- Famous Sociologists
- Social Groups
- Social Structure and Institutions
- Social Interaction
- Crime and Deviance
- Families and Relationships
- Sex and Gender
By Hannah Giebler
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia. Being the smart and curious man Freud was beginning to be, he had a wide variety of interests in science and the medical field. After getting his medical degree, he moved from level to level within the medical field and then finally became interested enough in studying the mind that he continued in that field for a long time. He then started to create a variety of theories that dealt with the mind.
While looking at his theories, Freud noticed some similarities in what was the main basis of the mental illnesses. He believed that the unconscious traumas of sexuality had a major part in what had caused people to act the way they did. He also believed that most people’s individual personalities were created from their unconscious mind. This belief eventually came to be part of one of Freud’s theories called the Psychoanalytic theory, which he had developed in the 1900s.
This perspective first originated off of Freud’s deep thoughts about the unconscious mind and how it makes people act. Since the era at the time dealt with a lot of sexual repression and male leaders, this impacted the people at the time, which made Freud very interested. These factors influenced Freud’s beliefs, which lead to the idea that people have three separate key items to their personality that impact how they behave in the world.
According to Freud in 1924, the three different levels of the personality are the id, ego, and superego. Each of the three stages are important components when dealing with the unconscious mind.
To start off, the theory begins with a stage called the id. This is the beginning component that deals with all of the individual’s basic needs starting from birth. With the id, the needs are triggered by the pleasure principle so that all the needs of being fed or held have to be satisfied immediately.
The next stage is called the ego, which is what happens when a child figures out that all of their needs can’t be satisfied immediately by others. This is the in-between stage that deals with the state of realization and reality. It goes through three separate parts of the mind: the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind. With the ego, all the needs of the id have to be met in a more appropriate manner by weighing all the pros and cons of their desires. For example, your younger sister pulls on your hair really hard. The ego allows one to weigh the consequences and refrain one from turning around and beating the pulp out of your younger sister. This also explains the following quote by Freud, “Where id is, there shall ego be.”
The final stage of this process is called the superego. This is the stage of personality where morality kicks in and one will acquire a feel for what is right and what is wrong. These important feelings are ordinarily based upon whether or not it is accepted from a higher authority; for example, a parent or even a teacher. In conclusion, the superego was made to adjust the urges that come from the id and the ego.
Famous Sociologists (focus on superego)
By Erica Rappard
Sigmund Freud is one of the well known names in sociology and psychology. He was born in 1856 and attended medical school at the University of Vienna from 1873 to 1881. He opened up a private practice for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders after studying under German scientist Ernst von Brűcke. Though Freud’s slightly bizarre developments and theories were not always correct, they were very influential to later advances in the fields. He is credited with inventing psychoanalysis, discovering the unconscious, and had an enormous impact on humanities, literature, and art. During his years, Freud focused on the broad aspect of neuroticism, often referred to as anxiety. This includes many other malfunctions and disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, and personality disorders like narcissism. Sigmund published several works during his lifetime including: Studies of Hysteria in 1895, Interpretation of Dreams in 1899, The Psychopathy of Everyday Life in 1901, Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality in 1905, Totem and Taboo in 1913, and Beyond the Pleasure Principle in 1920.
In the Interpretation of Dreams, Freud discussed his “topographical model” of the mind. This model was setup to describe the unconscious, the subconscious, and the area between the two referred to as the preconscious. He later revised his first model to the modern theory we know of today including the ego, id, and superego. It is called Freud’s “structural model”. The id is the part of the mind that is run by basic drives and the “pleasure principle” known to seek immediate gratification. It includes all of our repressed emotions and is fully unconscious, meaning we are unaware of its “presence”. Partially balancing out the id is the superego which consists of our moral beliefs and the internalization of parental figures and society itself. Criticisms, exclusions, and inhibitions of the superego make up an individual’s conscience, while its positive objectives and standards represent our idealized self-image. The ego is our “reality principle” and allows us to live in the here and now. It reconciles both the superego and the id. When our ego gets overwhelmed we are faced with the appearance of neurotic anxiety and defense mechanisms.
In further reflection, the superego is extremely crucial to proper thought processes and everyday functioning. It helps us determine the right from wrong, often by unconscious feelings of guilt after we make a less than desirable decision or action. It develops during the first five years of life mostly in response to parental approval and punishment, though it continues to adapt and be influenced during young adulthood by society around us. Malfunctions in the superego, however can cause issues such as “the super-ego trip”. Often times this is seen in an overreaction and shaming of another person because they made a poor choice or mistake. An example would be our indulgent, pompous, morally superior reactions to celebrities acting out. Like a preening peacock we tend to puff up with pride over denouncing any behavior that we feel deserves significantly less attention than it receives. Almost as if we are morally superior because we “know better” and tend to pretend that we don’t make equally immature choices at times or we choose to forget them and avoid them at all costs. Using Freud’s structural model we can see the harsh reality of the situation. The more repressed we are the more prominent the superego is. “Nasty, overreaching super-egos are a sign of psychological weakness, a fear of our own impulses.”
‘The voice of intelligence is soft, but does not die until it has made itself heard.’- Sigmund Freud
Charles Horton Cooley
By: John Clarke
Charles Horton Cooley, son of Thomas and Mary Cooley, was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan on August 17, 1864. As a young man Cooley enrolled at the University of Michigan and upon graduating with a Bachelor’s degree in 1887, he made the decision to continue his education by obtaining a Master’s degree in Engineering in 1891, and a PhD in Sociology in 1894. Today we remember Cooley as one of the great sociologists of history, but if we take a peek into the history books we find that he was so much more.
As a husband to Elsie Jones, and a father of their three children, Charles Cooley started his career as a government worker. First with the Civil Service Commission and later working with the United States Census Bureau for a number of years. He eventually returned to the University of Michigan, but this time as a teacher. He taught political science and economics from 1892-1904, and later converted to teaching sociology from 1904 until his death in 1929. In this way Cooley was able to touch countless lives that would inspire his students to go on to do great things.
As a sociologist Cooley had dozens of great works throughout his career. None of which were more prevalent or more renown then his “looking-glass self” theory explained in his 1909 work labeled Social Organization. In this he sketched his view of society and its major processes through a comprehensive approach. The “looking-glass self” is largely formed by the messages and perception that we get from the others around us, and our own individual interpretation of those messages. The theory consists of three crucial components: (1) envisioning how one’s self appears to others, (2) imagining what others must think about one’s appearance, (3) developing self-feeling, such as pride or shame, from one’s understanding of these perceived judgments by others. In essence these three steps can be more simply broken down. First, we imagine how we appear to other people. Second, we imagine how other people judge the appearance that we think we present. And lastly, if we think the evaluation is favorable, our self-concept is enhanced. On the other hand, if we think the evaluation is unfavorable, our self-concept is diminished. Cooley believed that this concept that our self develops only through the contact of others is even more concretely justified by his famous quote in which he stated, “as social beings we live with our eyes upon our own reflection, but we have no assurance of the tranquility of the waters in which we see it.”
In 1929, at the time of his death, Charles Horton Cooley had lived a full live. As a highly educated man for his time, a husband, father of three children, educator, mentor, and one of greatest sociologists of his time, Cooley passed away leaving himself a legacy that will be remembered for years to come.
by Matt Hankin
Sigmund Freud, born Sigismund Schlomo Freud, was born May 6th, 1886. He was an Austrian neurologist who founded psychoanalysis. As a child, Freud moved from Moravia to Vienna, which is where he would spend most of his life. Freud's family and ancestors were Jewish. He claimed himself as Jewish, although he rejected Judaism. Before enrolling in school, his parents taught him at home. In the beginning, Freud was interested in studying philosophy, but turned away from it to to study in neurological research. After studying at the University of Vienna, he gained attention as a physician. Later in life, Freud claimed that human development occurred in three states that reflect different levels of personality, which work together to create complex human behaviors. The theories of Freud have been labeled as pseudo-scientific and sexist, although they remain influential. Freud has been called one of the three masters of the "school of suspicion", alongside Karl Marx and Friedrich Nietzsche.
The id, ego, and superego all make up who we are as people. The id is the component of personality that includes all the basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification. According to Freud, when a child is born, their personality begins with the id stage. Id is an important stage because this is where, as a newborn, we have our basic needs met. It is where we find the urges for self-gratification, such as being held or changed. Sometimes a child's needs aren't always able to be met instantly. So if parents are always meeting their child's needs, the child may develop and learn to grab things from anywhere just to satisfy his or her needs. According to Freud, the id tries to resolve tension created by the pleasure principle, which is the driving force for immediate gratification, by creating a mental image of the object desired as a way to satisfy the need.
Freud said that the id will always remain with people during their life in the form of psychic energy, which are the urges and desires that account for a person's behavior. In the next few years of a child's life, they will begin to interact more with people and the world, which is when the next stage of personality begins to develop. The ego. The ego the reality-oriented component that understands that people have needs and that being selfish can hurt the others around them. The job of the ego is to meet the needs of the id, while considering the reality of the situation. It looks for the best way possible to meet the needs of the id rather than bringing grief.
The superego, which develops by the age of five, consists of the moral and ethical aspects of the personality. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. There are two parts to the superego: the ego ideal, which includes the rules and standards for good behavior, and the conscience, which includes information about what is bad and socially unacceptable.
So in conclusion, the id doesn't care about reality or the needs of others. It only knows, and cares for, its own gratification.
Importance of sports
Sports have been around since the beginning. Cultures have utilized sports for social gatherings and ways of determining importance within their society. Some of the earliest examples originated in Greece. They are still done today in more of a modern setting; they are the Olympics. Back then it wasn’t as organized in terms of hundreds of individual events that started off with heats and led into finals with them being larger singular events that usually encompassed many aspects of physical strength and endurance. Such examples of events that were in the Olympics were boxing, wrestling, the pentathlon, and equestrian sports. These were the basis for the massive amount of sports that popped up in Western Europe later on. Though, of course, sports were also evident in the more primal of cultures in the Americas.
The Mayans created a game that is similar to modern day soccer. The Mayan ball game was of importance for them as it was a major gathering for all. At the end of the game, the winners would be treated to a great feast while the losers were punished for their inability to win. Often it resulted in them being killed while the losing team leader was almost always put to death.
Now aside from sports like the Mayan ball game, most sports of them are still around in some form or another. They are not as extreme anymore but instead more advanced. They have also taken a different role in our culture. They have moved away from being ritualistic or semi-religious and into a focus of showcasing talent while giving joy to those who have come to watch. Not only are sports just for the players but it has always been something that people enjoy watching. Millions of people pay money to go see their teams play. I guess you could say that people watch sports because it’s something that has been in our culture since the very beginning and it brings us entertainment.
