northernmost, Grand Bahama, and Paradise Island, home to the sprawling Atlantis resort, are among the best known. Scuba diving and snorkeling sites include the massive Andros Barrier Reef, Thunder ball Grotto (of James Bond fame) and the black-coral gardens off Bimini. The Islands of The Bahamas lie between 20 and 27°N latitude and 72 and 79°W longitude. Separated from the North American Continent by the Florida Channel and cooled in the summer by the northeast trade winds, The Bahamas enjoys a moderate climate. During the summer, temperatures rarely rise above 90°F, while the lowest winter temperatures vary between 40 and 50°F. Rainfall ranges between 40-60 inches a year. The Bahamas extends over 100,000 square miles of sea, with slightly less than half lying in the Tropics. The Tropic of Cancer crosses the lower part of Long Island. Contrary to popular belief, The Bahamas is not in the Caribbean, but is in the Atlantic Ocean. The Bahamas stretch over a distance of some 760 miles from northwest to southeast and includes 30 inhabited islands, 661 cays, and about 2,387 exposed reefs. The total land area is approximately 5,380 square miles, about the size of Wales or two-thirds the size of Massachusetts. The largest island is Andros, with an area of 2,300 square miles and the smallest inhabited island is Spanish Wells, with an area of one-half mile. The highest point is 206-foot high Como Hill on Cat Island. Some of the most beautiful beaches and lagoons in the world are located in The Bahamas. Over 50 varieties of trees can be found here, including such exotic species as the African tulip, the casuarina, the cork tree, several varieties of palm trees, and about 40 varieties of fruit trees. In addition, large varieties of shrubs, climbers, vines, vegetables, and herbs are found here. There are no significant seasonal changes requiring winter clothing or central heating in the Bahamas. The rainy season is from May to October with an average in Nassau of six inches per month. From November through April, average rainfall is two inches per month. The hurricane season extends from June through November, the greatest risk being in August, September, and October. In the winter, temperatures rarely fall below 60°F, and usually reach 77°F by mid-afternoon. During the summer, temperatures fluctuate between 85-90°F in the daytime and 75°F and less in the evening. Although humidity can reach about 80% (relative humidity for September is 82%), prevailing easterly winds lessen personal discomfort. Temperatures vary from a low of 76.7°F in January to a high of 89.1°F in August. Humidity causes mildew on leather and textile products, but homes equipped with central air-conditioning or dehumidifiers neutralize the harmful effects.
Rainfall often occurs in the form of fairly intense showers, frequently accompanied by strong, gusty winds. These storms are usually short and are followed by clear skies. Weather conditions can change rapidly. Statistically, a hurricane can be expected to occur in some part of The Bahamas every nine years. The last hurricane (Floyd) struck in September 1999. New Providence and Grand Bahama Islands experienced minimal damage considering the magnitude of the storm, which reached speeds of up to 100 mph in Nassau. Coastal areas were flooded and power was cut off but was restored within a week. The Embassy hurricane plan calls for early evacuation of government employees to emergency shelters located on high ground in the central and eastern portions of New Providence. Official communications, as well as ready access to Miami TV and radio stations, provide more than ample early warning of severe weather threats. The preliminary statistics from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing placed the total resident population of the Bahamas at 304,913. The statistics show that New Providence (where Nassau is located) has a population of 212,432, accounting for 69.66% of the population and representing a 23.83% increase in population compared to the 1990 census. Grand Bahama, with the second largest population, has 46,954 persons representing 15.40% of the population, an increase of 14.42% in population compared to the 1990 census. Abaco follows with a population of 13,174 or 4.32% of the population, Andros with 7,815, and Eleuthera with 8,114 accounting for 2.56% and 2.66%, respectively. Exuma had 3,575 persons and 1.17% of the total population, while Long Island with 2,945 persons had less than 1% of the population.
The Lucayan Indians, a branch of the Arawak’s, discovered the islands in the ninth century AD. Some 600 years later, on October 12, 1492, Christopher Columbus made his first landfall in the New World on San Salvador Island. Some studies by historians have disputed the San Salvador theory however, and suggest that the landfall may have occurred at Samana Cay instead. Spanish adventurers followed Columbus to The Bahamas and soon shipped the remaining Lucayan population as slaves to the mines in Cuba and Santo Domingo, where the race eventually became extinct. The islands were the setting for several attempts at establishing colonies of religious refugees, including the Eleutheran Adventurers. Although they all ultimately failed, many family names in The Bahamas derive from these seventeenth century English settlers. Most Bahamians are of mixed African and European descent. Of the European portion of the population, 90% are descendants of early British and American settlers, most notably loyalists from New York, Virginia, and the Carolinas. The Bahamas also has a considerable Greek community. Most are second and third generation Bahamians, whose descendants came to the islands as sponge fishermen. English is universally spoken in the Bahamas.
