Social Inequality
source Chapter 7

Class and Stratification in the United States

By: Brianna and Skylar


What is Social Stratification: Social Stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources.

Systems of Stratification: Social mobility is the movement of individuals or groups from one level in a stratification system to another. Intergenerational mobility is the social movement experienced by family members from one generation to the next. Intragenerational mobility is the social movement of individuals within their own lifetime. Slavery is an extreme form of stratification in which some people are owned by others. The caste system is a system of social inequality in which people’s status is permanently determined at birth based on their parents’ ascribed characteristics. The class system is a type of stratification based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work people do.

Classical Perspectives on Social Class: Karl Marx: Relationship to the Means of Production. The capitalist class consists of those who own the means of production. The working class consists of those who must sell their labor to the owners in order to earn enough money to survive. Alienation is a feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself. Class conflict is the struggle between the capitalist class and the working class. Max Weber: Wealth, Prestige, and Power. Wealth is the value of all of a person’s or family’s economic assets, including income, personal property, and income-producing property. Prestige is the respect or regard with which a person or status position is regarded by others. Power is the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others. Socioeconomic status (SES) is a combined measure that, in order to determine class location, attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education.

Contemporary Social Models of the U.S. Class Structure: the pink-collar occupations are a relatively low-paying, nonmanual, semiskilled positions primarily held by women. Underclass are poor, seldom employed, and caught in long-term deprivation that results from low levels of education and income and high rates of unemployment.

Inequality in the United States: income is the economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers, and ownership of property.

Poverty in the United States: official poverty line is the federal income standard that is based on what is considered to be the minimum amount of money required for living at a subsistence level. Absolute poverty is a level of economic deprivation that exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life. Relative poverty is a condition that exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living. Feminization of poverty is the trend in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty. Job deskilling is a reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a specific job that leads to a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job.

Sociological Explanations of Social Inequality in the United States: Davis-Moore thesis is the functionalist theory that stratification exists in all societies and that some inequality is not only inevitable but also necessary for the ongoing functioning of society. Meritocracy is a hierarchy in which all positions are rewarded based on people’s ability and credentials.

Functionalist perspectives to some degree of social inequality are necessary for the smooth functioning of society and thus are inevitable. Conflict perspectives are powerful individuals and groups use ideology to maintain their favored positions in society at the expense of others, and wealth is not necessary in order to motivate people. Symbolic interactionist perspectives are the beliefs and actions of people that reflect their class location in society.

Kendall, Diana. Sociology In Our Times. 6th edition. United States: Thomson Wadsworth, 2006. (192-223)

Chapter 8

Global Stratification

By: Autumn Preston and Samantha Wheelbarger


People have different vast lifestyles but we all have to find a way to accept people for who they are. The globe is just a circle but there is a lot of action and people in this world. Global stratification is defined as the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige on a global basis, resulting in people having vastly different lifestyles and life chances both within and among the nations of the world.

They are some problems that come with studying global stratification what is terminology should be used to refer to the distribution of resources in various nations. Most definitions of inequality are based on comparisons of levels of income or economic development, whereby countries are identified in terms of the “three worlds.” “First World,” “Second World,” and “Third World” were introduced by social analysts to distinguish among nations on the basis of their levels of economic development and the standard of living of their citizens. First World nations were said to consist of rich, industrialized nations that primarily had capitalist economic systems and democratic political systems. Examples of these countries are: United States, Canada, Japan, Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand. Second World nations were said to be countries with at least a moderate level of economic standard of living. Examples of these countries are: China, North Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, and portions of the former Soviet Union. Third World the poorest countries, with little or no industrialization and the lowest standards of living, shortest life expectancies, and highest rates of mortality.