One of the modern day sports that plays a huge part in Americas culture is baseball. It is said that “baseball is Americas past time.” This means that baseball has always been something that people could turn to gain entertainment through the ups and downs of America’s society. It’s ridiculous how much the sport has change through the years. The game is at its peak where the players are better than they have ever been; baseball can hardly improve for where it is now.
Baseball of course is just one of the many games that has developed through the years and all play a major role in our society. These sports have and will continue to shape society’s culture and influence our outlook on life. They have always provided some form of fun, entertainment, interaction with others, and pleasure for people of all ages. Isn’t that what sociology is about, entertainment and ways to allow people to interact with one another?
By Ariel Nickelson
History of the Amish
The Amish people have been around for many hundreds of years. They are a group of religious people who are both conservative and strict in their beliefs and ways of life. The Amish people originated in Europe by a man named Jacob Amman in the late 17th century. It began as a reforming group of the Mennonite faith, to restore some of the early beliefs of the Mennonite religion. This groupe of Mennonites separated from the Mennonite group due to what they believed as a “lack of discipline”. During the 18th century, and became the Amish group. Many Amish migrated to the states mainly Pennsylvania and a few other states. Leaving Europe due to prosecution brought on by other European religious groups.
Amish faith consists of the belief in a Singular God who is : “Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.” They follow biblical scripture, and only interact with those of the same faith. It’s strongly exercised to confess to sins committed, which consists of thoughts or feelings of an “unholy nature”. If confession is not exercised, the guilty person is “Shunned” from the group, which is believed to encourage the person who has committed the folly to repentance, and rejoin the churches ways and the people. They believe the bible is the inspired word of God and should be followed. A grown man is to confess his faith in God before he is baptized and allowed as a member in the church. All in the Amish home are born and raised in the faith.
All aspects of the Amish are based on a list of written and oral rules, which is called the “Ordnung”. It simply defines what the Amish way of life is. Lifestyles are based on faith, and Discipleship. Plain and simple living is exercised, which causes longer and harder work. In the bible it speaks of how being prideful is destructive to the soul, and not to conform to the worldly ways. So they live without fancy clothes, cars, electricity, and electronics, to put it simply it is a life without refrigerators, Tractors, family cars, cell phones, jeans, makeup, and radios. They make their living through farm work, and handmade workmanship. The Amish dress is to encourage humility and separation from the world. The colors of their dress are plain and primarily dark in color. They never cut their hair and in some orders it is specified on what the length of a women’s skirt and the seam should be.
Amish families are large with many children to follow the faith. Amish highly believe in education and in their small communities they have a single class room ran by the Amish parents. And most children are taught until the eighth grade then are expected to return and help on the farm or in the home. The man is considered the head and the religious leader in the home. Amish women are the home maker and live in the shadow of the men. There is no marriage out of the Amish order, and divorce is forbidden, but there is some times marital separation.
The Amish are a very different culture, which is strange and fascinating to the “modern” world. Their strict beliefs and strong faith capture the interests of many people. And the simple lifestyles and different ways are an attraction nationwide.
Beatniks, Hippies, and Hipsters
Kelsey Voss, Kelsey Shields, and Ashley Gooder
What do beatniks, hippies, and hipsters have in common? They are all sub-cultures. According to dictionary.com, a sub-culture is the culture and lifestyle of those people especially among the young who reject or oppose the dominate values and behavior of society.
The beatnik generation of the fifties was against going with the normal flow of life. They liked to be different, to stand out in a crowd. They were musicians, novelists, and poets, and they were the ones who liked to stay off the mainstream. They didn’t think about what other people would think of them, they acted how they wanted and dressed differently. They wanted their own freedom that was different then everyone else.
The term ‘beat’ was first thought of by poet, Jack Kerouac, in San Francisco and later in New York. Jack wasn’t the only commonly known beatnik. John Clellon Holmes, Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Philip Whalen, Gary Snyder,
Gregory Corso, and William Burroughs were also very known beatniks. These men were either poets, novelists, or jazz musicians. They helped bring unknown musicians out so that people would hear their music and also helped bring out novelists and poets.
Beatniks dressed different than anyone of the time. They chose dark colors and other monochrome colors. Women either wore tight fitting pants or pencil skirts with tight turtle necks or leotard tops. Men also wore tight fitting pants and tight turtle necks with scarves. Neither men or women wore flashy jewelry. Women would wear dark makeup and bright red lipstick. Men would typically grow out their hair and they even grew goatees. Women had long hair and they didn’t do anything with it.
Society didn’t think of beatniks as people who were going against the standard way of life. Society thought of beatniks as people who were dirty and smelly, lazy, immature, and they were also thought of as dangerous. Society confused beatniks with juvenile delinquents. Hollywood even made movies that portrayed beatniks as criminals.
Beatniks started to become distorted. They started changing the way they thought and how they viewed things. They lost their identity. They were becoming more like a cartoon character. The beatniks helped change America, though. They helped in setting the stage for the counter culture movements of the sixties and seventies.
If a person has a tie die shirt on does that mean they are a hippie? No, but tie dyeing was very popular in the 1960s and as part of the hippie style and still is today. When you hear hippie what do you think of? Many colors, long hair, bell-bottomed pants, peace signs, and maybe drugs? According to dictionary.com a hippie is a person whose behavior, dress, use of drugs, etc, implied a rejection of conventional values. Since the 1960s, many aspects of the hippie counterculture have been compared by the mainstream.
The hippie subculture developed as a youth movement that began in the United States in the early 1960s and spread around the world. According to the History of Hippies the hippie trend started in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe, but spread quickly to; Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico, Brazil and many other countries.
Hippies often chose brightly colored clothes, and the styles were loose and non-constricting. Bell-bottom pants, vests, tie-dyed garments, dashikis, peasant blouses, and long, full skirts with nature inspired patchwork or non-Western clothing with Native American, African and Latin American prints were many of the styles. Much of the hippie clothing was hand-made. For accessories they wore, head scarves, headbands, long beaded necklaces, and Native American jewelry. The top 1960s hippie rock bands started splitting Baby Boomers into hippies vs. straights. Some of the popular groups and songs are the Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Grateful Dead, Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton, Jefferson Airplane, and Big Brother and the Holding Company.
More present day looks of hippies are called neo-hippies. Many of the neo-hippies are sons, daughters and grandchildren of the original hippies; advocate many of the same beliefs of their 1960s counterparts. Neo-hippies are very different from the original hippies. Today they do not consider it necessary to take drugs in order to be part of the lifestyle, and many reject drug use in favor of alternative methods. The alternative methods are drumming circles, yoga and dancing, dietary practices, meditation, and community singing.
Nambassa is a tribal name of a trust that has championed sustainable ideas and demonstrated practical counterculture and alternative lifestyle methods since the early 1970s. The neo-hippie movement has inspired workshops that advocate alternative lifestyles, clean and sustainable energy, and unadulterated foods.
Many people in the 1960s made a choice to become a hippie. Some advocated ecological living is a life philosophy. Public political demonstrations are considered legitimate expressions of free speech. Unmarried couples of all ages feel free to travel and live together without societal disapproval.
Beatniks of the 50’s, Hippies of the 70’s, and today we have hipsters; hipsters are the latest counter culture or sub-culture. “Hipsters are a subculture of men and women typically in their 20's and 30's that value independent thinking, counter-culture, progressive politics, an appreciation of art and indie-rock, creativity, intelligence, and witty banter.” Urban Dictionary.com. They are often portrayed as smug characters that aren’t interested or excited about anything. They originated from Brooklyn New York, and many of them live with their parents or in groups squatting in uninhabited houses in the Williamsburg neighborhood. Now hipsters can be found all across the nation but especially in urban cities. The people that claim to be hipsters are often white middle class youth who have a strong interest in music and art. The subculture is very open racially, it is said you will find the most interracial couples among the hipsters. They reject the norms when it comes to just about everything but especially when it comes to dating. Male hipsters refuse the idea of the bleach blonde Barbie type girls because of what they believe that the type of woman represents. The hipster women are the same, they are rejecting the All-American boy, the football player that’s ripped and that stands for everything they are against. To them these types represent sexism, insecurity, lack of self-thinking, male oppression, and little cultural awareness. Hipsters seem to be widely hated yet it is a growing fad to join up with the carefree bunch.
The hipsters are one in their own, they have their own style, that they pull from past decades’ trends. Cardigans, thick-rimmed glasses, plaid, tight jeans, sneakers, and they even have their own language that the average person wouldn’t understand. For example: a chipper giving a frado the frigidaire. … No idea right? Broken down into non-Hipster terms: a chipper is a woman who is easy, frado is an ugly guy who thinks he’s good looking, and lastly a frigidaire means giving them the cold shoulder. Most of the words aren’t even in the regular dictionary, so one would have to look up the hipster dictionary, which is included on thehipsterhandbook.com. The handbook on thehipsterhandbook.comincludes a glossary, clues you are probably a hipster, clues your aren’t a hipster, and deck. Clues you are probably a hipster: You graduated from a liberal arts school that hasn’t won a game since the Reagan administration, You own records put out by Matador, DFA, Definitive Jux, Dischord or Smells like Records.
Yet many bash this group because of their attitude but many businesses have been able to turn their fashion style into millions for example Urban Outfitters and American Apparel for example. Both stores along with many others sell the hobo looking style, such as the ripped up jeans, leggings, and the -oh so popular jeggings. Many that are sporting the style have no idea what the people that started the trend stand for. That how they dress is supposed to be against the mainstream, that by their style becoming so popular it’s against everything the stand for, much less wanted.
Beatniks were novelists and poets. Beatniks got their name from Jack Kerouac. They started out in San Francisco and eventually spread to New York. They dressed in black and other monochrome colors. They didn’t wear any jewelry and the women would wear thick makeup. Society thought of beatniks as lazy, smelly, and as juvenile delinquents.
The hippie subculture developed as a youth movement that began in the United States in the early 1960s and spread around the world. The hippie trend started in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe, but spread quickly to; Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico, Brazil and many other countries. They wore many colors, headbands, scarves, long beaded necklaces and Native American jewelry.
Hipsters are often portrayed as smug people that tend to reject the norms of everything including the rules of attraction. Their styles usually include looking ragged much like a hobo or pulling from decades past such as thick rimmed glasses, cardigans, and old school sneakers. These kids originate from New York and now are across the country in urban cities.