Biogeography studies all aspects of the adaptations of an organism to its environment, considering systematically the origins, migrations and associations of living things. In Canada, the animals you will see will be determined by what type of territory you are at. In a deciduous forest, you would most likely see woodland frogs, ovenbirds, and white-tailed birds. If you are in a transcontinental forest you will probably see white spruce trees, bunchberries, twinflowers, and feather mosses in terms of plants. Wildlife wise there would be trout from the brook, moose, and purple finches. In the Atlantic coastal plain regions there are grey birch trees, candleberry trees, and broom crowberry trees. At higher altitudes there are usually purple saxifrage flowers, and mountain avens which are also known as dwarf shrubs. Plants of the southern prairies belong to several areas that witness more or less unresolved conflicts. Tall-grass prairie, mixed-grass prairie, and short-grass prairie are constantly moving north and south and leaving traces. The western boreal forest elements (pine trees, black spruce trees, and devil’s paintbrush trees) and the eastern ones (twinflowers, bunchberries, and bearberries) will come together in cooler highlands. The patterns of the geographic distribution of plants and animals are, very revealing of past changes in the displacement of the communities that sheltered them, and indeed of whole bioclimatic areas that have shifted across continents. Canada is a very white and forested area as you can see and that determines what kind of plants and animals are there to be seen. The biogeography of Canada must be seen as a whole, and not just solely as patterns of key species of plants and animals.
Big Horn Mountains
The highest peak in this mountain range is Cloud peak at 13,175ft elevation. The second highest peak is Black Tooth Mountain at 13,005ft elevation. Unlike the parent chain of the Rockies, the Big Horns are more rounded mountain ranges. There are many colorful rock formations in these mountains. These mountains are mostly made up of sedimentary rock. The layers range from Cambrian through the Lower Cretaceous, and are often rick in fossils. There is only one remaining active glacier, this glacier is Cloud Peak Glacier, which is on the east slope of cloud peak.
The animals that reside in these mountains are mule deer, elk, moose, black bear, and mountain lions. In the lower elevations they have pronghorns, rattlesnakes, golden eagles, hawks, and some wild bison managed by the crow Indians.
The Crow Indians have land in these mountains but since this ground is sacred only the tribal members can venture these parts. The Sioux, Crow, and Cheyenne Indians have always considered these lands to be sacred.
The Galapagos Islands
The Galapagos Islands is a clutter of 19 islands. They were formed by underwater volcanic eruptions which pile on the former eruptions over millennia until the volcanic earth is pushed to the surface of the ocean. The islands are located in the Pacific Ocean; 600 miles west of Ecuador. Ecuador is on the western coast of South America.
The Galapagos Islands has a harsh and dry environment and has a rocky desert-like terrain. The Galapagos Islands have four primary ecosystems, which were formed by climate patterns and the differences in elevation. Lowlands, subtropical forests, dense forests, and the fourth consist of ferns and grasses in the highest elevations. The lowlands are generally filled with forests of cactus. Moving upwards in elevation, the subtropical forest is well, subtropical. The third ecosystem is humid and has dense forests. The fourth consists of primarily ferns and grasses at the highest elevations. Only the largest islands, such as Isabella, contain all four systems.
Galapagos is the home of many mammals, birds, and reptiles. Most of the species there are found nowhere else in the world. The mammals that live there are the Galapagos sea lions, Galapagos Fur Seal, two endemic species of bats, and the rice rat. The reptiles are the marine iguana; it is the only lizard in the world that can live and hunt in the sea, the land iguana, seven lava lizards, and the most famous giant tortoise. It is the largest of the living tortoises, reaching over 880lbs and has the lifespan of 100 years! And the last is the
birds. The birds consist of a variety of color. The finches, mockingbird, hawk, frigatebirds, flamingo and flamingo. They are all titled after the Galapagos Islands, so if you were to look up these amazing species I suggest you type Galapagos firsthand.
Fun Fact: Charles Darwin visited the Galapagos Islands in 1831 and consolidated his observations that would soon become the Theory of Natural Selection.
To look up more about the Galapagos Islands:
The Everglades were shaped by water and fire. The Everglades is a tropical wetland area located in the Southern tip of Florida.near the Orlando area with the Kissimmee River and goes south into the Florida Bay the Florida Everglades is one of the most extensive, complex, and renowned wetland ecosystems in the world. Located in South Florida, the Everglades is really a long, shallow river wide and long. It is home to a multitude of plants, animals, and birds—both resident and migratory—that live in some habitats not found anywhere else on the North American continent.
The climate of South Florida is located across the broad transition zone between subtropical and tropical climates, Like most regions with this climate type, there are two basic seasons - a "dry season " (winter) which runs from November through April, and a "wet season" (summer) which runs from May through October. About 70% of the annual rainfall in south Florida occurs in the wet season - often as brief but intense tropical downpours. The dry season sees little rainfall and dew points and humidity are often quite low. The dry season can be severe at times, as wildfires and water restrictions are often in place.