According to World Bank they focus on three development themes: people, the environment, and the economy. World Bank’s main business is to give loans and give advice to low- and middle- income member countries. The nations are categorized into three economic: low-income economies, middle-income economies, and high-income economies. About half the world’s population lives in the sixty-one low-income economies, where most people engage in agricultural pursuits, reside in nonurban areas, and are impoverished. About one-third of the world’s population resides in the ninety-three nations with middle-income economies. High-income economies are found in fifty-four nations, including the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, Portugal, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Norway, and Germany. World Bank has begun to use the gross domestic product. As defined gross domestic product are all the goods and services produced within a country’s economy during a given year.

What is poverty in global basis and how is it defined? Poverty is a lack of money or possessions. Poverty is broken down into three levels of poverty:
1.Absolute poverty—a level of economic deprivation that exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
2.Relative poverty-a condition that exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living.
3.Subjective poverty-is measured by comparing the actual income against the income earner’s expectations and perceptions.

Defining levels of poverty involves several dimensions:
1.How many people are poor.
2.How far below the poverty line people’s incomes fall.
3.How long they have been poor.

Health is defined in the Constitution of the World Health Organizations as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” What is literacy, and why is it important for human development? According to the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization literate is someone who can both read and write a short, simple statement.

Modernization theory is a perspective that links global inequality to different levels of economic development and suggests that low-income economies can move to middle- and high-income economies by achieving self-sustained economic growth. Walt. W. Rostow was the best theory of modernization theory. He suggested that all countries go through four stages of economic development.
1.Traditional Stage-very little social change takes place, and people do not think much about changing their current circumstances.
2.Take-off stage-period of economic growth accompanied by a growing belief in individualism, competition, and achievement.
3.Technological Maturity—improve its technology, reinvest in new industries, and embrace the beliefs, values, and social institutions of high-income, developed nations.
4.High Mass Consumption—high standard of living.

Dependency theory state that global poverty can at least partially be attributed to the fact that the low-income countries have been exploited by the high-income countries. World system theory suggests that what exists under capitalism is a truly global system that is held together by economic ties. The world economy is separated into three types of nations:

Core Nations are dominant capitalist centers characterized by high levels of industrialization and urbanization.
Semiperipheral Nations are more developed than peripheral nations but less developed than core nations.
Peripheral Nations are dependent on core nations for capital, have little or no industrialization, and have uneven patters of urbanization.

In the future increasing population growth, urbanization, and environmental issues will continue to affect the people of the world. From the view of this approach the future looks weak for not only low-income countries and middle-income countries but also for those people living in high-income countries.


Kendall, Diana. Sociology In Our Times. 6th edition. United States: Thomson Wadsworth, 2006. (226-249)

Chapter 9


Stereotypes and Racism

By: Autumn Preston and Samantha Wheelbarger

Stereotypes are over generalizations about the appearance, behavior or other characteristics or members of a particular category. Stereotypes are generalizations, or assumptions, that people make about the characteristics of all members of a group, based on an image (often wrong) about what people in that group are like Look at high school, the jocks, and all the others (at least that’s how they look at it. If you were in a sport but were not good at it, you were not considered to be a jock or even be able to associate with them. They wont even talk to you. They are basically stereotyping you. But most commonly, when they first see you or even know your name, they will put you in that group and unless you really do something to amaze them they won’t change their mind. For example, one study of stereotypes revealed that Americans are generally considered to be friendly, generous, and tolerant, but also arrogant, impatient, and domineering. Asians, on the other hand, were expected to be shrewd and alert, but reserved. Clearly, not all Americans are friendly and generous; and not all Asians are shrewd. If you assume you know what a person is like, and don't look at each person as an individual, you are likely to make errors in your estimates of a person's character. Here are a lot of examples of stereotyping that might explain it a little better: If you are a Mexican= you are here illegally or have a lot of kids on welfare, If you are white= you are a drug addict, live in a trailer community, or just plain dumb, If you are black= you are uneducated, you like chicken and watermelon and if you are in college is because of affirmative action, If you are middle Eastern= plain and simple, you are a terrorist, blonde= dumb, and Germans= alcoholics.

