Intro to Sociology TR 12:30

Monquez Townsend


Lumberton, North Carolina V.S Colby, Kansas

Lumberton, NC is different to live in than Colby, KS. First Lumberton’s calefaction and panorama varies from Colby. Lumberton is closer to the ocean so when it is hurricane season it gets bad. Lumberton lowest temperature gets to 27 degrees also it only snows in January. Lumberton has so many tree to hunt for deer, but Colby barely has any; I thought I was lost when I arrived here. Colby have tornados, in fact, the temperature get very low as the wind blow hard. Next, Lumberton and Colby people are unrelated. We talk with a more southern country slang, but Colby do more country things. For example, farming, riding horses, and everyone has a pick-up truck. Lumberton people do not greet each other or speak; however, Colby has a lot of polite people. They smile, say hey how you doing, and hold doors. Finally, Lumberton is a bigger city with more to do than Colby. Lumberton defiantly has more restaurants and gas stations. Lumberton has a mall and many places to have fun with your friends. Colby does not have a mall; let alone a bowling alley and a movie theater which only shows one clip at a time.

Emile Durkheim

By Mallorie KD Salmans


Emile Durkheim was born April 15, 1858 in eastern France. Durkheim was born into a strict line of French Jews, but at an early age he decided to go a different route and turned away from all religious involvement and became an agnostic.

While attending college, Durkheim majored in philosophy because the French school systems did not offer a social science curriculum. After graduation, Durkheim spent a year in Germany studying sociology and returned to where France started their first teacher’s training center in Bordeaux. Emile taught social science which was a first in France and was later credited for reforming the French school system by introducing social science to their curriculum.

Throughout Durkheim’s career he published many books including The Division of Labour in Society, Suicide, and The Elementary Forms of Religious Life.

In 1893 Emile wrote his dissertation known as The Division of Labor in Society. Division of labor is usually referred to how various tasks are divided up and performed in a society. In this book Durkheim describes how societies maintain social order based on two forms of solidarity—mechanical and organic. Mechanical solidarity is the social cohesion of preindustrial societies, in which there is a minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds. Durkheim believed that people in preindustrial societies have more of a sense of belonging and there are more primary group relationships. Organic solidarity is the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence. This means individuals in industrial societies are more status oriented as well as more focused on goals and contain less personal relationships.

Suicide (1897) is known as one of the groundbreaking books in the sociology field. Durkheim’s Suicide was a case study of suicide rates. Durkheim established that suicide rates were higher in men than women, single people have higher rates than those who are married, and rates for people without children were also higher than those that have children. Durkheim also distinguished four subtypes of suicide:

• Egoistic suicide-occurs among people who have a sense of not belonging in a social group
• Altruistic suicide-occurs among individuals characterized by a sense of being overwhelmed by a group’s beliefs and goals
• Anomic suicide-results from a lack of social directions and moral confusion
• Fatalistic suicide-results when a person is excessively regulated; opposite of anomic

“Each victim of suicide gives his act a personal stamp which expresses his temperament, the special conditions in which he is involved, and which, consequently, cannot be explained by the social and general causes of the phenomenon”—Emile Durkheim

The Elementary Forms of Religious Life written in 1912 with co-author Marcel Mauss examines the role that religion and mythology have in shaping the worldview and personality of people in ‘mechanical’ societies. Durkheim believed that religion was one of the most fundamental social institutions of humankind.

Emile Durkheim is one of the most important sociologists in history and is commonly known as “The Father of Sociology”. Durkheim passed away at the young age of 59 on November 15, 1917 in Paris.