The Florida Everglades ecosystem is also the only place in the world where alligators and crocodiles exist side by side. Many animals live in the Everglades including the raccoon, skunk, opossum, Eastern Cottontail bobcat, Red Fox and white-tail deer. But the symbol of this wild, vast ecosystem is the Florida panther.
Ireland is an island nation on the westernmost edge of Europe. It is second to Great Britain for largest island on the continent. Part of land in the north belongs to the United Kingdom, but the residing area is the Republic of Ireland, which is 80% of the land. Ireland received its nickname or the Emerald Isle because large green fields encompass most of its land. Aside from the fields, there are large areas of rugged, rocky landscape. Thousands of years ago, Ireland was covered in glaciers completely. Tracts of limestone pavement were left behind from the ice. Damp patches of soggy lakes were also remnants of the glaciers. The highlands of Ireland can be located almost only in the southwest. These highlands end at high cliffs that rise thousands of feet over the Atlantic Ocean.
Flora: During earlier ages, Ireland was heavily covered in oak, beech, pine, and birch. Due to the mild climate, sub-tropical species grew, like palm trees. Many wild flowers can be found in the abundant amounts of pastures. In wetter, moist areas of Ireland, Western part mostly, fern grows. Unique assortments of grasses have covered the island, especially Spartina Anglica. Algal and seaweed flora are found in the cold temperatures of Ireland. “The number of species in totality is Heterokntophyta:152; Rodophyta: 264; Cyanophyta:31 ; Chlorapyta: 114 having the total of 574 species all in all. To name a rare specie would be Itonoa marginifera, Schimitzia;Galidiella calcicola, Gelidiul maggsiae and Halymenia latifolia.” Irelands Flora creates the color of the island. This is where it gets the name Emerald Isle, from being covered in green beauty.
Fauna: Land in Ireland is limited for animals and their preservation due to most land being applied for agriculture. Large animals are not a part of Ireland due to their need for much greater amounts of land, which also excludes predators from Ireland’s fauna. The usual species that can be found in Ireland would be hedgehogs, red fox, and badger. Others like Irish hare, pine marten, red deer are not that often seen. In their aquatic wildlife, species like shark, turtle, dolphin and others are typical in the coast. Most abundant animal in Ireland is the bird, which nearly 400 species can be found there. These birds have migrated mostly from Greenland, Africa, and Iceland.
The Chincoteague and Assateague Island
Assateague is located east of the Chincoteague Island of the cast of Virginia, Assateague is known as a Barrier island because it protects the Chincoteague Island from the Atlantic Ocean. Assateague island is approximately 38 miles long and the terrain is mostly grassland and marsh. The entire island is a wildlife sanctuary, protected from the development. The animals inhabit the land are mostly migratory birds and wild horses. The Chincoteague Island which is 14,000 acres of beach lies a few miles from Assateague. The only civilization is the small town of Chincoteague with the population of 2,941. The island receives 1.5 million visitors each year to enjoy its touring, fishing, crabbing and its annual Pony Penning Day. The history of the Pony Penning Day all began around the 16th century when the Spanish Vessel wrecked off of the coast of Assateague Island which stranded the ponies causing them to swim to Chincoteague Island.
Once a year the Chincoteague fire department purchases a grazing permit from the national wildlife service to allow the island to maintain up to 150 adult ponies on the island. Usually on the last Thursday in July Salt Water Cowboys swim the ponies from Assateague Island to the Chincoteague Island where thousands of spectators come to watch and bid on the ponies. Pony Penning Day gained its popularity when the book, Misty the Chincoteague pony became a classic in 1948. Misty was born on July 20, 1946 owned by Clarence and Ida Beebe. The author, Marguerite Henry, used Misty as a model for her books. Misty appeared at schools, movies, theaters, museum, libraries and horse show. Misty then returned to the Beebe Ranch in 1957 to have her foal.
The ponies eat mostly the salt water cord grass that grows in the marsh, because the grass is high in salt the ponies drink twice the amount of water which causes their bellies to look bloated. The ponies are able to find fresh water in low areas of the island where rain water collects, or they drink from the Vernal Pools located in the Loblolly pine tree forest, the needle of the pine fall into the Vernal pools that are acidic which keeps the water fresh.
Argentina: Province del Monte
In the north-central part of Argentina there is a province called del Monte. This province spans 2000 km and runs from eastern part of the Andes to a desert called the Pantagonian Desert. It also continues east towards the Pacific Ocean. Within the province you will find many rivers, sparse dry forests, and dry grasslands.
This part of Argentina holds one of the biggest dry forest lands in Argentina. Vegetation in Monte includes many variations of shrubs such as the Evergreen shrub. Perennial grasses are also widely found in this region. Other plants found in the area include cactus, woodlands that are able to thrive in dry environments, and Bromeliaceae. When Monte region receives rain wild irises, lilies, and Portulaca grandiflora. Monte has some forests found along rivers such as the Rio de la Plata. These forests consist of small sized trees that are resistant to drought called Mesquite trees. The Monte region of Argentina has hot summers (sometimes too hot) and the winters are often cold and snowy.