Racism is a set of beliefs and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of another racial or ethnic group or person. Racism has existed throughout human history. It may be defined as the hatred of one person by another — or the belief that another person is less than human — because of skin color, language, customs, and place of birth or any factor that supposedly reveals the basic nature of that person. It has influenced wars, slavery, the formation of nations, and legal codes. Remember the African American boy that went to your high school. What did you think when your first saw him. You may not be a racist’s person but you did stereotype them. All the other kids picked on him because of his skin color. Racism is a very distinct thing to notice. If a person is like that them you can point them out in any crowd. Racism goes hand in hand with stereotyping. If you are a racist’s person then you normally stereotype them also. If you were to go to a big city and take one of the high class executives down the ”ghetto” and see what comes out of his mouth, you might be very surprised Here is a very good example of Racism. School Finance: Millions of African American and Latino young people in the United States don’t get an education equal to that of most whites, partly because the urban schools they go to don’t have as much money as the schools in the white suburbs. This is because the country has decided that much of the money for schools should come from local property taxes. So in communities where the houses and businesses are less expensive, the schools don’t get enough money to provide a high quality education. This is unfair. This is institutional racism. If we financed schools differently every student, regardless of his or her "race", could go to a high quality school that was the equal of the schools other students attend.

Kendall, Diana. Sociology In Our Times. 6th edition. United States: Thomson Wadsworth, 2006. (348-376)

The Social Significance of Race and Ethnicity


By: Meladee Turley

Exactly what is the difference between all of us today? Looking closer at ethnicity and race may help us to comprehend this question. Ethnicity refers to selected cultural and sometimes physical characteristics used to classify people into groups or categories considered to be significantly different from others. A human population that is believed to be distinct in some way from other humans based on real or imagined physical differences is a race.

Ethnicity is not just a person’s appearance but the learned behavior, customs, or traditions a certain person has obtained in their lifetime. There are six social traits related to ethnicity—nationality, tribe, religious faith, shared language, shared culture, and shared traditions. You hear a lot about how people are proud to be of a certain social group such as Italian, this is exactly what ethnicity is about. Common groups associated with ethnicity are African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, ect. With ethnicity the availability to change or adjust is much higher than that of race. Compared to race, ethnicity can be changed when a change of region occurs. Race is more of the biological features you received for your parents. Such as the skin, eye, or hair color that mom or dad has.

Both race and ethnicity affects every society in our world even today. The population of minorities in society has been growing during these recent years. Minorities are ethnic/racial groups that have smaller population than the controlling majority group in a society. However, even though minorities have been growing things such as discrimination and racism still occur. An example of discrimination or racism being the Presidential Election of 2008. Many thought that President Obama shouldn’t be president because of his race. And some talk about immigration laws needing changed during election took place.

Maybe with time these issues with ethnicity and race will change with the envelope being pushed by many. Maybe ethnicity and race won’t be a debate anymore but something that is more embrace. Something will make a person be proud to be a part of without fear of problems. Without the need to hide and try to fit in and become a stereotype.



Sex and Gender

By: Brianna and Skylar

Sex: Biological Dimension- whereas the word gender is often used to refer to the distinctive qualities of men and women that are culturally created, sex refers to the biological and anatomical differences between females and males. At birth, male and female infants are distinguished by primary sex characteristics: the genitalia used in the reproductive process. At puberty, an increase production of hormones results in the development of secondary sex characteristics: the physical traits (other than the reproductive organs) that identify the individual’s sex. In women, these include larger breasts, wider hips, and narrower shoulders; a layer of fatty tissue throughout the body; and menstruation. For men, they include development of enlarged genitals, a deeper voice, greater height, a more muscular build, and more body and facial hair.