Whether a beatnik, hippie, or a hipster these groups represent the same thing; they want to be against the main stream and opposite of what society thinks is “cool”. They were/are a part of almost every decade and will forever remain a part of our history.
“United States of America vs. Asian Culture for taking care of Elderly People”
by Satriana Siagian
All the divine creation of the world is experiencing circle of life. At we start with eggs, babies, children, adolescents, adults, parents and grandparents. I will share about how the Asian people, especially Indonesian People to taking care of their parents instead of put them on Nursing home.
I believe every people will be different lifestyle, economic, education, culture, religions, etc. I am living in United States and I working most of the time with elderly people. I saw so many elderly where I work was up sad because their family never come to visit them. I asked them where all their family are? some of their answer their family busy with their life such as; work, school, kids, etc. The other said their family out of states or city so they cannot come to see them until holiday season.
In United States of America, the Government make more facilities for the Elderly people such as; nursing home, assistance living, House for the elderly, etc. I am so appreciated how this country really care to the elderly people, but in the others side the elderly feel like their family trying to rid off them from their house.
Most of their parent who elderly live in nursing home, assistance living and house for elderly because they are working and they don’t have time to spend time with them, they does not know how to taking care when their parents sick, they want their parents independent and do what they wants to do without their kids bother them.
In United States of America, Most of the families think with send their parents to the Nursing home, assistance living or House for elderly it will be safe for them (elderly), because everything their parents want somebody will be get for them and somebody will be watch them. But in the fact most of the abuse and neglect come from the nursing home and assistance living. They feel so lonely, depression, angry, sad and isolation from all the social life outside of their life. Sometimes they said better I die instead I live without anybody visiting them. We can see in this picture how their feel in the nursing home or assistance living.
In the Asia culture, Most of their parent stays in their house until their die. It is taboo and not appropriate for our culture if their kids send them to the nursing home or assistance living.
The kid parents showing their thank you to their parents because they taking care of them with taking care the parents back. It doesn’t matter how busy the kids are, they still let their parents stay with them.
We think the elderly or parents usually happy if their families taking care of them and they not feel so lonely. How the Asian people taking care their own parents? Usually they rotate the schedule with the families’ members to taking care of them. They more convertible to taking care their own parents. The Elderly feel more respect, more freedom, more trust, happier and more social to others.
Especially when they are not feeling well or sick, they just want close families or their kids close to them. Like my parent, my father was sick and we brought him to the hospital, and the Doctor wants him to stay in the hospital for a weeks. My father requested to the Doctor if he can go home soon, he want his kids taking care of him and if something wrong with him, he will be back to see the doctor.
I asked my father why he wants to go home soon instead stay in Hospital. He said he better stay with their kids and grandkids instead lonely in the hospital. He is not so peaceful and convertible stay in hospital. He feels happier if he sees their grandkids laughing, crying or screaming instead of listening to the all equipment sounds in hospital.
We can see the picture above, how their elderly so happy, laughing with their families. They do not feel like isolation to the others.
Every culture will be different life style but we have to think about others what the good and the bad for them. I didn’t said is Nursing home or assistance living are bad but why we don’t try to respect and show our appreciation to our parents with taking care of them or, if they live in Nursing home or assistance living try visit them often.
They will be happy and not feel isolate from others especially from their families and kids. The Elderly doesn’t need anything accept attention from their kids and their families.
By: Bernard Newbold
Webster’s dictionary has classified the word culture with five meanings but in Sociology, culture is the practice, traditions, and customs by people of a country that determines who they are and separates them from the world.
There are many different cultures around the world but when you think of the Asian people, their culture is human civilization and they go back to their heritage. Latin, their culture is literature, art, music and dance. Africa, their culture is food, music, folk law, dance, and religion.
In the Bahamas, there are many cultures which define who the people are, but Bahamian culture centers around music, food, celebrations, practices and religion.
In the arts of music, if you listen to the words and understand the lyrics, it tells a story about the history of the nation and its people. The number one art of Bahamian culture is Junakanoo which is held in December and January in a massive parade throughout the country.
Junakanoo is a celebration of the ancestors of the Bahamas and the freedom from slavery. It is made up of large and small groups of people beating goat skin drums, shaking cowbells, blowing whistles, and playing brass instruments. The attraction of Junkanoo is the costumes that sometimes reach up to twelve feet in height and decorated with bright colours of paper. The origin of the word Junkanoo is rather obscure. Some people believe it comes from the French "L'inconnu", which means, "the unknown", in reference to the masks worn by the paraders. Others believe it comes from "junk enoo", the Scottish settlers' reference to the parades meaning "junk enough”or "John Canoe," the name of an African tribal chief who, in the 17th century, demanded the right to celebrate with his people even after being brought to the West Indies in slavery. Junkanoo may have West African origins as the costumes and conduct of the masqueraders bear similarities with the Yoruba Egungun festivals.
These slaves were not allowed much freedom and would hide in the bushes when they had the chance. While in the bushes, they would dance and make music while covered in costumes that they made from various paints that they made and leaves that they found, sponges and old newspaper. This festival represented the slave's freedom from slavery.
The Bahamas like many countries such as Jamaica, West Indies and China separate itself with food. The traditional peas ‘n’ rice, along with sides such as bake macaroni, potato salad and a bake or fried meat is a tourist attraction. The famous daiquiris, conch salads and conch fritters are also part of the culture which separates true Bahamian from an American or Asian.
Celebrations and Practices
The Bahamas is unique in its style of celebrations as the British customs are still practiced with the inspection of the guards during an Independence celebration, changing of the Governor General, new military and police officers and its parliamentary practices.
The British practice of Parliament and Law remains a Bahamian culture with the dress style and appearance.
This is all a part of the culture of the Bahamas.
Sociology 12:30 TT
Tuesday May 8, 2012
The Death penalty is one of the most controversial and argued topics in the news today. The death penalty goes way back to the mid evil days. Some people believe that this is the next step in justice. As the years went on the death penalty has become more humane. In the early days people would torcher people in ways many people would fear hoping people would obey the laws whatever those were. These torchers/executing techniques got so inhumane some people’s imagination had come into play on this they would boiling people in oil, drive over people in wooden wheels, press people with rocks, stone people, hangings, set people on fire, drown, behead and throw people with wild beasts. Those were just a few of the cruel executing techniques. In the resent years they became less painful resulting to electrocuting chair and euthanasia. I will tell you some pros and cons about the death penalty.
A few weeks ago a Colorado man named Robert "Rider" Dewey was wrongly convicted of a rape and murder. He was in jail for 16 years for a crime that he didn’t cause. The advancements in technology and DNA testing set this innocent man free. Since 1973, 140 people in 26 states have been released from death row with evidence of their innocence. This is probably the biggest con once you kill someone you can’t bring them back. Having the death penalty you can kill innocent people. A lot of the people being sentenced to the death penalty is resulted because they are convicted of murder. Isn’t that hypocritical? Two wrongs don’t make it right? Many people would like to get rid of the death penalty all together. In states that don’t allow the death penalty have lower murder rates than the states that do. So I always wondered does the death penalty even work. I personally would rather die than rot in jail my whole life, having a death penalty would be kind of doing them a favor.
Being pro death penalty is also very understandable. If you commit a crime so bad that you are sentence to death seems like the right thing to do. If you take someone’s life shouldn’t you get yours taken away from you? There has been some scientist saying that if you kill the person that committed the crime that it doesn’t just get them off the streets it could prevent others from committing a crime also. If someone close to you was murdered wouldn’t you want the killer to pay and sentenced them to death?
Killing is never the right thing to do but I believe that the death penalty should be allowed in certain cases. If someone is 100% convicted of the crime and there is no doubt that they didn’t commit the crime that I do believe it is ok. The fact that someone can be sentenced to death for a crime they didn’t do scares the heck out of me.
Kelli Miller & Halie Parker
(AIDS): Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, (HIV). The illness interferes with the immune system which cause severe damage.
HIV/AIDS is transmitted many ways, such as sexual intercourse that includes oral and anal sex, contaminated blood transfusion, hypodermic needles, and exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy. You can even get HIV or AIDS through breast milk. This disease is a major heath problem in many parts of the world. This disease is an outbreak that is not only presented over a large area but is rapidly spreading throughout the world. In 2009, the World Heath Organization (WHO) estimated that there are 33.4 million people worldwide living with AIDS including 2.1 million children under the age of 15. AIDS killed 2.1 million people that same year. AIDS is the sixth leading cause of death among people ages 25 - 44 in the United States, down from number one in 1995. One in five people don’t know they are affected with HIV or AIDS because there is no symptoms at the first.
The origin of AIDS and HIV has puzzled scientists ever since the illness first came to light in the early 1980s. In 1981, the first cases of AIDS were identified among gay men in the United States, however, scientists later found evidence that the disease existed in the world for some years. Later they found a blood sample of a Bantu man, who died of an unidentified illness in the Belgian Congo in 1959, which made him the first confirmed case of an HIV infection. So both AIDS viruses, HIV-1 and HIV-2, originated in Africa. Another source said the blame is chimpanzees.
The symptoms of HIV and AIDS vary, depending on the phase of infection. People who are infected with HIV may have no symptoms for 10 years or longer, but they can still transmit the infection to others during this symptom-free period. If the infection is not detected and treated, the immune system gradually weakens and AIDS develops. Acute HIV infection progresses over time, usually only takes a few weeks to months to asymptomatic HIV infection, still with no symptoms and then to early symptomatic HIV infection. Later, it progresses to AIDS. Some possible symptoms of HIV are: Fever, Muscle soreness, Rash, Headache, Sore throat, Mouth or genital ulcers, Swollen lymph glands, mainly on the neck, Joint pain, Night sweats, Diarrhea.
There is no cure for AIDS at this time. However, a variety of treatments are available that can help keep symptoms at bay and improve the quality of life for those who have already developed symptoms. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), has been very effective in reducing the number of HIV particles in the bloodstream. HAART is not a cure for HIV though, but it has been very effective for the past 12 years. (HAART), can help you live a little longer but eventually the virus is going to take over your body and you are going to die. The sooner you are treated for AIDS the longer your chances are of living.
Acquired Immune Deficiency System (AIDS) is an epidemic that affects both genders. This virus causes the body’s immune system to breakdown so it becomes useless to fight off infections and bacteria. As a child growing up and having to watch sex education videos in class, we were taught that being diagnosed with AIDS usually led to death. And that pretty much scared most the class into thinking if you have sex you will die.