This region gets little rainfall, between 80 and 250 millimeters per year. Certain regions get rain during the summer and others get it year round. The Monte area is experiencing damaging effects because of human activity, such as overgrazing, and deforestation for fuel, agriculture, mining, and finding oil.
You can find more information about this region at: Fund, W. (2014). Argentine Monte.
Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/150227 http://www3.cricyt.edu.ar/entomologia/Articulos/Monte biodiversity.pdf
Above previous student post.
The Amazon has a long history of human settlement. Contrary to popular belief, sizable and sedentary societies of great complexity existed in the Amazon rainforest. These societies produced pottery, cleared sections of rainforest for agriculture, and managed forests to optimize the distribution of useful species. The notion of a virgin Amazon is largely the result of the population crash following the arrival of the Europeans in the sixteenth century. Studies suggest that 11.8 percent of the Amazon's terra firm forests are anthropogenic in nature resulting from the careful management of biodiversity by indigenous people. However, unlike those using current cultivation techniques, these Amazonians were attuned to the ecological realities of their environment from five millennia of experimentation, and they understood how to sustainably manage the rainforest to suit their needs. They saw the importance of maintaining biodiversity through a mosaic of natural forests, open fields, and sections of forest managed so as to be dominated by species of special interest to humans.
Today, despite the population decimation, natives peoples still live in American rainforests, although virtually all have been affected by the outside world. Instead of wearing traditional garb of loin cloths, most Amerindians wear western clothes, and many use metal pots, pans, and utensils for everyday life. Some groups make handicrafts to sell to tourists, while others make routine trips to the city to bring foods and wares to market.
Almost no native group obtains the majority of its food by traditional nomadic hunting and gathering. Nearly all cultivate crops, with hunting, gathering, and fishing serving as a secondary or supplementary food source. Usually a family has two gardens: a small house garden with a variety of plants, and a larger plantation which may be one hectare in area planted with bananas, manioc, or rice. These plantations are created through the traditional practice of slash and burn, a method of forest clearing that is not all that damaging to the forest if conducted in the traditional manner.
The flora and fauna of the Amazon is large. There are so many bird, mammals, reptiles and amphibians as well as plants. This is what helps keep the rainforest so big and vast. Without the flora and fauna, the rainforest wouldn’t be as perspiring.
Student groups post their digital productions here based on class topics discovered, explored, and presented; topics relevant to biogeography, the nature of a place—flora and fauna, on land or off shore.
Next student post here.
Matt Rahjes, Esparanza, Malorie
There are many mammals in Scotland but the ones that stood out would have to the highland cows, red deer, and wildcat. The highland cows’ attract many tourists. They’re also known as hairy coos because of their shaggy coat and their hairs sweep across their eyes. The black hairy cow used to be the most popular but now they are extremely rare to find in Scotland. Next we have the red deer and in Scotland they are slightly smaller than other western European red deer. This deer thrives in the highlands and islands of Scotland. Scotland also has the European wildcat which has longer fur and a shorter no tapering busy tail. It also has striped fur and a dark dorsal band. The wild cat used to be considered separate wildcat subspecies and distinct from wildcats occurring on the European mainland. In Scotland the number of wildcats are critically low.
Scotland has many hardwood and other tree species. Acacia is a type of rain tree. Leaves of the Acacia are compound pinnate in general. in some Australian and Pacific islands the leaves are suppressed and leaf stalks become practically flattened. These small flowers have five very small petals hidden by long stamens and arranged in a dense globular or cylindrical clusters. They are either a yellow or cream color, sometimes they can be white, purple or red. These plants often bare spines, sometimes representing branches, have became a short, hard and pungent, or leaf stipels, sometimes due to certain regions of the world.
The Forth and Lothians area in the east of Scotland's Central Belt is a major economic and cultural hub, incorporating Edinburgh, the industrial centers of Grangemouth and Falkirk, and the Forth ports. The region also boasts a wealth of terrestrial, coastal and marine protected environments and Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), and is recognized for its nationally important geo-diversity. There are many competing interests in the surface and subsurface environments of the Forth and Lothians, from planned developments in urban and water infrastructure to growing interest in geothermal energy and unconventional oil and gas resources, and urban and rural environmental management.
The Geology and Landscape: Scotland team are working with planners, policy makers and environmental regulators in the Forth and Lothians to develop new 3D/4D geoscience applications to improve efficiency in resource and infrastructure development, and to support effective environmental management. The multidisciplinary project encompasses applied research in geothermal energy, hydrogeology, marine geoscience, structural and sedimentary geology, and coastal and catchment processes.
IS THE SOUTHERNMOST COUNTRY IN EUROPE AND IS DIVIDED INTO THREE GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS; THE ISLANDS, THE PENINSULA OF PELOPONNESE AND THE MAINLAND.THERE ARE SEVERAL MOUNTAIN RANGES IN GREECE. ONE OF THE WORLDS DEEPEST GORGES, VIKOS GORGE, IS LOCATED IN THE PINDUS MOUNTAIN RANGE. THEIR TALLEST MOUNTAIN IS MOUNT OLYMPUS. THE ANCIENT GREEKS BELIEVED THAT'S WHERE THE GODS LIVED AND IT BECAME THE FIRST NATIONAL PARK LOCATED IN GREECE.