Hermaphrodites/Transsexuals: sex is not always clear cut. A hormone imbalance before birth produces a hermaphrodite- a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete. Hermaphrodites tend to have some combination of both male and female genitalia. Transsexual is a person in whom the sex-related structures of the brain that define gender identity are opposite from the physical sex organs of the person’s body. Transvestite is a male who lives as a woman or a female who lives as a man but does not alter the genitalia.

Sexual Orientation: sexual orientation refers to an individual’s preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex relationships (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality). Gay often refers to males in same sex relationships and lesbians is refers to women in same sex relationships. The term transgendered refers to individuals whose appearance, behavior, or self-identification does not conform to common social rules of gender expression. Transgenderism is sometimes used to refer to cross-dressers.

Gender: The Cultural Dimension: gender refers to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with “femininity” and “masculinity.” Gender role refers to the attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process. Gender identity is a person’s perception of the self as female or male. Body consciousness is how a person perceives and feels about his or her body. Homophobia is the extreme prejudice directed at gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and others who are perceived as not being heterosexual. Sexism is the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex. Patriarchy is a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men. Matriarchy is a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by women.

Gender Stratification in Historical and Contemporary Perspective: Hunting and Gathering Societies- men would go out hunting and the women would walk around and gather fruits and other things. Horticultural and Pastoral Societies- is people that are able to grow their own food because hand tools, such as the digging stick and hoe created (women). Pastoralism is the domestication of large animals for food (men). Agrarian Societies- rely on agriculture- farming done by animal-drawn or mechanically powered plows and equipment. Industrial Societies- is an industrial society is one in which factory or mechanized production has replaced agriculture as the major form of economic activity. Postindustrial Societies- as one in which technology supports a service- and information- based economy.

Gender and Socialization: Parents and Gender Socialization- from birth, parents act toward children on the basis of the child’s sex. Boys are often treated more roughly than girls by the parents. Peers and Gender Socialization- peers help children learn prevailing gender-role stereotypes, as well as gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior. Teachers, Schools, and Gender Socialization- from kindergarten through college, schools operate as a gendered institution. Gender bias consists of showing favoritism toward one gender over the other. Sports and Gender Socialization- boys are socialized to participate in highly competitive, rule-oriented games with large numbers of participants whereas girls are socialized to participate in noncompetitive games with two or three other girls.

Contemporary Gender Inequality: Gender Division of Paid Work-gender-segregated work refers to the concentration of women and men in different occupations, jobs, and places of work. Pay Equality- occupational segregation contributes to a pay gap in which the disparity between women’s and men’s earnings. Comparable worth is the belief that wages ought to reflect the worth of the job, not the gender or race of the worker. Feminism is the belief that women and men are equal and should be valued equally and have equal rights.

Kendall, Diana. Sociology In Our Times. 6th edition. United States: Thomson Wadsworth, 2006. (288-313)

Sexual Orientation
By Jaylea


Social inequality is a topic most everyone will encounter and or experience at least once in a lifetime. Social inequality can be because of race and ethnicity, gender and sex, and ideas such as financial wealth. Many people will suffer through feeling unequal because of the pressure society puts on people to be a ‘mold’ of what should be.

A group of society who understands social inequity are those with different sexual orientations. Of course not only this group feels unequal, but those of s. Along with the homosexual group, there is the hermaphrodites/transsexual group who feel they are not categorized unequal by only the heterosexual, but also the homosexual.

A hermaphrodite is “a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete.” Hermaphrodites tend to have combinations of female and male genitalia. Because of this reason, many hermaphrodites tend to be criticized because of the genitalia issue. Some may be the sex of one but the identity of the other, according to Kendall.

A transsexual is similar. A transsexual is “ a person in whom the sex-related structures of the brain than define gender identity are opposite from the physical sex organs of the person’s body.” Most times, the transsexuals feel that they are of the opposite sex of their genitalia. One more variation is a transvestite. A transvestite is “ a male who lives as a woman or a female who lives as a man but does not alter the genitalia.” All of these groups suffer from hazing and malicious behavior from the public and groups who do not agree with their beliefs.