Dec 1
Dec 1
Dec 1 Sociology in our times: The Essentials by Diana Kendal

Karl Marx
By: Christina Burns


Karl Marx was born on the river Moselle in Germany on May 5, 1818. He came from a long line of priests on both sides of his family. At the age of seventeen, Marx enrolled in the Faculty of Law at the University of Bonn. At the University he became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen. Jenny’s father got Marx interested in Romantic literature and Saint-Simonian politics. The following year Marx's father sent him to the University of Berlin where he continued four years, at which time he abandoned his romanticism for the Hegelianism which ruled in Berlin at the time. Marx became a member of the Young Hegelian movement. This group produced a thorough evaluation of Christianity and the liberal opposition to the Prussian autocracy.During his first few months in Paris, Marx became a communist and write down his views in a series of writings. They were called the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts (1844) Marx outlined a humanist conception of communism and was influenced mainly by the philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach. In Paris, Marx also developed his lifelong partnership with Friedrich Engels (1820-1895). Marx was expelled from Paris at the end of 1844. Marx traced the history of the various modes of production and predicted the collapse of industrial capitalism and it being replaced by communism. At the same time Marx was also composing The German Ideology. Also writing The Poverty of Philosophy against the idealistic socialism of P. J. Proudhon. Around that time Marx joined the Communist League. At a conference of the League in London at the end of 1847 Marx and Engels were commissioned to write a brief declaration of their position. Right after The Communist Manifesto was published, the 1848 wave of revolutions broke out in Europe.
Karl Marx and his family lived in poverty in a three room flat in the Soho quarter of London. They had 6 children but only three survived. During the last ten years of his life, Marx's health declined rapidly. He did manage to comment significantly on contemporary politics in Germany and Russia. Although Marx health did not improve, he traveled to European spas and to Algeria in search of improvement. The deaths of his oldest daughter and his wife clouded the last years of his life. Marx died March 14, 1883 and was buried at High gate Cemetery in North London. His collaborator and close friend Friedrich Engels delivered the following eulogy three days later:
Karl Marx Accomplishments:

• founder of modern international communism featured in the Soviet Union
• He reorganized the Communist League with Engels.
• He finalized the Communist manifesto which attacked the state as the instrument of cruelty and religion and culture as beliefs of the bourgeoisie.
• He wrote Das Kapital in London, although the second and third volumes of this were compiled by Engels from Marx's drafts and only published after his death
• Completed the “Communist Manifesto” which was a mixture of others people’s beliefs combined into one. Marx never denied that he used other people’s ideas but added them all together
o The “Communist Manifesto” stated that all men were born free but that society had got to such a state that the majority were in chains. Engels referred to the book as being the “very way of life"
Marxism: included ten points
1) The abolition of the property/ownership of land.
2) Income tax to be graded to income – the more an individual earned, the more they paid. The less you earned, the less you paid.
3) Abolition of all rights of inheritance.
4) The seizure of all property of immigrants and rebels.
5) The centralization of all credit into the hands of the state by means of a national bank with state capital and an exclusive economy
6) Centralization of all means of communication and transport into the hands of the state.
7) The extension of factories and the instrument of production owned by the state. Bringing into cultivation all land not being used that could be and an improvement in the fertility of the soil.
8) The equal obligation of all to work and the establishment of industrial and agricultural armies.
9) The combination of agriculture and manufacturing industries with the gradual abolition of the distinction between town and country by the more equable distribution of the population over the country.
10) Free education for all children in public schools. The abolition of child labor in factories; an educated child would be better for society in the long term, than a child not educated.


Emile Durkheim

By Cody Haas and Jacob Fortin

David Emile Durkheim was born on April 15, 1858 in Epinal. His mother, Melanie, was a merchant's daughter, and his father, Moise, had been the rabbi of Epinal since the 1830s, and Chief Rabbi of the Vosges and Haute-Marne. Emile’s grandfather and great-grandfather were also rabbis. Emile spent part of his early education in a rabbinical school. This early ambition was dismissed while he was still a young boy, and soon after his arrival in Paris, Durkheim would break with Judaism altogether. But he still suffered the anti-Semitism of the French citizenry. Later, Durkheim would argue that the hostility of Christianity toward Judaism had created an unusual sense of solidarity among the Jews.

Durkheim was an outstanding student at the College of Epinal. He skipped two years and easily earned his baccalaureate in Letters in 1874 and Sciences in 1875. With his intent on becoming a teacher, Durkheim left Epinal for Paris to prepare for admission to the prestigious Ecole Normale Superieure. He began to become miserable while enrolled as an allowance based non-resident student. While in Paris his father became ill and left him anxious over his family's financial security. Emile felt alone in Paris and his intelligence was “ill-fitted” to the study of Latin and public speaking essential for admission to the Ecole. Durkheim was at last admitted near the end of 1879 after failing in his first two attempts at the entrance exam 1877 and 1878.