HIV is transmitted in many ways, such as: sexual intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex; contaminated blood transfusions and hypodermic needles; and exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the virus that causes AIDS, transferred to humans in Africa between 1884 and 1924. Then in 1970, HIV entered the United States. The first cases of AIDS were found in California and in New York in gay men and then in injecting drug users. In 1983 there were 3,000 reported to have AIDS and 1,000 reported to have died because of AIDS. Around 8 million were reported to have been diagnosed with HIV worldwide in 1990. Numbers keep on adding up till this day at a slow rate but there is still no cure for this horrible outbreak.
Although here is treatments to slow down HIV/AIDS there is no cure for it to be completely gone. The majority people infected by HIV develop a flu-like illness within a month or two after the virus enters the body. This illness may last for a few weeks. Possible symptoms include: Fever, Muscle soreness, Rash, Headache, Sore throat, Mouth or genital ulcers, Swollen lymph glands, mainly on the neck, Joint pain, Night sweats, Diarrhea.
There are three easy steps you can follow if you think you have HIV/AIDS. First ask yourself are you having symptoms. Secondly go get examined by your doctor. Thirdly get a HIV test. Following these three simple steps will keep you worry free. People need to know about AIDS and how fast it can spread.
Promoting safe sex and safe needle use around every corner would be really helpful to the world. Few people are hearing the AIDS message. Perhaps people simply don't like or want to believe what they hear, preferring to think that AIDS can't happen to them. Like other diseases, AIDS can strike anyone. AIDS doesn't just occur in certain social groups. We must all protect ourselves from this infection and learn about it in time to take effective precautions. Given the right measures, no one needs to get AIDS. Now is the time to take charge against the AIDS disease. People must remember that the only person in charge of preventing you from getting AIDS is yourself.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are two lethal diseases can conceal themselves deep in the body’s core and eventually lodge themselves into the immune system where the damage starts. Currently more than 34 million people in the world live with HIV/AIDS. A record number of new infected persons were recorded for the 2010 year, 2.7 million. A staggering 7,000 people per day are diagnosed or contract HIV/AIDS, which calculates to be 300 per hour. HIV/AIDS has become a world health epidemic and is widely noted as the most recognized disease of our current era. The reason that HIV/AIDS has become an epidemic is because society is unwilling to accept this disease. People often express that when a person contracts HIV/AIDS it is because they are gay or a drug addict who has used dirty needles.
The most famous announcement of HIV/AIDS was when Earvin “Magic” Johnson announced that HIV/AIDS would ultimately end his career on November 7th, 1991. As many know Magic was a point guard for the L.A Lakers who is seen as one of the best players to ever play for the Lakers. But even with his celebrity and athlete status he was not immune to the disease. As stated previously Magic went through the beginning stages being questioned about being gay or bisexual, which were rumors. Magic would eventually state that he contracted the virus because of risky sexual behavior. Magic’s unborn child and wife Cookie did not contract that virus and they have lived there lives dedicated to “battle for the deadly disease.” Since his announcement Magic has started the “the Magic Johnson Foundation” which help combat the issues of HIV/AIDS. One of the main goals of the foundation has been to increase awareness about HIV/AIDS and to drive home the point and to break the stigma that is only contracted by drug users and gay people.
A common misconception is that HIV/AIDS can be contracted through shaking hands, kissing, sitting on a toilet seat, dinner plates and pets. HIV/AIDS is found inside the blood, semen or vaginal fluid of an infected person and can only be contracted through exposure to those elements. Unprotected sex, sharing needles or syringes or during childbirth and breastfeeding are the most common ways of exposure.
Though there are not current treatments that can alleviate HIV/AIDS from the body. There are some medications that can help reduce the symptoms. Education is an important ingredient to helping victims of the horrific disease. Education about unprotected sex and dirty needles to underprivileged children who do not have the opportunity to talk about these issues at home can be beneficial and rewarding. HIV/AIDS is an important issue that needs to be addressed and focused on. With more education about the risks associated with the diseases, hundreds and thousands of individuals throughout the world could be hopeful of a cure. I will leave you with a quote from the great Magic Johnson that summarizes the importance, "The important thing is this; Just because I'm doing well doesn't mean that they're going to do well if they get HIV. A lot of people have died since I have announced. This disease is not going anywhere."
Over the years it has been determined that roughly 3.3 billion people throughout the world are at risk of suffering from the disease of malaria. In 2010 there were roughly 149 million to 274 million known cases of malaria in the world and of these cases it had been estimated that there were 655,000 deaths related. People living in third world poverty countries are the most susceptible to contracting malaria. In 2010, 90% of all malaria deaths occurred in the WHO African Region, mostly among children under five years of age. Malaria is the leading cause of child mortality in Africa.
What is malaria? Malaria is caused by a small parasite Plasmodium which is carried by mosquitos. Mosquitos then infect humans and animals by biting and then the disease is transmitted where parasites then multiply in the liver and eventually infect the red blood cells of the human. Symptoms of malaria include vomiting, fever and headache. The infected persons usually become ill within ten to fifteen days after the bite occurs. The problem begins when malaria goes untreated. When untreated the malaria spreads to vital organs and cuts off blood supply to those organs. It has been noted by several medical professionals that deal with malaria on a daily basis that parasites and malaria carrying insects have become resistant to the medicines that help clear malaria from the body.
Over the years many health professionals have developed ways to help reduce malaria. Though many medicines have become available on the market to treat malaria, as stated before, some of the strands of parasites have become resistant to the drugs available. The use of insect nets has become a common practice for the third-world countries of Africa to help reduce the chance of being infected. Along with the use of the net they also spray an insecticide in the residence to help control the mosquito populations. A friend of mine travels to Africa each year for missionary work. She has stated to me before that each night she sleeps inside an insect net just to be protected from the malaria disease. When talking to her recently, she stated that even though prevention efforts have been established and almost made mandatory, that the risk of being infected still looms in the outer wings of the mind. The most intriguing part of the conversation was that she compared the disease to robbery. You never know when it will happen and how bad it might be.
The United States has several prevention methods available to the citizens of the country. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has an established hotline available where people can call and get clinical diagnoses of malaria and control their specific cases of malaria. Pharmaceutical companies have also developed a number of artemisinin-based medications to help with the treatment of the disease. But remember that the United States is much more advanced than the poorest regions of Africa and that Africans do not have the resources to all of the modern medicine. The challenge of the world is to realize that these children are suffering from horrible disease. As a nation or just human-kind in general we need to find a way to get advanced medication to all the regions of the world to help irradiate this horrible disease.
Everyone called her “Genie,” although this was not her real name, it was the name she was given to protect her from the media and people obsessed with her story. Genie was born to Clark and Irene Wiley with an older brother named John. Genie was put away in a room by her father who thought she was mentally retarded at the age of 20 months. She was locked away in an upstairs bedroom of her house strapped to an infant’s potty seat or a crib with wire mess on all sides in a sleeping bag that was a makeshift straight jacket.
Genie received years of torture and beating from her father. The only way her father spoke to her was using barking noises, growling, and barring his teeth at her. Genie never had any social interaction with anyone except her father. The only noises she would make were quiet, high pitched whimpering.
In 1970 Genie and her mom escaped the house. Genie was 13 years old at the time. She weighed a shocking 59 pounds and stood at only 54 inches tall. She was a 13 year old that had the appearance of an 8 year old while having the language and motor skills of a baby.
Genie was put into a Children’s Hospital where doctors were mesmerized by Genie. They ran tests and even had a specialized team that received grants to focus on Genie’s condition. Susie Curtiss was a member of the team that worked on language acquisition with Genie. She and Susie became very close as Susie would take her on many outings and spent almost every day with her. Off the start, Genie did not speak at all except a mere stammer of “stopit” or “nomore.” When Genie become frustrated or frightened she would have outbursts, having raging tantrums, spitting and blowing her nose everywhere, and rubbing her face and hair with her own mucus. Genie also excessively masturbated, using chair backs, counter edges, doors knobs, and so forth to try to masturbate anywhere and everywhere.
For many years Genie was tossed from home to home with many foster parents that consisted of the medical team that was running tests and studying her. Many times she was removed from the home or switched homes for several different reasons. Genie finally learned to speak some without grammatical correctness and learned how to use sign language. In 1984, Irene Wiley regained custody of her daughter. Susie Curtiss, who was still working with Genie on a volunteer basis, was banned from seeing her or explaining to her why. Susie was devastated because she had been the one person in Genie’s life that had stayed there throughout the entire ordeal and had become deeply connected with her.
Today Genie has “disappeared” from the public eye and has been hidden by her social worker. Susie has tried for 20 years to locate Genie but can’t get past her social worker. A private investigator was hired and found Genie in a privately run facility for mentally underdeveloped adults and reports she is happy.
A girl that has been studying Genie in the past few years has decided not to try to come in contact with her because “it would be to invasive, and she isn’t the same girl when the stories were written about her. I wouldn’t do it, for her sake and her memory.”
As for Genie’s father, Clark Wiley, he was charged with child abuse although the day he was supposed to appear in court he shot himself to death after leaving a note that read “The world will never understand.”
Christy Shinogle and Kathy Brooks
Child neglect is defined as mistreatment by the person whom is taking care of them. The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) reported, in 2005 the in United States there was about 899,000 children who were abused and neglected.
62.8% neglect alone including medical neglect
42.2% neglect only
24.1% physical abuse and neglect
27.3% multiple maltreatment
There are four types of neglect:
Educational: is the lack of the caregiver putting the child in school or supplying the child with the proper home schooling needs. By not giving the child the proper education can cause the child not to have the necessary life skills need. Educational neglect can harm the child’s emotional well-being and physical health.
Emotional: is not giving the child the correct affection that it needs. Ignoring, rejecting, verbally assaulting, isolating, terrorizing, and exploiting the child are forms of emotional neglect.
Medical: failing to give the proper medical attention the child needs. Such as not taking the child to the hospital when it has a treatable chronic disease or disability, or in an emergency.
Physical: the failure of the caregiver to provide the child with sufficient amount of food, clothing, shelter, and other basic needs. By not providing these essential needs jeopardizes the child’s psychological growth, well-being, physical health and development. This could cause the child to have physical injuries such as cuts, bruises, burns that are caused by not being looked after.
The first step in suspected a child neglect or abuse case is to get a hold of the local child welfare agency. Although if you feel that the child is in danger you should call 911. There are a few questions that the person might ask you such as
How do you know the child?
Name of the child?