Sexual orientation is part of the sectors of those criticized. “Sexual orientation refers to an individual’s preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality, or both (bisexuality).” Understanding sexual orientation is important in understanding how different orientation groups can be affected.

Because many members are homophobic, or afraid of anyone who may be different than them, members of the above mentioned group often have to live a life of fear. There are those people of the heterosexual group who will take their fear, hate or disgust as far as to push someone to suicide. Often times, there are extremists in groups that will gang up on those of different sexualities and attack individuals through abuse in many forms.

Those extremists that usually lash out at members of different sexualities tend to suffer from homophobia. Homophobia is “ an extreme prejudice directed at gays, lesbians, bisexuals and others who are perceived as not being heterosexual.”

Because of the treatment many heterosexuals aim at homosexuals, homosexual teens are “two to three times more likely than heterosexual youths to commit suicide.” Along with feeling they are not ‘worthy’ the homosexual population can have higher stress levels from living in fear. Having the higher stress levels can eventually lead to depression, health issues and more problems in the homosexual person’s life.

Society focuses too much on the issues as sexuality, making those who are ‘different,’ as society would label them, feel as if they do not belong. Social inequality is everywhere. Social inequality is not a good thing for anyone.

To help stop the problem of social inequality, society needs to understand all of the groups and their beliefs. If everyone was the same, what fun would life be? Some people might say it would be pleasant if everyone was the same, others would disagree. It’s up to society to work on fixing the social inequalities.


Kendall, Diana. Sociology In Our Times. 7th edition. United States: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007.

Social Inequality; Sexual Orientation and Inequality. Power Point. Dr. Roderick Graham. Fordham University.


By: Brandi Blacker


Defined it is the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes and as an organized activity on behalf of women’s rights and interests. What is this? This is feminism. Feminism was defined in 1865 which states that this theory and activity has been an issue for quite a while.

In 1921, Alice Paul who is known for being one of the leading figures responsible for the passage of the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The 19th constitution is about woman suffrage. Alice Paul died in 1977 after the heated battle for the Equal Rights Amendment. The Equal Rights Amendment was written in 1921 by Alice Paul. It has been introduced in Congress every session since 1923. It passed Congress in 1972, but failed to be ratified by the necessary thirty-eight states by the July 1982 deadline. It was ratified by thirty-five states.

The Equal Pay Act of 1963 amended the FLSA to prohibit pay discrimination because of sex. It requires the employer to pay equal wages within the establishment to men and woman doing equal work on jobs requiring equal skill, effort, and responsibility, which are performed under similar working conditions. Pay differences based on a seniority or merit system or on a system that measures earning by quantity or quality of production are permitted. Employers may not reduce the wage rate of any employee in order to eliminate illegal wage differences. The law applies to “wages” in the sensed of all employment related payments, including overtime, uniforms, travel, and other fringe benefits.

Feminism is embraced by many men as well as women. It holds in common with men’s studies the view that gender is a socially constructed concept that has important consequences in the lives of all people. According to the sociologist Ben Agger, men can be feminists and propose feminist theories; both women and men have much in common as they seek to gain a better understanding of the causes and consequences of gender inequality.

Gender equality is equated with equality of opportunity is liberal feminism. The roots of women’s oppression lie in women’s lack of equal civil rights and educations opportunities. Only when these constraints on women’s participation are removed will women have the same chance for success as men. Liberal feminists fight for better childcare options, a woman’s right to choose an abortion, and the elimination of sex discrimination in the workplace.

According to radical feminists, male domination causes all forms of human oppression, including racism and classism. Radical feminists often trace the roots of patriarchy to women’s childbearing and child-rearing responsibilities, which make them dependent on men. For women’s condition to improve, radical feminists claim, patriarchy must be abolished.