In Durkheim's generation at the Ecole he met the socialist Jean Jaures, who became his life-long friend, and also the philosophers Henri Bergson, Bustave Belot, Edmond Goblot, Felix Rauh, and Maurice Blondel, the psychologist Pierre Janet, the linguist Ferdinand Brunot, the historians Henri Berr and Camille Jullian, and the geographer Lucien Gallois. Despite constant fears of failure, which he constantly dealt with throughout his life, Durkheim became an active participant in the high-minded political and philosophical debates that characterized the Ecole. Durkheim's concerns were less political than academic. He criticized the literary rather than scientific emphasis of the Ecole, and later discovered three scholars; the philosophers Charles Renouvier and Emile Boutroux, and the historian Numas-Denis Fustel de Coulanges.

Durkheim's articles on Germany philosophy and social science caught the attention of Louis Liard, then Director of Higher Education in France. Liard resented the German pre-eminence in social science and was intrigued by Durkheim's suggestions for the reconstruction of a secular, scientific French morality. Durkheim was appointed in 1887 as "Chargéd'un Cours de Science Sociale et de Pédagogie" at Bordeaux.

Durkheim emphasized the value of sociology to the more traditional humanist disciplines of philosophy, history and law. He had fears of "sociological imperialism" and that his “particular explanations of legal and moral institutions through reference to purely social causes undermined free will and individual moral agency.” These fears hindered Durkheim. Nonetheless, he gained the support and even loyalty of at least some of his Bordeaux colleagues. Throughout his Bordeaux period, Durkheim’s primary responsibility was to lecture on the theory, history, and practice of education. On Saturday mornings, he also taught a public lecture course on social science, devoted to specialized studies of particular social phenomena, including social solidarity, family and kinship, incest, suicide, crime, religion, socialism, and law.

In 1898, Durkheim founded the Année sociologique, which was the first social science journal in France. Durkheim's intellectual talent up to 1900 contradicted one of his central arguments that work, including intellectual work, should become more specialized, though remaining part of an organic whole. In 1896, therefore, putting aside his work on the history of socialism, Durkheim devoted himself to establishing a large program of journalistic collaboration based upon a complex division of intellectual labor. Supported by a group made up of intelligent young scholars, the Année was to provide an annual survey of the strictly sociological literature, to provide additional information on studies in other specialized fields, and to publish original monographs in sociology.

After seeking letters from Boutroux, Buisson, and Victor Brochard, the Council of the Faculty of Letters at the Sorbonne appointed Durkheim chargéd'un course by a large majority. Four years later Durkheim was made professor by a unanimous vote and assumed Buisson's chair, which was to be renamed "Science of Education and Sociology" in 1913.

Durkheim arrived in Paris and his "science of morality" offended philosophers, his "science of religion" offended Catholics, and his appointment to the Sorbonne offended those on the political Right. The appointment also gave Durkheim enormous power. His lecture courses were the only required courses at the Sorbonne, that were obligated for all students seeking degrees in philosophy, history, literature, and languages. As an administrator, he sat on the Council of the University as well as on many other councils and committees throughout the University and the Ministry of Public Instruction. Durkheim's enemies complained of his power, accusing him of "managing" appointments and creating chairs of sociology in provincial universities in order to extend his influence. Durkheim was frequently described as a "secular pope."

Durkheim's response to the war going on between Germany, Belgium, France and Russians vs. Prussia consisted of optimism and enthusiasm. Durkheim wrote patriotic pamphlets, and sent to his fellow-countrymen in the effort to maintain the national pride. For the most part, Durkheim was unaffected by the war hysteria, and though always a patriot, he was never a nationalist. However, bad news was on the way for Durkheim. He was entirely devoted to his son Andre, a linguist who had gained his aggregation just before the War, and was among the most brilliant of the younger Année circle. Andre was sent to the Bulgarian front late in 1915, and was declared missing in January. In April, 1916, he was confirmed dead.