GREECE IS KNOWN FOR THEIR SEEMINGLY ENDLESS COASTLINE AND THEIR THOUSANDS OF ISLANDS LOCATED IN THREE DIFFERENT SEAS; IONIAN SEA TO THE WEST, THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA TO THE SOUTH AND THE AEGEAN SEA TO THE EAST.
MOST OF GREECE WAS COVERED IN RICH FOREST AT ONE TIME, HOWEVER, OVER THE CENTURIES SOME FORESTS HAVE BEEN CUT DOWN TO MAKE ROOM FOR FARMING. TODAY, FORESTS CAN ONLY BE FOUND IN THE RHODOPE AND PINDUS RANGES. CROPS FROM THIS REGION INCLUDE; OREGANO, THYME, ROSEMARY AND BAY LEAVES.
WALK DOWN ANY STREET AND FIND THE PAVEMENT LACED WITH OLIVE, FIG AND PISTACHIO, LEMON AND ORANGE TREES.
The Philippines is an archipelago in Southeast Asia that is located between the South China Sea and North Pacific Ocean. It is divided into three geographic areas mainly Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Philippines consists of 7,100 islands with the total land area of 298,000 square kilometres. All of the islands are volcanic in origin. As a result, the country is mountainous. Mountains divide most of the island surfaces into narrow coastal strips and low-lying interior plains or valleys. The Philippines has a tropical marine climate with two seasons. From November through April is the Northeast monsoon which brings a lot of rains. From May through October, the Southwest monsoon brings cool, dry weather. Natural calamities are common in the country, such as earthquake and typhoons as well as volcanic eruptions and floods. The monitoring system has improved throughout the years. Temperatures rarely rise above 37 degrees Celsius; mountain areas can be cool especially in Northern Luzon and Mindanao.
The Philippine rainforest and its widespread coastlines make it one of the ten most biologically diverse countries with various kinds of birds, plants, animals, and sea creatures. There are 1,100 land vertebrate species including more than 100 mammal species and 170 bird species that do not exist elsewhere. Native species include the tamaraw of Mindoro, the Visayan spotted deer, Philippine mouse deer, Visayan warty pig, Philippine flying lemur, and various species of bats. The Philippines does not have large predators, except snakes such as pythons and cobra, and birds of prey such as the Philippine eagle (National bird). Philippine waters have 2,400 species of fish and over 500 species of coral. The Apo Reef is the country’s largest contiguous coral reef system and the second largest in the world.
The Philippines healthy soil produces thousands of plant species. From 3,000 species of giant trees, 1000 species of orchids to thousands more species of mosses and lichens, Philippine forests comprise a variety of plant life that not one of its neighbours has. The country has different kinds of Bamboo that is very valuable for making music instruments, handicrafts, bags, lamps, and furniture. Another valuable plant is the coconut palm which produces oil, vinegar, and liquor. Narra tree, the national tree, is also used for furniture making and high quality furnishings.
This belongs in Western Hemisphere—
Western hemisphere of biogeography of Mexican transition zone
We analyzed the relationships of the areas of endemism of the Mexican Transition Zone through 3 hypotheses of regionalization. We used a reconciled trees method based on the phylogenies of 10 genera of beetles, gymnosperms, lizards and snakes. Seven general area cladograms were generated using assumptions 0 and 1 and the Nelson and majority consensus. They showed 2 groups of areas, 1 with Neotropical affinities and the other with Nearctic affinities. The Sierra Madre del Sur resulted as the sister area of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Other constant patterns were the area that involves Tamaulipas and Texas as sister area of the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts, and the highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala were always recovered as the sister area of the Talamanca ridge. Our results suggest that the most important vicariant events within the Mexican Transition Zone are the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which divides the majority of the endemism areas with Neartic affinities (north to this) from those endemism areas of Neotropical affinities (south to this) and the Tehuantepec Isthmus; which together with the Nicaraguan depression isolates Nuclear Central America. Other patterns appear in either regionalization proposal, but not within the 3, and require future studies in order to find well supported explanations. Even though our results have appeared in previous hypotheses, there are worth due to the fact that we include phylogenetic information of different taxa, we employed reconciled trees, an insufficiently used method, and we searched for congruence between results using 3 regionalization proposals.
That is my true standing on the recent biogeography in the mexican transition zone. A lot of different things are usually always happening on all the different transtions zones in the mexican transition zone, and usually are always changing with the wheather and the climate.
Africa is the world’s second largest continent and covers about 6% of the Earth’s surface. Its general population is about 1.1 billion people as of 2013 and accounts for 15% of the world’s human population.