Where does the child live?
What is the person or person’s name that you believe is abusing or neglecting them?
What is the relationship of the abuser/neglector to the child?
Do you know the name of the child’s parents?
What kind of abuse/neglect do you believe is happening?
Where is the child located now?
Do you believe the child is safe or in danger?
Are there any other witnesses?
State or county agency provide child protective services. They investigate reports of child neglect, during this investigation they determine:
Whether neglect is happening
If there is immediate danger to the child
What the intent of the neglector is
If the child is in danger it will be taken away from the offender and placed in protective custody. The family and court needs to be told this and an emergency/temporary custody review hearing will need to be held within 48 – 72 hours.
If the report is deemed substantiated then the courts will determine the seriousness of the situation. Depending of the severity whether or not there is voluntary assistance and services, court-ordered supervision and services, out-of home placement or the absolutely last resort is taking the parental rights away.
If you see or suspect child neglect or abuse please notify the proper authority. You could be saving a child’s life.
There are cases of child abuse all over America. However most of these cases are never reported. In our textbook we read about “Genie”, who was rescued when she was 14 years old.
Genie had spent her young life tied to a potty chair or tied up in a sleeping bag in a mesh playpen. When she was discovered she had no social skills, could not speak and was still in diapers. She was the size of an eight year old.
Genie spent four years in the Children’s Hospital at UCLA. She was studied like a lab rat, put in foster care where she was again abused. In 1977 she was once again admitted into the Children’s Hospital for abuse. Even though she had made some progress up to this point, she regressed and would never return.
For a brief time Genie was returned to her mother. At the age of 18 she was placed in an adult care home. When ABC News published this article in May 2008, Genie was 51 years old and still living in the adult care home. (abcNews.com, May 2008) We were unable to locate any current information on Genie.
According to an article published in the Seattle Times in October 2008, a Carnation, WA couple was arrested for criminal mistreatment of a child. After hearing screams coming from the home a neighbor called Child Protective Services. On August 13, 2008, a sheriff’s deputy went to the home on a welfare check.
He found the 14 year old girl extremely dehydrated, emaciated and severely malnourished. Her stepmother had only allowed her to eat dry toast and drink half a Dixie cup of water a day. The girl stood 4-foot-7 and weighed only 48 pounds. Her 12 year old brother had not been treated that badly. He was the normal weight and size. The children were not enrolled in school, the stepmother had claimed to be home schooling them.
The children are now in a good foster home. According to their foster dad they attend a private school and have had no problems adjusting to a normal life.
And then there is Dani, the six year old found in Plant City, FL. On July 13, 2005, the Plant City police department arrived to find the DCF worker sitting in her car sobbing. “This is the worst case I have ever seen,” she told the officers.
Upon entering the house the 18 year veteran detective saw a sight that he had never seen before. There were roaches crawling on everything in sight, they were even in the freezer. There was human urine and feces smeared on the walls, smashed in the carpet. He found the girl in a room the size of a small closet, she was curled up on a moldy mattress with nothing on but a nasty diaper. She was covered in sores and had head lice that he could literally see crawling in her hair.
Dani was taken to Tampa General Hospital. The doctors had to put her on an IV, she could not chew nor swallow solid foods. She had no reactions to any type of stimuli, not heat, cold or pain. She didn’t cry at all, would not look at people and made no sounds. It was if she was a zombie. They ran extensive medical tests, all of which showed there was nothing wrong with Dani, there was no medical reasons for her condition. Dr. Kathleen Armstrong, director of pediatric psychology at the University of Florida medical school, called Dani’s condition “environmental autism”.
The system that was supposed to protect Dani had failed her. There is evidence of several reports to the child abuse hotline dating back to February 2002. And for some reason, even though these reports had been investigated, Dani had been left in the home. One investigator pointed out that just because a house was filthy was no reason to remove a child. But another investigator later would state that “a four year old still in diapers, drinking from a bottle and unable to speak” should have sent up some red flags.
After her release from the hospital Dani was put into a group home for a while. Her case worker was determined to find Dani a permanent home where she would be loved and receive the care that she would need to become some- what of a productive and happy child. And she did just that. On Easter 2007, Dani went home with Bernie and Diane. It was a very trying time for them all. Dani would run from room to room screaming, she refused to put her feet in the sand at the beach and bite her hands when she was angry. This did not deter her foster parents and in October of 2007 they legally adopted Dani. Her birth mother decided to relinquish her parental rights in a plea bargain where she was facing 25 years in prison.
Dani is in speech classes, takes horseback riding, goes to occupational and physical therapy. She has learned to pull at her pants whenever she needs to go to the bathroom. Her brother William claims that she speaks when he is tickling her. She is learning how to feed herself and to use a speech board to communicate. Her parents take her to church, the mall and grocery store. They are trying to make sure that she has a normal, as much as they can, life.
It does make one wonder if she had been saved three years earlier, would she be in this condition?
Diaz, J., Peddle, N., Reid, R. & Wang, C. (2002). Current trends in child abuse prevention and fatalities: The 2000 fifty state survey. Chicago, IL: Prevent Child Abuse America.
Tondrowski, J. (in press). The legal framework for child protection services. In C. Brittan & D. Hunts(Eds), Helping in child protection services: A competency based casework handbook. New York: Oxford University Press.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families (2007). Child Maltreatment 2005. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Children, Youth, & Families Department, Child Care Services Bureau (1998). Reporting child abuse-It’s everyone’s responsibility. South Deerfield, MA: Channing L. Bete Co., Inc.
According to the internet, a social identity is the portion of an individual's self-concept derived from perceived membership in a relevant social group. When it comes to identities there are two different ways they are established. First there are primary identities, which are characteristics that are given at birth and can not be changed even if you want them to be such as gender and race or ethnicity. Then there are secondary identities, which are given during socialization and have an open opportunity to change, such as those related to occupation, friends, and what you consume.
When speaking on gender identities the world puts it in the category with socialization. That is one thing I disagree with I feel your identity isn’t based on your social environment or on the people that you hang around. It comes from inside and from your own brain not because you were influenced by your peers. If anything that you do is based on your peers you are not really what you claim to be. Sex and gender are viewed as two different things. Sex is simply what is given at birth stating whether you are a female or a male. Gender covers more of what you are expecting to think, feel, or act in a certain society. For example, men are expected to be tough and the support system for the family with jobs such as policemen or firefighters and women are supposed to be the one who holds the family together or works a job such as a nurse. When you see them doing opposite it is looked at as un normal.
Race and ethnicity play a huge role in social identities also. If you think back on racism is has not been long since it ended. Slaves were free but segregation just merely ended maybe fifty years ago. So even though you did not have the title of a slave you were basically still treated as if you were one. You had to use separate restrooms. You had to drink at different water fountains. You could not even sit at the counter when going out for lunch. My grandfather worked for a construction company and he said that the water fountains were labeled colored and whites. He said the water would be hot in one fountain and white people would let their dogs drink from it as a sign of disrespect but the other water fountain had cold water. One day he got fed up and drank at the whites’ only water fountain and they fired him because of it. This was during segregation so even though he was free he was still treated differently.
Sexual identity plays a role in social identities. The norm from centuries ago are not the norm anymore. One of my professors told me that it used to be against the law to have sex in any other way than one position. It didn’t matter if you were already married, if you were caught doing it you would go to jail. It sure was not normal to have two of the same sex people to be interacting or mingling and having sex. But, now young people are very likely to have homosexual or bisexual experiences. Pre-marital sex has increased throughout the twentieth century. In the past people actually waited until marriage to have sex, but now more than fifty percent of human beings are having sex before marriage. This is one thing that has become a cultural norm in our society.
I feel that nothing is meant to stay the same no matter what. If things stayed the same we wouldn’t evolve at all. I believe in god and the bible but I also believe in change and that love doesn’t see gender or flaws.
Scott, J. F. (2011). Sociology. Oxford.
wiki.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_identity_theory
Why Do People Become Homeless?
By Grayson Palmer
There are many reasons that cause people become homeless and I am going to talk about some of them.
Is it every homeless person's fault that they are homeless? The answer is no. Some people are born into being homeless and do not know any other way of life. Some kids are abandoned when they are very young and are forced to live on the streets. Others may not have had any type of support growing up and are very overwhelmed when they are forced to live on there own. Some teens run away from home in hope for a better life then they can receive at home. And would rather live a life of uncertainties, such as not knowing where they are going to sleep or where their next meal is coming from. Can you imagine living a life like this? Where having nothing except the clothes on your back is a better life then living at home? Would you be able to handle that kind of pressure? I honestly do not know if I would be able to. Another very large reason would be divorce. Some people get so depressed over a divorce that they are unable to handle life, causing them to end up living on the streets. Also take into consideration that some people get really ill and are unable to work and can not pay the bills.
On the other hand some people have the opportunities to make a better life for themselves, but choose to be homeless instead. Some people create such a mess of there lives that they feel they are unable to change it. Others would rather beg people for money to get what they need, rather than attempting to get a job. In bigger cities there are homeless shelters and other means of protection, and yet some refuse these services. Many people have never lived in a home before and would rather not change their routine. Also shelters do not allow drugs or alcohol, also turning people away. Others are scared of having the very few possessions they have being stolen. Others love the feeling of being in control, refusing to let anyone tell them what to do.
A lot of homeless people have been through many hard times and wouldn't mind hearing a few nice words from people. And if you do not trust the person that is asking you for money on the side of the street, you can always buy them a few burgers or a sandwich. Most of us can at least afford that.
In conclusion there are many reasons people become homeless. Some are forced into it, some choose to be, and others just refuse to change their living style. So hopefully this presentation will help you slow down and think of the situations some people have been through, and not be so quick to judge.
Sports in Modern Culture
By Aaron Schlagel and Nelson Justiss
Sports around the world impact fans in many different ways. Without sports, fans like me would not know what to do for fun. For instance approximately 120 years ago many of the sports that we know and love didn’t even exist yet, accompanied by that, many of the sports that did exist at that time many of us would not recognize or even be able to tell you what they were. The growth of such sports has been very rapid and has grown from games purely for fun and entertainment into a multibillion dollar a year industry that we know today that has a large effect on how our culture is run and driven.
With the rapid growth of sports we have seen a large influence on modern social and popular culture both in the way social attitudes are reflected, as well as how the social standards are ever changing. Such changes in social standards can be seen in the fact that many people in modern culture no longer play sports for pure leisure but rather they dedicate their lives to such sports and in many instances are paid millions of dollars a year to play such sports. The social attitude changes are also seen in the fact that many people, mostly younger children, teens, and people into their early twenties attempt to imitate and emulate their favorite athletes and sports heroes.