Durkheim was devastated by his son's death. He buried himself in the war effort, and while speaking at one of his committee meetings, collapsed from a stroke. After resting for several months, relieved by America's entry into the war, he recovered and again tried to take up his work on La Morale, but on November 15, 1917, Durkheim died at the age of 59.

Emile Durkheim: An Introduction to Four Major Works. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc, 1986.

Nolan Carter

Jean Baudrillard


Over the history of the world there have been countless amounts of people on earth, and all of them different in every aspect imaginable. But every now and again you get someone that sticks out in the society. This man isn’t famous for playing sports, or being a movie star, but he is more famous for being one of the most brilliant sociologists of his time. Who is this man? It can only be Jean Baudrillard.
Jean Baudrillard was born on July 29, 1929 in Reims, France. Unfortunately he died on March 6, 2007 in Paris. Jean “was one of the foremost intellectual figures of the present age whose work combines philosophy, social theory, and an idiosyncratic cultural metaphysics that reflects on key events of phenomena of the epoch.” (Kellner) Jean got his education at the University of Paris X at Nanterre. He then moved on to study German at the Sorbonne. He taught literary in secondary school from 1956 all the way until 1966. Over those years he had translated books and philosophical papers, and put them into the literary reviews of the Les Temps Modernes. He got his dissertation in sociology from the University of Paris in 1968. From 1966-1968 Jean taught at Nanterre in the sociology department. Jean moved from Paris X to Paris IX which is now the University of Paris at Dauphine.
Jean has many accomplishments in his life but the ones that he is most famous for being a sociologist, cultural critic, and a theorist of postmodernity. Some of the ideas that he has created is the theory of “ 'hyperreality' and 'simulation'. These terms refer to the virtual or unreal nature of contemporary culture in an age of mass communication and mass consumption. We live in a world dominated by simulated experiences and feelings, Jean Baudrillard believes, and have lost the capacity to comprehend reality as it actually exists. We experience only prepared realities – edited war footage, meaningless acts of terrorism, the destruction of cultural values and the substitution of 'referendum.'” ( Simulation means "the action or practice of simulating, with an intent to deceive," then also "a false assumption or display, a surface resemblance or imitation, of something," and finally as "the technique of imitating the behavior of some situation or process…by means of a suitably analogous situation or apparatus" ( The best way to describe hyperreality is that the world that we live in is just a copy of the real world. And that the technology that has been created stimulates us into thinking that we are in the real world. If this sounds familiar this idea of hypereality has been transferred into the movie The Matrix.

In conclusion there have been many people in this world. But no one has ever been like jean Baudrillard. Jean had brought some of the most interesting things to the plate. Jean accomplished a lot in his life from teaching in a German secondary school to teaching at the University of Paris He has stretched the minds of people, by the theory of hyperreality and that the technology that we have created has us stimulated to think that we are living in a copy of the real world.

Kellner, Douglas, "Jean Baudrillard", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =

"Jean Baudrillard - Professor of Philosophy - Biography." The European Graduate School - Media and Communication - Graduate & Postgraduate Studies Program. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <>.

"Jean Baudrillard." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <>.


Mandi Cottrell
Intro to Sociology

We live in a world where everyone forms their own opinion. It's completely natural for someone to form an opinion about someone at first glance. Whether it were true or not. It's rather easy sometimes to classify the type of person they are in just a simple first impression. Although sometimes, its not always right.

There are so many different types of types. It ranges from ethnicity to background, rural to suburban, nice to rude, athletic to nerds, rich to poor. The list can go on and on and on. Although we don't realize how much some of those assumptions can hurt others. While it can also boost their self confidence, it can also certainly drag it way down. They may not be proud of what they are "classified" as. For all we know they could be striving to change that outlook on themselves. People are just way too quick to judge and also kind of stubborn to get to change their view. It all winds back to one of the earlier rules we learned in life. "Don't judge a book by its cover."