Africa is home to one of the most diverse and odd collections of plant life. For example, in Ethiopia and Yemen, coffee production is one of the most efficient businesses. Coffee beans grow from a flowering scrub and they are collected to brew and sell for profit. Babul acacia is another plant. It’s a tropical flowering and fruiting evergreen that has the potential to reach heights of around 75 feet. The seedpods of this tree are used for leather tanning and fabric dyeing. A last example is the guinea yam. Native to West Africa, this yam can grow to heights of 36 feet. The fruits of the plants are boiled, baked, fried, pounded or dried and ground into flour. These are merely a few examples of the thousands of different species of the flora of Africa.
Africa is home to the world’s biggest supply of freshwater fish; there are about 3000 different species. Birds come in a close second: there are about 2600 different species of birds in Africa; some 114 are threatened species. Common birds in Africa would include ostriches, parrots, storks, cranes, vultures, songbirds, and even a couple species of penguins. This continent is also home to thousands of mammals. More than 1100 species of mammals live in Africa. The East-African plains, especially, are known for its great diversity of large mammals. Lastly and the most disturbing for some people, Africa is home to approximately 100,000 species of insects. It has also been estimated that the African insect population makes up 10-20% of the global insect species.
Africa is also home to some of the most memorable landmarks and monuments in the world. A small list would include: the Avenues of Baobabs (Madagascar), The Serengeti Natural Reserve (Kenya and Tanzania), the Nile River, Mount Kilimanjaro (Tanzania), Mosi-oa-Tunya (Victoria) Falls, The Agbokim Waterfalls (Nigeria), the Sphinx (Egypt), the Library of Alexandria (Dubai), and many, many more.
Sarah Churchwell-Coral Reefs/Marine Life
The Fijians are pretty easy-going, but if you are invited into a village, wear modest clothing and take off your hat when in the village because it is offensive to the chief. Leave your shoes outside the door when entering a home and keep in mind that it's also insulting to touch someone's head - which can be tempting when you are surrounded by wide-eyed, smiling children. Fijians have many different cultural ceremonies including the Lovo, Meke, and Yaqona or Kava which is the national drink in Fiji. The Lovo involves a magnificent feast, cooked in the earth. It's like a barbeque, only a little more smoked, and a very efficient way to cook large quantities of food at the same time. The Meke is more music involved. Meke embraces traditional song and dance to tell of legends, love stories, history and spirits of the islands. It can vary from a blood-curdling spear dance to a gentle and graceful fan dance. Visitors will find Christian churches, mosques, and Sikh and Hindu temples throughout the country. Visitors are more than welcome to join the locals for Sunday worship and it's highly recommended, even if you're not that religious. The people of Fiji all speak English and Fijian or Hindu. There are so many ways to see and experience the Fiji Islands and the Fijian people. From a scenic coach ride around the major towns to longboats cruising along a river; bamboo rafting down pristine waterways to 4 wheel driving through vast sugar cane fields; being guided by a local through a small village and swimming in one of the many watering holes. Observe the Fijian way of life as it has been for centuries and along the way sample an amazing variety of food and drink.
The climate in Fiji is described as perfect when the average temperatures year round range from 79 degrees to 88 degrees. They have a bit of a dry season during the months March to November and a wet season from December to April, which may result in cyclones. Statistics have shown that on average Fiji has about 15 cyclones per decade, two to four ever cause severe damage.
Fiji consists of 332 island and out of these only 110 of them are populated. Viti Levu, is the largest islands that establishes half of the land area and is the seat of Suva. The other important islands are Vanau Levu which is the second largest island, Taveuni, Kadavu, Koro, Gau, and Ovalau, this groups of islands are centered in the Kora Sea. The larger islands are volcanic and mountainous islands, and the smaller islands are dense tropical forests on the windward sides of the islands and grassy plains.
Marine Life/Coral Reefs
Coral reefs occupy 1% of the world’s oceans and the great country/island of Fiji has one that many tourists flock to. With over 1500 species of fish and 390 species of coral. It makes Fiji one of the most coveted vacation spots. Not only does the coral reefs and marine life bring in tourists, but it bring numerous animals as well, such as eels, octopi, snakes, squids, turtles, and whales.
Janea HopeKushiro Shitsugen
Kushiro Shitusgen ( Kushiro) is a marsh that was turned into a national park found in Hokkaido Japan. Kushiro is home to Tansho and many other forms of wild life. Koshiro is a marsh surrounding many different rivers, also is the largest national park in Japan it was founded in 1987. Koshiro is home to the last home of Tansho ( Japanese Red Crowned Cranes) for Hokkaido and is the last placeTansho have been able to live in the other tasnsho had lived in for a time before having a bad weather one winter that almost wiped them to extinction. They were later found in Hokkaido. there numbers at the time had been in the lower thirty's the winter the year they were found almost wiped them out but farmers have started to feed them during winter. Recently they started a feeding center for them.