With the growth in sports, we have also seen many changes in the political landscape that we see today. Many athletes are using their popularity with the people to gain control of political offices, as well as many political officials using the support of popular athletes to gain extra support from voters when running for political offices. However this gives rise to a downfall of the rise of sports in politics due to the fact that many terrorists have been able to assert their causes and influences into sports through control of teams as well as control of countries through their national sports teams. A very prominent example of this was the Munich Olympics, held in Russia, where Soviet Russia attempted to demonstrate that their beliefs were better than the rest of the worlds through athletics.
The landscape of college education has also seen many changes due to the increased popularity of sports, predominantly in the U.S. where many student-athletes are given scholarships to pay for their school due to their ability to compete in their sport. These student-athletes are held in high regard both by their college peers, their professors, their coaches, and their communities and fans in general. They are required to keep a certain grade point average in order to play their sports, however this does not mean that all of these athletes are consistent in doing so or even try at a certain point which is one of the downfalls of athletics. A prime example of this can be seen in college basketball where athletes are required to attend one year of college before heading to play professionally in the NBA. The downfall is that such athletes are only required to go be eligible during the first semester and are then eligible to play for the rest of the season at which point those athletes that know they are going pro stop going to class and strictly play basketball before heading to the NBA.
To get a better look into the role sports play in modern society you must also take into consideration their effect on the economy today. As it stands sports have grown into one of the largest businesses and money making enterprises in the world. To really break it down you must look at it once again from the beginning.
When sports first began and was not yet popular to the world, athletes had problems with integration. Looking at sports now racism is not a big issue, but that was not the case back in the early years. A famous athlete such as Jackie Robinson enters baseball, or even Kenny Washington the first African American to play football in the NFL. We go through racial events thought out the country and if sports are one way to bring us together why not give it a shot. Being White, black, Mexican, Chinese or Asian does not make you different, but not accepting that person does.
Money plays a huge role in modern sports today. Think about how much a person spends on sports, if it’s getting cable to watch sports or buying the clothing to support your team. Money is the number one aspect of sports. Businesses strive on making money off of sports such as, television ratings, sponsors, radio adds, stadium cost, and ticket pricing.
Ticket pricing is so outrageous when it comes to sports. Ticket seating can cost to a minimum of four dollars, up to thousands of dollars. Just because you think you have money to go to a big sporting event, think again. The growth of big money and high salaries into the games has affected who can now afford to go to the event. Though this impact is most commonly associated with sports in the United States, this is not just an American phenomenon, but reflected in other countries and sports around the world.” As sports have grown bigger and more profitable, they are driving out those who helped make growth possible”.
Sports around the world cost differently for each event, such as soccer could cost up to thousands and thousands of dollars, where tennis may be just several hundred dollars. A lot of athletes and people base their life around sports. Tennis is the oldest sport there is, but still not very appealing for people to watch. The top three sporting events watched nationwide would be, winter and summer Olympics, soccer, and baseball. Billions of dollars are invested in sports each year. Fact: sports make over billions of dollars each year.
By: Anna Taylor and Hannah Matchell
One often wonders what the cause of alcohol addiction is. Many different groups and studies have tried to find the answer. One of the obvious truths they have come to agree upon is that there is no one cause, there are many. According to treatmentforalcohol.net one of the causes of alcoholism may be genetics. Alcoholism runs in families. However, this is not to say that if you have a family member who is an alcoholic you will become one. It’s simply stating that you have a higher chance of becoming one. Physiological events can also have an effect on whether or not one becomes an alcoholic. For instance, it has been shown that many times people who grow up in an impoverished society or those who have been a victim of mental or sexual abuse may be more likely to become alcoholic. The link between alcohol and these situations seems to be that they drink to forget. Peer pressure is also believed to be a cause of alcoholism. Despite the fact that many teens may begin drinking to simply impress their peers it may turn into a more serious problem over time. Alcoholism-support.org also mentions that society and the media may play a part in alcoholism and peer pressure. They feel this way because in our society it’s legal at the age of 21 and extremely socially acceptable. They also feel that the media may pressure people into drinking because “everyone is doing it”. It is also a proven fact that men are more likely to develop the disease than women. According to the sociology book alcoholism is the leading cause of hospitalization for men and the second leading cause for women. The first cause for women is childbirth. One major problem with alcoholism is that in today’s society it’s much more difficult to tell when and if someone is slipping from simple social drinking into full-blown alcoholism.
There are many negative effects of alcoholism. These effects may be either long or short-term. Short term effects include: slurred speech, sleepiness, altered emotions, poor vision, disruption of sleeping patterns, vomiting, breathing difficulties, passing out, alcohol poisoning, or comas. Long term effects include: the disruption of normal brain development, liver damage, death of brain cells, stomach and intestinal ulcers, heart disease or heart attack, lower levels of iron and vitamin B, and death. One final effect is fetal alcohol syndrome in unborn children.
The good news is alcoholism can be helped. According to helpguide.org there are 7 steps one needs to follow in order to begin their recovery. Step 1: one must make a commitment to stop drinking. If one is struggling to make a commitment it may help to weigh the pro’s and con’s of drinking. It will, more than likely, not take long to realize that the con’s outweigh the pro’s. Step 2: set goals and prepare for change. In order for one to be successful in his/her recovery they must make decisions such as whether or not they want to stop drinking or simply cut back. They must also accept that this is a lifelong process, and won’t happen over night. Step 3: get sober safely. This means one must really watch out for alcohol withdraw symptoms. Such symptoms include, but are not limited to: severe vomiting, seizures, convulsions, fever, or hallucinations. It may be necessary to go through detox under medical supervision. Step 4: find new meaning in life. This step is further broken down into “5 steps to a sober lifestyle”. Take care of yourself, exercise and sleep are key. Build a support network, this means one must surround themselves with positive influences this group will be a major key to their recovery. Next, develop new activities and interests. The best activities are the ones that make one feel a sense of meaning and purpose. Continuing treatment is also a key in this step. Finally, one must find ways to deal with stress in positives ways, such as exercising or meditation. Step 5: plan for triggers or cravings. It is important during this stage to avoid things that may trigger one to drink. It also helps to practice saying “no” to alcohol. Ways to manage craving are: talking to someone trustworthy, distracting oneself, in a positive way, until the urge passes, and reminding oneself the reasons for not drinking. Step 6: get support. The immediate support groups often come from ones friends and family. However, one also has the option of moving into a sober living home. These are safe supportive places to live while one is recovering. Step 7: getting started on treatment. There are many types of treatment which will be discussed next. However, it must be mentioned that commitment and follow trough are both keys in this step.
One of the most prominent rehabilitation centers is Valley Hope. There are location centers all across the continental United States. The program was actually started in Norton, Kansas. The one in Norton remains to this day. Valley Hope assists in many ways. They offer many different types of treatment. These treatments include: residential medically monitored detoxification, residential inpatient care, day or partial care, outpatient care, continuing care, family programs, along with AC/ESS treatment.
Recovery stories from alcoholism vary from person to person. Our book discusses one particular story. Caroline Napp began drink at age 14. She continued to drink throughout her college career. Caroline is quoted in the book as mention how she still thinks about drinking many times each day. However, then she remembers that she has made the right choice. One of the ways she reassures herself she made the right choice is by scanning social media for drink-related disasters.
Alcohol is a growing problem for many throughout the United States, and all over the world. Luckily, with lots of work, support, and dedication people can recover.
By: Bailey Pfortmiller
Asperger’s syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder. It is where the patient’s conditions are impairment in language and communication skills, as well as repetitive or restrictive patterns of thought and behavior. There is an estimation that two to six out of every 1,000 children have Asperger’s, according to www.ninds.nih.gov. Also according to that site, studies of children with AS suggest that their problems with socialization and communication continue into adulthood.
Signs that a child may have Asperger’s syndrome, or AS, will onset around their third birthday or even the symptoms can show up when the child is an infant. AS is different than autism, in a sense that the child will retain their early language skills. Probably the first sign is that the child will learn to crawl later than a normal infant and also being clumsy is another. Ways that the doctor can possible diagnose the child with AS is this group of behaviors:
- Abnormal eye contact
- Won’t recognize someone that says their name
- Won’t use gestures to show or point at an object
- A certain withdrawal from interactive play and peers
- The child may appear solitary, tending to their own company.
- Lack of imagination
Also an Asperger’s syndrome child will become overly obsessed over a single object or topic. They want to know absolutely everything about that topic and when they speak to other people, that’s what they want to talk about. “Their expertise, high level of vocabulary, and formal speech patterns make them seem like little professors,” says www.ninds.nih.gov. According to the website, www.mugsy.org/connor38.htm, “The children with ASD or Asperger Syndrome commonly fail to appreciate how other people may have opinions, attitudes, or knowledge which differ from their own. They are likely to assume, instead, that others share their perspective and will be able immediately to become attuned to what they say and to understand the topic without the need for introduction.” Not only do AS patients have troubles with speaking to people and only focusing on one certain topic, they like to have a routine. “There is a preference for sameness.” And as well, AS children exaggerated reaction to certain touch or sound, or display that makes them tense up. One of the social cues that they don’t understand is teasing. The AS child may do something that he was suppose ably told to do and then they don’t understand why they are being laughed at.
There is unfortunately no cure for this disorder but there is some ‘treatments’ that can be done. Social skills training is of course the best thing that you can do for an AS patient. But that is going to take time! The AS patient is really going to have to step out of their ‘norm’ and start accepting the reality of the world. Parents are the best support system for their kids. Their kids trust them and they will have a better understanding by the explanation from their parents. And even some kids have to take medication for their anger issues and what not. An Asperger syndrome child is a normal human being and they aren’t ‘retarded’. They are very bright, they just don’t understand everything completely.
BREAKING SOCIAL NORMS
Is it okay to break social norms? Breaking a social norm means to go against what society deems as “normal”. Are people who break norms the trendsetters for a new generation, or freaks who just need to conform to the rest of society?
According to Robert B. Cialdiani and Melanie R. Trost of Arizona State University, “a norm is, like other psychological phenomena, a construct that has widespread usage because it helps describe and explain human behavior. Cultural norms have been implicated in the existence of behaviors that seemed to be arbitrary and bizarre from a Western perspective, as well as more beneficent control mechanisms that keep anarchy at bay in most societies.”