Another typical stereotype is between men and women. Many people believe men are bigger and stronger than women. Which is usually true. However many also believe women cannot do a man's job. Which isn't always true. Washing dishes, doing laundry, taking care of the kids, cooking, those are all jobs that bring women to mind. However there are a number of men who accomplish those tasks on the daily. Men are thought to be the ones to bring home the larger income. This is not true in all households. Women are criticized when attempting to play a men's sport or try to become a part of any of the system. This is one of the largest stereotypes known. As well as the major stereotype of races. There are many assumptions when it comes to different races.

People don't always take into consideration another basic social rule, "Treat others the way you want to be treated." It can certainly hurt others mentally. They sit in their room wishing they could be someone else. Because even if they try to fit into a different stereotype, they know others will look down on them questioning why they even considered trying to be like that. They would be known as the "wannabe". No one takes into perspective the fact that they cant change the major factors that stop them from being what they want to be. Things such as family, financial states, and location. Society just does not like to accept the fact not everyone is happy with who they are. They're supposed to love who they are whether they're in a good or bad state.

In society certain stereotypes are more applicable to get away with certain crimes or acts that others would not. Examples being celebrities or pro athletes. Anything that they would happen to commit would be considered not as big of a deal and acceptable. Which they serve as many role models. Now this may not be true. Which is a stereotype. What society believes is not always what it seems.

Society does not accept change without hesitation. Usually society is not as willing to change. Therefore its almost impossible to not stereotype. I feel as if we could get close if we could be more understanding of others. But that's a very large goal to try and accomplish. Its just how the world works. Just remember to put yourself in the others place before hand.


We live in a world where the word judge free zone never actually applies, every single one of us are guilty of it at times for example a person to shoot down a drug addict in public, but behind closed doors their son is a drug addict.The first impressions can have a long lasting effect on what we think about a person until we really get to know them better. before you judge someone ask yourself if you know this person inside and out and if you know what made them the person that they are today. People judge because of judging people comes from the simple need to discriminate to find distinction between those who might be friendly or somehow like yourself. nearly everything you do in life is based on some choice, some judgement. Stereotyping is a form of pre judgement that is prevalent in society today, Stereotypes are feelings concerning the characteristics of specific crowds or associates of those organizations. We are growing up in a society where the general public is only informed by the media with celebrities and such and some vulgar rap music, which sets the main look and behavior for everyone. If you don't have the certain "look" or you're not acting a certain way, then you're automatically stereotyped.

Location can be a factor of stereotype a huge stereotype i can relate to is one of being a student ahtlete the biggest is that student athletes are dumb jocks they dont care about anyone but theirselves we are supposedly a bully to those who dont seem cool. I was told in highschool that i act differently towards others and i judge others but I was in a class with all special ed kids due to my disabilitties i had so the way people categorized me was completely false and was just put in that category due to the fact that i play sports. Men and women are sterotyped due to the contrevesey that women cannot play men sports such as girls cannot play football and they dont play basketball.

One of the most common stereotypes are "wealthy" and the "poor" the rich look down at the poor or the rich are not happy. They think poor people are stupid and uneducated just cause they don't have money. But I think a poor person will work harder and appreciate what they have more than a rich person. My family isn't rich, but we aren't stupid and uneducated all of my parents kids are going to graduate college and that is a huge accomplishment.Unfortunately the rich do turn their noses up. Luckily my parents raised me right. They are a true rags to riches story, and they made sure I worked for the stuff I got. Only education and upbringing can change these stereotypes

Do Americans stereotype blacks based on the color of their skin, or the content of their character? its the content of their character, but its not all blacks in america. Its as you said, the ghetto trash. I'm sure black americans that are not from the ghetto will view ghetto blacks as trash too. Its the same as whites viewing white trash badly. So, yes, its mostly because the ghettos and hoods give blacks a bad name. Look at all the gang related bullcrap in places like chicago. It scars their name, but Skin color is also a big factor. You don't know their character, you see the color and assume they're any number of terrible things.

As long as there are different races and cultures, stereotypes will never go away. This is because humans fear what they do not understand and thus, must categorise behaviour in order to better understand the world around them. Society wont accept the change without hesitation.

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