Socialist feminists suggest that women’s oppression results from their dual roles as paid and unpaid workers in a capitalist economy. In the workplace, women are exploited by capitalism; at home, they are exploited by patriarchy. Gendered job segregation is primary mechanism in capitalist society that maintains the superiority of men over women, because it enforces lower wages for women in the labor market. According to socialist feminists, the only way to achieve gender equality is to eliminate capitalism and develop a socialist economy that would bring equal pay and rights to women.

There are many different opinions on feminism but they all acknowledge one thing, the segregation, unequal fairness towards women whether they agree or disagree with feminism. Feminism is not only in the workplace but in many different areas of life. But to the women out in the world, if you want and except to be treated equally, expected to produce equal and quality of work that men produce.

Kendall, Diana. Sociology In Our Times. 7th edition. United States: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007.[[image]]

Sex and Gender
by Edward Limo

Over time gender discrimination has evolved and many debates still rage over the objectification of a certain gender, namely women. In many societies throughout the world the cultural dimensions affect ones outlook towards this issue, and gender is a topic where many ‘biased’ outlooks are made. An example of current Sex and Gender issues can be seen in current day Kenya, where gender discrimination is still a heated topic.


The social contrast in Kenya over the last forty-seven years has had a major effect on women rights. The construction of Kenyan society in comparison to current European nations can be deemed quite different; Kenyan women are still considered second class citizens. It is common custom in Kenya for women not to be able to hold property, or own the land they work. Sources state that the inability for women to perform such tasks has led to individual economic hardship, thus placing women in the economic dependence of men.

Although published in human rights standards the guarantee of equal opportunity in regards of land ownership is almost non-existent. Common customary practice in Kenya does not entitle women to inherit their family or husbands property. Further to the fact, in many parts of rural Kenya, a male death can lead to his families disowning of his widow and children. This particular fact leads to increased welfare dependencies or the general inability for single women to fully sustain themselves and their children. “Discrimination against women in Kenya, Amnesty International”

Gender stratification also relates to a women’s ability to seek an education. Many families in Kenya deem it unnecessary for women to receive education. 70% of illiterate people in Kenya are female. It is from this figure that many Kenyan workplaces will not employ women to undertake the roles of supervisors or managers. Therefore leaving women to make up the 75% of the Kenyan agricultural and labor workforce. “Kenya, U.S Department of State” Women’s wages are also two-thirds that of males further laying way to their inability to fully support themselves and their children should they be laid off, or have a death in the family.

Best examples of early Kenyan societies can be related to ‘Hunting and Gathering Societies’ “Sociology in Our Time: The Essentials, Seventh Edition. Diana Kendall”. “The earliest known division of labor between women and men is in hunting and gathering societies. While men hunt for wild game, women gather roots and berries.” This practice is still common place in Kenya today. Kenyan society believes that these tasks are best to be undertaken by men due to their greater physical strength. Women are often excluded from these practices due to the belief that they are ‘physically weak’. “Sociology in Our Time: The Essentials, Seventh Edition. Diana Kendall”.

Another example of gender stratification is related to Kenyan marriage. It is common in Kenyan society for marriages to be arranged for girls as young as 16. Traditional arranged marriages follow the same principles of ancient Egyptian and Roman civilizations. Marriage is arranged to make family ties stronger, gain land and social status. One clause in this particular traditional way has recently been upturned by a change made in the Kenyan Constitution. Members of Kenyan parliament recently voted against a clause to give women equal rights to men on the grounds of marriage.

Women will therefore not have the same rights as men regarding marriage and divorce procedures. The clause also gives the ability for men to deny the arranged marriage. The clause also gives Kenyan males the legal ability to abuse their wives without repercussions. “New Kenyan Constitution Bans Equality in Marriage, Adrian Holman”

With the addition of recent laws, the outlook for women’s society in Kenya looks bleak. Male dominance has lead to reduced rates of education, economics and social status. In a common age where equal rights are considered the norm, Kenya is still a considerably long way behind.