Kushiro's wildlife consists of different species of birds and fish. The species of birds in Kushiro change according to the seasons such as the Grey Heron Ardea cinerea a small number of them stay during winter. An example of fish that lives in the rivers is Fish species include the Japanese huchen, the largest freshwater fish in Japan, which can grow to 1—1.5 m long. They live only in Hokkaido, and the number of adult fish living in the wild is reported to be less than 1,000, so it is often referred to as the illusive fish.
Kushiro was made a national park in 1987 after the Tansho was found in the region. Kushiro is 104 mi sqft in size . There are a lot of different bodies of water in the Kushiro region. Here are examples of some of the different bodies of water in the Kushiro region are: Lake Masho, Lake Kussharo, and Lake Akan.The rivers in the Kushiro region have the appearance of a spider web.
Though when kushiro was first made a national park in 1987 the number of Tansho has grown exponentially through the years. Making Kushiro a grate tourist attraction and educational. Thank You for you time.
• Kushiro Shitsugen National park ar3tical by Japanes-guied. ( http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e6792.html )
• Japans winter wildlife national geographic article ( http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/features/world/asia/japan/winter-text/2 )
• Kushiro Shitugen Pdf ( http://www.env.go.jp/en/nature/npr/ramsar_wetland/pamph/ramsarpamphen/kushiro.pdf )
• Introducing Kushiro Shitsugen National Park - Lonely planet article ( http://www.lonelyplanet.com/japan/hokkaido/kushiro-shitsugen-national-park )
Japan national tourisms ( http://www.jnto.go.jp/eng/indepth/scenic/hokkaido/hokkaido_02.html
Katie Hopkins & Jason Manning
Japan is a smaller nation composed of a set of islands on the eastern hemisphere. It lies within what is known geographically as Asia. Drifting in the great Pacific Ocean it lies just east of the big super power we know as China. It also lies south east of the land of the superpower Russia. A neat little tid bit about Japan is that Japan in known as “The Land of the Rising Sun.” Japan is an island system that is made up of over a 1,000 islands. 6,852 islands to be exact. That’s a lot of islands. Ninety seven percent of Japans total land area is comprised of it four largest islands. These four largest islands are known as Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku. Japan is home to an extravagant number of people. Japan is the home to over 126 million people holding the tenth largest population in the world. (U.S.A. Is number three with a population of over 322 million.)
The plants in Japan are distributed between five zones within the East Asian temperate zone. These zones are the subtropical zone around the Ryukyu and Ogasawara island groups, the warm-temperature zone in southern Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, the cool-temperature zone of central and northern Honshu and southeastern Hokkaido, the subalpine zone of central and northern Hokkaido, and the alpine zone in central Honshu and central Hokkaido. One well-known plants in Japan is the Sakura, or cherry tree. Other well-known trees in Japan are the matsu, or pine trees, and sugi, or cedar trees. Pines have been used to create excellent scenery and are also believed to be holy trees, and were viewed as symbols of divine spirits.
Just like its plant life, Japan has a very diverse range of animals, from the Southeast Asiatic tropical animals, to the temperate-zone Korean and Chinese animals, and the Siberian subarctic animals. The southern part of Japan on the Ryukyu Islands is home to mostly tropical animals, while the mainlands of Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu are home to animals more native to the deciduous forests of Korea and China. The seas north of Honshu are home to sea lions, fur seals, and beaked whales. Walruses have been known to be found in Hokkaido in the Sea of Okhotsk. There are believed to be more than 90,000 species of animals in Japan, as of November 2011, but many animals are facing extinction.
The culture of japan has evolved greatly from its humble beginnings. Contemporary culture of Japan focused on arts and crafts such as hand crafting ceramics, making dolls, or crafting swords from steel. The process of Japanese sword making is a dieing practice, in that the art of handmade swords is being passed down less and less as modern machine made ones are prevailing in the market. The Japanese sword is properly known as a Katana. Modern Japanese culture focuses on the music, animation, and video game industries. Technology world wide is influenced by Japan. One of Japans leading markets is its animation market. A style of Japanese cartoons which are based off of Manga or japans style of comics is known as anime. One Bit of culture that people flock to try is their food based culture. Recipes from japan are comprised of staple foods. Such as rice and noodles.
Germany is a country located in the eastern hemisphere. More specifically it is located in Western and Central Europe. Germany also borders Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark France, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Poland, and Switzerland. Germany is divided into 16 states and has all different types of landscape.
The climate in Germany is mostly temperate. It has warm summers and cold winters. Rainfall occurs in Germany throughout the year, with it peaking during the summertime. During May and September are Germany’s largest tourist months. This is mostly due to the weather being the nicest during this time.
Germany is the seventh largest country in Europe. In the Northern part of the country the North European Plain spans across it. This plain is mostly used for farmland. Germany’s sandy lands are in the Northeast part of it. And finally in the south is where the more hilly part of Germany is. The highest mountain in Germany is Zugspitze, standing at 9.718 feet.