Most people break social norms for a laugh. For example, my friends and I grew out our hair during our senior year then cut them into Mullets. The Mullets, which many people found horrible, were our way of sticking out from the crowd. People can break away from everyone else by the way they dress or even the way they act. I have one friend who likes to have random loud conversations during a movie at the theater, just to annoy the people sitting next to us. Usually an older couple will then scowl at us for the rest of the movie, which he finds very funny.
Our awful hairstyles didn’t start any trends, but what about people who wanted to stick out in the past? During the 1920’s, people started moving off the farm and into the cities. Women would cut their hair real short and it became known as the “flapper” look. Before, short hair was considered bad for a lady but soon every girl was doing it. Again in the 1960’s and 70’s there was a big change in style as boys were growing out their hair and everyone was wearing new style of clothing. Even now in music, we listen to songs that we think are in style, while the older generations complain that young people don’t know what good music sounds like.
In the book “Law and Social Norms”, by Eric A. Posner, Posner writes “most people refrain most of the time from antisocial behavior even when the law is absent or has no force. They conform to social norms. The question left unanswered by law and economics is why people conform to social norms. Without an answer to the question one cannot understand the effect of laws on people’s behavior.”
Breaking social norms has become a part of society. It is our way of breaking apart from everyone else whether it be doing something to get a good laugh with your friends or setting a new trend to be different from the generation before. Don’t be afraid to break away and be different, because you just might be changing the way things are for tomorrow.
Video Game Violence
Society tends to have this conception—or misconception rather—that video games encourage violent behavior in children. According an article on CNN, children who play violent video games displayed more aggressive behavior than those who didn’t. As a result, violent video games encourage violent behavior… but I beg to differ.
While I will not deny the influence any media can have, I believe that responsibility lies with the parents. For instance: if a parent does not provide their child with games that contain virtual violence, or not buying any games at all, then by that logic, their child should not be engaged with violent stimuli therefore making them non-violent. Some would argue that children will still play games anyway, regardless of what their parents buy them. Here’s what I have to say to that: If that was the case, a child who has a good home environment, whose parents instill morals and values, and actively engages in their child’s life, then the child should not act violently towards others. Children who grow up in a stable home environment, regardless of present virtual stimuli, lead very healthy and active social lives.
Video games also impose age limiting boundaries, which is to say that the most violent video games are not within easy reach of children. The ESRB (Entertainment Software Rating Board) acts as the authority on what age a person is viable to purchase any video game. The ratings are as follows:
These age limits act as a legal boundary to any vendor of video games, whether that’s Wal-Mart or GameStop. Because of this, they cannot legally sell a video game to any patron that fall under the age-limits.
Furthermore, there are other activities that children can invest themselves in that is equally or far more detrimental than video games. Televeision, first of all, has just as much violent material as video games do, if not more. It provides children with shows of extreme violence and sometimes displays criminal like behavior from which children could learn. Facebook acts as a negative reinforcer, as well, because of the explicit and sometime violent post people put as their statuses. And simple intereaction and socialization can be far more dangerous and violent than a video game. Their peers could make them feel that bullying a fellow student is “cool” or they are subjected to physical harm themselves therefore making them violent.
Ultimately what I’m saying is just because a child actively plays video games, does not make them a sociopath, nor should people brand the Gaming Industry as a poison to the mind of our children. In truth, video games are an entertainment experience of virtually unlimited possibility. It’s there for kids to take it where they want it to go and as they play them, they are rewarded for what they do. As a gamer I am quick to defend this topic and would see this stigma stamped out on behalf of myself, and the Gaming Industry as a whole.
Illegal Drug Trade
by: Sean Jordan
Why are there durg dealer around the global? What is the reason people do this? Mostly for money for they make 321.6 billion in the U.S. and on a global size they make 36 trillion in the same year. The invastagator estimated that its slightly less than 1% of total global commerce.
Drugs persisted for eons as an enjoyable recreational activity, suitable for children of all ages. Even still many drugs continue to be used for the benefit of humanity. Dentists employ the intense euphoric pleasure of 'laughing gas', better known as 'nos' or 'inhaling whipped cream vapor gas' on the street. When this whole problem started did? It has started in the 1980s, when the Republicans, under Ronald Reagan, started to divert attention from soaring oil prices by launching a war on an innocent and beloved segment of our society: drugs. If is sound familiar to you, if you're American, because you're no doubt familiar with our constant wars on intangible things, or at least on things that you can't really kill or shoot or anything. Ever hear of the war on terror? How about the war on intolerance? And who could forget the war on science, which tragically ended with fundamentalist executions of evolutionist teachers all over Mississippi and Arkansas?
So when you become a successful drug dealer or aka salesperson, do not forget your history. Remember that you are righteous, and that you bring happiness to the masses. You bring the one thing that takes away the constant suffering their crappy families and jobs cause. And they will worship you, I promise. I take great satisfaction in my repeat business, and I feel like it’s a sign of my good salesmanship, and it’s indicative of how much I love my clients.
For most people the stereotype of drug dealers is the creepy guy hanging out around the playground at schools. This is entirely wrong however; it is normally high schools and colleges. Drug dealers are people too and normally deserve to be treated as such. But on to a happier topic, drug dealers provide a means for kids to spend their lunch money on healthier items, drugs are much healthier then school food….trust me. I mean some mystery meat sandwich on a uranium seed bun, carcinogens vs. hallucinogens; story of the ages.
If you are searching for a drug dealer near you, always look for a guy with the right name, or a pair of shoes stupidly thrown on the power lines. Believe or not there are some people would mostly think this is not a drug dealer home, it is a place where some stupid drunk kids have bullied another drunk, drugged kid and stolen his shoes and ties them together in many knots and thrown them onto the power line. Also there are other kinds of signs that we would not think of like an old banned house or run down store.
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by: Kristie Lammers and Jennifer Kinderknecht
Birth order determines more about a person than just his or her place in the family. It can affect one’s personality, schooling, career, and more. The first born child is mature. The middle child is often forgotten. The youngest is usually child spoiled and attention seeking. The only child is most like the first born child. While some of these traits are obvious and well-known, many of them are more discrete.
The first child is the one who experiences everything first, many people call them the “guinea pig”. The big moments in life happen to them first such as: prom, graduation, college and many other important mile stones in life. First born children usually have specific traits that are all similar. According to Dr. Kevin Leman some of these traits may be confidence, determination, leadership, and organization just to name a few. These people are confident because of all the attention they received as children mostly before any other siblings came along and from being the first to experience life. These people can be determined because they are depended upon to get things done when they are told. Leadership comes from these people also because they are used to being given responsibilities whether it be chores, or babysitting or leading a team on the court or field, or a company project, these people will be able to tackle most situations they come across. People who are born first in their family tend to be organized also. These people even if they are a little messy tend to have a system that they follow. These people can usually find things that others misplace. First born children are also eager to please others. They are used to feeling the need to please their parents; they get into the habit of trying to please everybody they come in contact with. When a job needs to be done they are the first to volunteer. There are good sides of being the oldest but also bad. Sometimes being the oldest child causes them to grow up at an early age if something happens within their family or with their parents. The good side of being the oldest is that one would get to experience major events in life first and help younger siblings go through the same mile stones.
Being the middle child can sometimes be rough. Some feelings might include those such as missing out on the major experiences in life as if the moment isn’t as special as it was with the oldest child, and feelings of being forgotten just to name a few. The middle child will often feel forgotten when the baby of the family comes along since they have to share the attention with the baby and the oldest as they are both important to the parents for different reasons. Although the middle children may experience these emotions they normally have it easier in life than the oldest or the baby child. With the oldest they have responsibilities and expectations are high and the babies usually get the attention and have high expectations, while the middle child is used to not getting quite as much attention, therefore end up with a more relaxed attitude towards life. Dr. Kevin Leman states that these personality traits are common within middle children; the attitude to just roll with it, being a great negotiator, and having a lot of loyal friends. The middle child usually has that “just roll with it” attitude from handling disappointment better than the other children. Middle children tend to be the negotiator of the family since they are stuck in the middle; they tend to see both sides of the story better because of their placement in the family order. Having a lot of friends tends to come with being a middle child also because they seem to be able to make them easier. When these people find friends they tend to keep them by working hard at the friendship. The middle child is usually pretty good at keeping secrets which tends to come with the territory also.
The youngest child is often attention seeking. This is because a lot of time and energy has already been put into previous children and parents may simply not have the time to pay as much attention to the youngest. To get this attention many youngest children become class clowns or family comedians. A few other traits of youngest children are persistence and affection. Some famous youngest children are Whoppi Goldberg, Eddie Murphy, and Jim Carey. Since parents often don’t have as much time for youngest children, the youngest is often spoiled. They also learn how to be good manipulators to gain what they want and learn how to show off for attention.
Quite different from the youngest child, is the only child. Only children are often more grown up because they spend their time around adults. They are often well-spoken and confident. Only children are often very detail oriented. They also tend be organized and punctual. Most only children are good in school. They tend to enjoy reading and have good memory. While being an only child appears to have many good traits, they also have a few stereotypical cons. Only children often have a hard time sharing and always want to go first, simply because they have always been first for everything in life. Only children are often perfectionists and overly critical of people, including themselves. Some famous only children are Robin Williams and Sarah Michelle Gellar. Only children are typically similar to first born children. However, their traits seem to be stronger than that of the first born. For example a first born child is organizes, while an only child is hyper-organized.
As you can see, one’s life can be shaped by what position he or she has in the family. This position may affect personality and job position. Although people can prove these stereotypes wrong, most often research shows that these traits are actually common within the population.
Life After College
By: Megan Dougherty
Could you possibly imagine moving back not only to your home town but back to your old bedroom following your college graduation? Due to the high unemployment rates in America and a few other contributing factors, many college graduates have been forced to do just that. Many cannot find employment after graduation and are then having to move back in with Mom and Dad. Not only does this affect the graduate, but also the parents who had grown accustomed to an empty nest.
Due to the current economic state of America, there are many factors affecting the rate at which graduates are moving back home. The rate is at an all time high with 85% of college graduates returning home. One of the first factors causing this increase is that the cost of living independently is rising which in turn means that the competition for job positions is more competitive. Another reason found is that students born in the 1980s and 1990s are said to be emotionally closer to their parents and feel there is no problem associated with moving back home. After all, considering no rent and free meals, many are asking themselves, “Is independence really worth it?” The final reason is that students fresh out of college oftentimes turn down entry level job offers because they fail to meet their standards and employment criteria. Graduates think they deserve better after having just graduated with four years of higher education and a degree.