Sex and Gender
Jerad Schroeder
When people think of sex and gender they do not know the true meanings. Sex is the biological and anatomical differences between males and females. The core of these differences is the chromosomal information transmitted at the moment a child is conceived. The mother and father both contribute one chromosome the mother can only give an X but the father can give ether an X or a Y. If the father gives and X then the baby will be a girl, but if the father gives a Y then the baby will be a girl.

Sex is not always clear. Sometimes before the baby is born it will experience a hormone imbalance and can be a hermaphrodite who is a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete. Sexism is the subordination of one sex usually female based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.

Like racism sexism is used to justify discriminating treatments. Sexism is interwoven with patriarchy which is a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men. Matriarch is controlled by women.


Gender is the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with femininity and masculinity. Basically everything social in our lives is gendered. Most sports are gendered. Gender is a social construction with important consequences in life.

Just as people judge races and ethnicity genders are holds men and women different in attribute that can lead to eating problems. Some of the biggest eating disorders are anorexia which is where the person quits eating in fear of being fat and bulimia which is where a person binges or eats nonstop then purges or induces vomiting. The people most likely to experience eating disorders are white middle aged women. In schools many teachers use gender bias which is where the teacher shows favoritism to one gender over the other.

Teachers often use competition between boys and girls because they hope to make a learning activity more interesting. Children spend most there non-school time in games and play. Boys play in higher competitive games with large numbers of people. Girls are known to play with very few people and in non competitive games. Most sports are rigidly divided into female and male events.

Assumptions about male and female physiology and athletic capabilities influence the types of sports in which members of each sex are engaged to participate. Many women athletes believe that they have to manage the contradictory statues of being both women and athletes.

Gage Soderlund

Class Stratification

Class stratification is a form of social stratification in which a society tends to divide into separate classes whose members have differential access to resources and power. An economic and cultural rift usually exists between different classes.

The distance between the richest people in the world and the 20 percent of the poorest people keeps growing. After World War II the three different types of worlds were established. They are First World, Second World, and Third World. This distinguishes among the nations on the standard of living of their citizens. Some First World nations are United States, Canada, Japan, Great Britain, and New Zealand. Second World nations consist of China, North Korea, Vietnam, and Cuba. Third Worlds nations are the poorest nations.

There are a few different types of poverty, like absolute, relative, and subjective. Absolute Poverty would be defined as a condition in which people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life. This would be the Third World nations.

Some of the Global Poverty would be because some nations just don’t have the technology to support an easier way of living and becoming a more developed nation.


Life expectancy differs between high, middle and low income countries. But one the plus side the life expectancy has increased by a third in the last 3 centuries. Although no countries have reached the life expectancy for men of 80 years, they have come to reach 80 years or more for women as of 2003. On another note people have a 12 year increase between high, middle and low income class.

Kendall, Diana. Sociology in Our Times. “The Essentials”. 7th Edition. 2003

Gage Soderlund

Race and Ethnicity

There are two different types of groups. You have the minority and the majority. The minority are the ones who are outcast against others, or the less popular ones. As the majorities are the ones who outcast these certain people.

The African Americans were the only ones who came to America by involuntary immigration. Everyone else came to America voluntary. 56% of the blacks believed that the discrimination against them will never change, but the 27% of the white man think that it will.

The way people take on race and ethnicity is the reason why people’s lives change drastically. This including the opportunities they have, how they are treated and even how long they will live.


Sports for example, throughout the early history of the game of baseball, many African Americans had amazing skills, but they were kept away from the major leagues just because of their color. Jackie Robinson was the one who broke the color line in the MLB. Thanks to him all colors can play in the MLB. And really any other sports out there.

Lot of the reason why we have these issues is because we used blacks as our slaves just because we were to lazy to do it ourselves. So now when we make fun of someone of a different color it is considered racism. Racism is a set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.

Kendall, Diana. Sociology in Our Times. “The Essentials”. 7th Edition. 2003

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