The Balkan Peninsula
The Balkan Peninsula gets its name from the Balkan mountain range. The majority of the Balkan peninsula is covered over with mountain ranges going from the northwest to the southeast. The main ranges are the Balkan mountains, the Rhodope mountains, the Dinaric Alps, Croatia and Montenegro, the Šar massif, and the Pindus range. The highest mountain in the area is Rila in Bulgaria, with Musala at 2925 m, Mount Olympus in Greece, the throne of Zeus, the second highest at 2917 m and Vihren in Bulgaria the third highest at 2914 m. Large flat plains are also found in this region.
The climate in this region is largely dependent on the elevation. On the Adriatic and Aegean coasts the climate is Mediterranean, on the Black Sea coast the climate is humid subtropical and oceanic, and inland it is humid continental. In the northern part of the peninsula and on the mountains, winters are frosty and snowy, while summers are hot and dry. In the southern part the winters are milder. The humid continental climate is predominant in Bosnia and Herzegovina, northern Croatia, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Macedonia, northern Montenegro, the interior of Albania, Romania and Serbia, while humid subtropical and oceanic climates, are seen on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria and Turkey. The Mediterranean climate is seen on the coast of Albania, coast of Croatia, Greece, southern Montenegro and the Aegean coast of Turkey.
Mountains cover most of the Balkan region. For this reason, agriculture is difficult in the Balkans. Even in the less mountainous areas, cultivation is hard because of the cold winters, dry summers and poor soil conditions. Farming is more successful, however near the Black Sea, and on the plains. The climate there is rainier and more humid, therefore farmers can successfully produce crops such as grains, olives, and grapes. Because of the Balkans mountainous nature, the majority of the land is inhabited with evergreens and pines. Deforestation has wiped many of these wild trees out, which have then been replaced mainly by bushes and natural grasses.
The Balkan Peninsula possesses dense forests, vast wetlands, and large cliff walls, and with the entire immaculate wilderness comes all the different species roaming the land. Seeing as the Balkan Peninsula is, for the most part, untouched by human life the wildlife strives to survive. There are over 260 different species of birds including white tailed eagles, dalmatian pelicans, and great crested grebes. While over 40 species of fish share the vast wetlands with European Minks and the European otter.
Throughout the Durmitor Mountains live the rare animals such as the Balkan Lynx, Eurasian wolves, and the Eurasian brown bear. These animals are very rare to find anywhere over Europe. The Balkan Peninsula has been untouched for years and seems to be thriving very well. Even though a vast majority of the Balkan Peninsula is unknown, there has been many amazing discoveries of animals and many more to come.
England is composed of 65% of the island of Great Britain and the Isles of Wight and Scilly. Scotland borders to the North and Wales to the West. The geography of Britain includes mountains, rolling hills, valleys, plains, rivers, canals, peninsulas, lakes, and a vast ocean and sea coasts. The land is composed of urban areas, crops, grassland and grazing areas, forests, and other agriculture use. Urban development takes up about 21%, crops and fallow lands about 30% grassland and grazing about 36%, other agriculture use about 5%, and forests about 8%.
Native animals include the following: Eurasian Otters, Red Deers, Roe Deers, Rabbits, Swans, Common Seals, Common Frogs, Hazel Dormice, Adders, Stoats, Robbins, Sand Lizards, Smooth Snakes, Natterjack Toads, Great Crested Newts, Tawny Owls, and Pine Martens. There are several non-native animals as well.
Native plants include the following trees: Elm, Birch, Crab Apple, Ash, Oak, Pine, Beech, Willow, Maple, and Popular. There are even more tree varieties that are not native, brought in by immigrants or scientists. Smaller plants include many species of flowers, bushes, vines, and shrubs. There are at least 50 trees species that are native to England and well over 900 species of moss.
Student Research Projects posted here.
Include student name, title of project, summation, sources.
I am from Nairobi, Kenya Africa born 1995 October 31st parents are Alice and Alfred Ajanga brothers to Ethel and Steffy Ajanga. I am from the nation’s capital the largest city of kenya we are famous for the National Park. Nairobi means cool water known as the green city we were founded in 1899 and replaced Machakos as the capital of Kenya in 1907. After independence in 1963, Nairobi became the capital of the Republic of Kenya. At 5,889 above sea level, evenings may be cool, especially in the June/July season, when the temperature can drop to 9 °C. The sunniest and warmest part of the year is from December to March, when temperatures average the mid-twenties during the day. The mean maximum temperature for this period is 24 °C. There are two rainy seasons, but rainfall can be moderate. The cloudiest part of the year is just after the first rainy season, until September conditions are usually overcast with drizzle. As Nairobi is situated close to the equator, the seasons are referred to as the wet season and dry season. We have Mount Kilimanjaro, it is the highest mountain in Africa, and rises approximately 16,001 ft from its base to 19,341 ft above sea level. The first recorded ascent to the summit of the mountain was by Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller in 1889. The mountain is part of the Kilimanjaro National Park and is a major climbing destination. The mountain has been the subject of many scientific studies because of its shrinking glaciers.
Student Reflection Activity for Service Learning Projects