This is a negative thing in most situations because almost all graduates leave college with not only a degree, but also with debt or student loans on which they need to begin making payments. This is difficult if one is not employed. While many are not immediately able to find a job in their degree area, they can often find part time, minimum wage work at restaurants or retail stores until a job opens. On the other hand, there are also those students who just return home and do not feel the need to work at all while searching for the perfect position. Also, some may stay for only a short time while others prolong their stay. The question is how is this affecting the parents of the graduates?
Although some parents may enjoy spending extra time with their children getting to know them as adults, others may find this a hard adjustment. When children leave home for college, especially the last child, many parents downsize their home, travel the world, or even relocate due to the extra money of no longer having to support a family. If the child moves back home, a family will most likely support them and begin to feel the added financial burden. Some parents might look at this as a time to help educate their child on how to better function independently and responsibly in the real world. In my opinion, parents can make it easy or hard on themselves by either setting guidelines or letting their children slide back into their comfortable, adolescent ways.
Finally, there are many reasons why college graduates move back home, especially with the state of the current economy. The rate has been gradually increasing over the years and reached its highest point in 2011. Although some parents may not be completely thrilled with the idea and find it necessary to put their own plans on hold, it seems most are more than willing to welcome their children back home—-temporarily.
Maressa Nimmo,Jacy Moss,Rachelle Scott
What is divorce? Divorce is typically a painful process for all concerned. It may take time for adults to re gain psychological equilibrium, whether or not children ever recover a stable perspective continues to be debated. In the US divorce rates have been rising since the beginning of the 20th century. The technical definition of divorce is the action or an instance of legally dissolving a marriage. About half the marriages in the United States end in divorce. Couples divorce for many reasons. Usually divorce happens when couples feel they can no longer live together due to excessive fighting, or because the love they had when they married has changed. Divorce can also be because one spouse falls in love with someone else, and sometimes it is due serious problems like abuse, or drinking. Sometimes nothing bad happens, but parents just decide to live apart. It might sound simple but it is not easy for a husband and wife to decide to end their marriage. They often spend a long amount of time trying to solve problems, but sometimes they just can’t fix the problems.
Divorce laws can vary considerably around the world but in most countries the sanction of a court or other authority is required. The legal process for divorce may also involve issues of alimony, child custody, child support, distribution of property and division of debt.
There are many types of divorce, such as:
Absolute divorce is the legal end of a marriage and it ends all legal bonds between two people in regards to being a couple.
A limited divorce is almost similar to separation. Courts generally use limited divorces for people who wish to end their marriage but do not have grounds for an absolute divorce, or couples that need to arrange their finances but cannot settle their grievances on their own. In limited divorce spouses must live seperate and cannot have sexual relations between themselves or with others. Limited divorces also give partners time to settle alimony, child support, child custody, health insurance, and division of property questions before their separation is finalized.
An uncontested divorce is when both parties in an ending relationship reach a mutual decision about the disposition of property, finances, children, and other often contentious issues. Uncontested divorces may seem to be the simple way to get what couples want, they often cause people to waive rights they did not know they had, such as support from pensions, real estate, or other sources of income. Legal advice is critical during even these apparently simple proceedings.
No Fault Divorce
A no-fault divorce is a legal procedure in which neither partner seeks to place blame on the other, and that irreconcilable differences prevent the couple from continuing as married spouses. No-fault divorces spare couples who wish to amicably split up to avoid protracted and difficult custody and property separation battles.
What about the children?
Parents that are getting a divorce are usually very concerned about how it will affect their children. Will their decision affect the happiness and overall health of their child? Divorce increases the risk of children having to suffer from psychological and behavioral problems. The first two years after a divorce are the most important for the children. Children that are going through a divorce and the process after the divorce are painful. They feel emotional conflict. Even if they do not express their feelings, it is important to understand that they are struggling with the divorce. It often depends on how a parent explains divorce to their children as to how they will judge divorce. If it is in a negative way the children are going to feel like they are in the middle of the situation. It is best for the parents to explain why they are separating in a neutral way. The impact of divorce on children is huge. Parents are fighting each other and trying to get the most out of the divorce. They should think about what is best for the children. Not make it a tug-of- war until the child breaks.
In the first few years of a child’s life, their brains are still developing. Children are learning to form relationships and trust the people that take care of them. It is obvious that if the parent’s divorce during the first few years of a child’s life they are not going to remember it. But they might notice the way they act and if they are acting differently. Older infants will notice that one parent is no longer living in the home. They may cry for that parent. Infants may show their feelings through some changes in the way that they act. They may become more irritable or fussy or cry more often. It may be hard for the parents to give the child what she needs because they are too upset at the time.
Toddlers might be able to comprehend some of the words that people use when they talk about divorce. But it is difficult for toddlers to really understand and get the term divorce. Preparing children for divorce when they are so young is very difficult, because they won’t understand things for the future. They do not understand what is happening at the moment. They know that one parent is not living at home. Toddlers might show they are unhappy or upset about these changes by crying often or becoming cranky and fussy. Or they can become aggressive with one of the parents. They may also have trouble sleeping because they do not feel as safe. Children do not feel guilt until around 3 ½ or 4 years, so toddlers probably will not blame themselves for their parents’ separation. During a divorce everyone may be a bit confused. The toddler might notice this confusion. He might also notice that his parents pay less attention, or that schedules have been changed. They might also try to cling or cry when parents drop them off at school or daycare. Children who were comfortable and easy-going with you may now become cranky, anxious, and quiet. On the other hand, some children may also start staying close to adults rather than playing out in the yard with other kids. Their moods may change, swinging between fear and anger, or they may become shy and timid. These are signs that the child is feeling upset or confused.
Early Elementary children
Children from the age 4 to 10 will know that one parent no longer lives at home. Elementary school children begin to understand that divorce means that their parents will no longer be married and live together. They may understand that their parents no longer love each other like they use to. Children in this age group may blame themselves for the divorce or feel guilty. A child could think that the reason their parents are separating is because of them, maybe they misbehaved. Which could cause them to think it was their fault. Children of this age have a better understanding than younger children of how their lives will be different because of the parents’ divorce. They may worry about the changes in their daily lives. They may be sad because of the absence of one parent. Sometimes they may be angry with the parent who left. At other times, they may be angry with the parent who stayed. Preschoolers may be aggressive and angry toward one or both parents. Preschoolers and early elementary children also like to pretend. They might make up stories about how mom and dad are going to get back together. They might also be in complete denial, and not even think that the divorce is really happening. Some children understand but they do not want to believe it, so some hate the word divorce and cringe when it is said.
Not everything about is divorce is negative! There are some positives that can come out of a divorce. If two people truly don’t love each other anymore and fight all the time that is never good for children to see or hear. When children hear fighting and yelling all the time they don’t learn a good strong relationship. Sometimes they may even build a wall around them and seem very aloof because they are scared to get hurt or get in a situation that their parents were in. It is just best for the couple to go their separate ways and be civil with each other, than living an unhappy life together. Many couples realize that love and marriage wasn’t the right decision and decide to go on with life their separate ways. Counseling should be used first to help work out their problems and many couples realize that they were just going though a rough time but, no one can truly make anyone stay in love! They should never be judged or put down for their decision no one knows how their life was together.
The Effect of Divorce on Children
By Andrés Gimeno and Duncan Izaaks
When it comes to the family, and its sociological aspects, cohesion can be one of the biggest keys. However, the cohesion of a family can at times be interrupted by a traumatic event which results in divorce. When families go through a divorce it can have an effect on the parents occasionally, but on a whole the process and completion of divorce can have a very large effect on the children. When looking at the effect divorce can have on children the effect varies a lot due to the age of the children when the divorce occurs.
Very little is known about the effect a divorce can have on infants as they cannot yet understand the conflict itself, however some research has shown that when parents who have infant children when they go through a divorce see that the babies tend to have an upset stomach more often and may spit up more. This is believed to be a result of an effect that the changes in mood and energy level of the parents may go through in a divorce.
When looking at the effect that a divorce can have on preschool aged children, the children often believe that they are the cause of their parents’ divorce. Many children at this age believe that it was something they did. For instance they have a tendency to believe that if they had acted better or if they had done what they were told more often one of their parents would not have gone away. Behavior tailored towards the way a baby would act has been seen as well, when many children this age have a divorce occur between their parents, many want their old toys or a blanket feeling security in its feel. Also there have been many cases where children begin wetting the bed. In still other cases many children attempt to deny that anything has even happened or become uncooperative, depressed or even angry, this can be a cause of how many children seem very disobedient towards their parents as they age.
Continuing, if a divorce in a family occurs while the child or children are in their school years the reactions and effects are somewhat similar to those in their preschool age when divorce occurs. Many children this age have the understanding of pain in reaction to the divorce, however like children in their preschool age they do not know how to react to the pain that they are feeling. The ability to play and react with other children has been shown to help them cope with their parents’ divorce. However they may still experience grief, embarrassment, resentment towards their parents, divided loyalty between parents, and in some cases intense rage and anger towards their parents. Some children of this age may lean on the hope that their parents will get back together, or may feel rejected by the parent who left.
In the last stage of childhood being adolescence, the child may too like in the school aged children may experience anger and depression, while also unlike the earlier staged children may feel loneliness, fear, and guilt. Some may feel as if they have been forced to step into adulthood, as they have to take over some of the responsibilities of the parent that has left. Also many kids this age may respond to the low energy levels and high stress levels of the parent left at home by assuming control of the family to relieve the stress of the parent. Others still may feel lost and feel a lack of support as they find emerging sexual feelings that they do not yet know how to handle. Some teens may also find doubt in their own ability to find a marriage or have a marriage that lasts. Lastly children at this age may understand the reasons behind the divorce, and due to this fact these children may feel a need to choose one parent over the other, or fault one parent as the reason for the divorce.
Now, research has also shown that differences in gender can also have an effect on kids that experience a divorce in their family. The research indicates that children who are raised by a parent of the same sex tend to be better off than those that are raised by a parent of the opposite sex when a divorce occurs. It has shown that boys who live with their fathers tend to be much less aggressive and grow up with far fewer emotional issues than those who lack contact with their fathers. And when it comes to girls, they tend to be far more responsible adults when raised by their mothers than by their fathers. However more of this is based on the relationship with the parent rather than the gender of the child.
All in all there are many reasons for a divorce to occur in a family. However when looking at the effects a divorce may have on their children, parents may want to reconsider and attempt better to work things out, as the repercussions of their actions in choosing to divorce can have a large and lasting impact on their children.