By: Justine Lambert
Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 in Freiberg (nowadays Pribor) in Morvavia (the Chzech Republic). He's given Jewish name was Scholomo but he changed his name to Sigmund at the age of 22. In 1865 he was admited to the Gymnasium secondary school and in 1870 he reads Ludwig Borne complete works, these books will greatley infulence his works later on. He accomplised alot during his life, I will explain more about his life.
Sigmund Freud is a very recognized psychologist. He has many therories and he is regonized in many psychology classes all over the world. Sigmund Freud had lots of theroies and did alot of work during his career as a psychologist. Sigmund Freud had what was called a self-analysis. He started this in the 1890's and it reached it's climaxes in the 1900's. The first phases is that of full unexpected aspects of invetiveness, which is the productive and creative stage. This stage can also be called the Oral Stage. Freud says that this stage last from birth to age 2. The oral stage consist of this age group exploring the world with their mouths. As we all know we also use our mouths to communicate and communication is a type of learning. The next stage is the Anal Stage which is where a child learns to control the elimination of body waste. The Phallic Stage is from the time a child is 3-5 years of age and this is probably the most controversial time. During this stage children learn to discover thier sexual differences. Freud states that a child has a concept of contrstion anxiety and penis envy. He states that this is how a child differates between a male and a female. This stage is followed by the Latency Period. Freud says that during this period no new change is observable. During this stage boys play with boys and girls play with girls, and no sexual interest is present. The last stage is the Fenital stage. This is around the time when a child is of 12 years of age. The child has sexual interest that arouse, because it is dormant and repressed from the phallic stage.
Sigmund Freud was big on dreams. He believed that every dream meant something. His patients first started telling him their dreams and he determined that dreams should be included in psychoanalyst. He also thought that dreams should be a good scientific study. Sigmund Freud developed the Dynamic Theory of Dream-Formation. He believes that dreams are not caused by what has happened during the day or our sexual impulses, but they do come in contact with something within ourselves and that is why we sometimes dream about what has happend in our day. Sigmund Frued really believed that dreams symbolized alot. When a patient was to talk about dreams during a psychoanalist, Frued whould ask them if there was certain objects in their dreams. These objects where how Freud determined what their dreams meant.
Sigmund Freud believe that the structure of personality was the id, the ego, and the superego. He said that the ego was the only thing people could see. The id is the first one and he said it represent biological forces. The id is always present and it is governed by the "pleasure principle" which is always seeking for pleausre. Freud says the It always wants sex. The ego is the surface of personality. It was what you show people. Freud says the ego is governed by the "reality principle" or how we approach the world. The last is the superego. The superego consist of two parts. The two parts are the conscience and the ego-ideal. An easy way to explain conscience is the little angel on one shoulder and the little devil on the other shoulder, both of them telling you what to do. Freud says that a strong super-ego will inhibit the biological instincts of the id, while a weak super-ego will give into the id's urgings. Like many of Freud's theriors this one gets debated alot.
Sigmund Freud developed the theory of defense mechanisms. He created these to help explain individual responses to anxiety. Freud says that defense mechanisms are an unconscious, which means that we are unconscious of their operation. There are different types of defense mechanisms that Freud developed. the first one is compensation. Compensation is when we are afraid of something and we have to compensate in another area to make up for it. For example if someone has a lack in height, they may compensate for some other skill in some other area. The next one is denial. Denial is the reality that causes anxiety is simply not percieved. For example a father may not see his daughter's true character because it causes him too much anxiety. Displacement is the redirection of energy from a dangerous or forbidden obeject to a more socially acceptable one. For example a married woman may be displaced to some other activity like too mcuh exercise. Fantasy is conjurinhg the imagined scenario to replace a real one. For example, imagining your husband is someone else. The next one is intellectualization, this is when you treat an emotionally charged situation in a muted or non emotional fashion. For example, somone who accepts of the news of a family memeber dying passively and with stoicism. Projection is blaming others or other things for one's problems or failures. For example, when a child fails a test because he or she did not study and did not pay attetion in class, they will most likely blame it on the teacher or another student for their failure. Rationalization is when someone realizes that one's motives are not always pure or publicly acceptable and substituting appropriate motives. For example, failing to clean the house because one was too "tired" rather then "lazy", when lazy is not seen as a socially acceptable thing. The next one is reaction formation which is showing the exact opposite of one's true motivation or intetions. For example when someone says "I hate you" it can really mean "I love you". Repressions is when highly-anxiety-arousing items are stored deep with in the uncouscious. Regression occurs when the coping behaviors of an earlier stage of developement appear. Like a coping mechanism from the Oral Stage. And the last one is sublimation, this is when motives are either sexual or violent.
Freud developed his theories on what he saw in people and how he thought people worked. A lot of other psychologist do not believe in Freud's work and debate what he thought alot. Freud's work is very interesting and it is good that he is still taught in many psychology classes all over the world.