- Famous Sociologists
- Social Groups
- Social Structure and Interaction
- Crime and Deviance
- Families and Relationships
- Sex and Gender
By: Kayla McCain
Karl Heinrich Marx was born into a comfortable middle-class home in Trier on the river Moselle in Germany on May 5, 1818. He came from a long line of rabbis on both sides of his family and his father, a man who knew Voltaire and Lessing by heart, had agreed to baptism as a Protestant so that he would not lose his job as one of the most respected lawyers in Trier. At the age of seventeen, Marx enrolled in the Faculty of Law at the University of Bonn. At Bonn he became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, the daughter of Baron von Westphalen , a prominent member of Trier society, and man responsible for interesting Marx in Romantic literature and Saint-Simonian politics. The following year Marx's father sent him to the more serious University of Berlin where he remained four years, at which time he abandoned his romanticism for the Hegelianism which ruled in Berlin at the time.
Marx became a member of the Young Hegelian movement. Finding a university career closed by the Prussian government, Marx moved into journalism and, in October 1842, became editor, in Cologne, of the influential Rheinische Zeitung, a liberal newspaper backed by industrialists. Marx's articles, particularly those on economic questions, forced the Prussian government to close the paper. Marx then emigrated to France.
Arriving in Paris at the end of 1843, Marx rapidly made contact with organized groups of émigr?German workers and with various sects of French socialists. He also edited the short-lived Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher which was intended to bridge French socialism and the German radical Hegelians. During his first few months in Paris, Marx became a communist and set down his views in a series of writings known as the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts (1844), which remained unpublished until the 1930s. In the Manuscripts, Marx outlined a humanist conception of communism, influenced by the philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach and based on a contrast between the alienated nature of labor under capitalism and a communist society in which human beings freely developed their nature in cooperative production.
Marx was expelled from Paris at the end of 1844 and with Engels, moved to Brussels where he remained for the next three years, visiting England where Engels' family had cotton spinning interests in Manchester. While in Brussels Marx devoted himself to an intensive study of history and elaborated what came to be known as the materialist conception of history. This he developed in a manuscript (published posthumously as The German Ideology), of which the basic thesis was that "the nature of individuals depends on the material conditions determining their production." Marx traced the history of the various modes of production and predicted the collapse of the present one — industrial capitalism — and its replacement by communism.
At the same time Marx was composing The German Ideology, he also wrote a polemic (The Poverty of Philosophy) against the idealistic socialism of P. J. Proudhon (1809-1865). He also joined the Communist League. This was an organization of German émigr?workers with its center in London of which Marx and Engels became the major theoreticians. At a conference of the League in London at the end of 1847 Marx and Engels were commissioned to write a succinct declaration of their position. Scarcely was The Communist Manifesto published than the 1848 wave of revolutions broke out in Europe.
During the first half of the 1850s the Marx family lived in poverty in a three room flat in the Soho quarter of London. Marx and Jenny already had four children and two more were to follow. Of these only three survived. Marx's major source of income at this time was Engels who was trying a steadily increasing income from the family business in Manchester. This was supplemented by weekly articles written as a foreign correspondent for the New York Daily Tribune.
Marx's health did not improve. He traveled to European spas and even to Algeria in search of recuperation. The deaths of his eldest daughter and his wife clouded the last years of his life. Marx died March 14, 1883 and was buried at Highgate Cemetery in North London.
Farming has been around for many generations. My parents, grandparents, and even great-grandparents have farmed and still are farming to this day. From dairy cattle, to pig farms, then eventually a mixture of horses, sheep and cattle. Both of my parents, older brother, and I have lived on farms our whole lives and have worked on our family farms since before we were teenagers. Farming is not just about raising animals. It is also about crops. Plowing, no-till, plating, harvesting, irrigation, ect. What 98% of our population is not understanding is that the other 2% are helping to feed the rest of the world. Granted, there are processing plants, but they do not actually have to work to make their food grow. They add a couple ingredients and their so called “food” is made and shipped to stores all over the world.
Who makes up the Child Labor Laws? People who sit behind a desk all day and make up laws after hearing about children getting hurt while on a farm. Pretty sure more people are injured while living in the city then on a farm. However, those who live on a farm are actually at a higher risk for getting hurt. The advocates trying to get certain laws passed wrote, "we hope this terrible event and the hundreds of other incidents that injure and kill young workers every year will compel you to release this draft proposal immediately” to Cass Sunstein. (WASHINGTON). Most of us know that living on a farm comes with knowing that accidents are bound to happen at some point.
Passing the Employment of Minors Child Labor Law is saying that “Minors under 14 years of age may not be employed or permitted to work in any occupation, except children employed on farms or in domestic service in private homes. No minor under 14 years of age may be employed on a farm by a person other than the farmer. (Pennsylvania Department of Labor & Industry) There are also laws stating that childred who work on farms are only allowed to work till 7pm and only 3 hours a day on school days including Fridays. The new regulations also raise fines to a maximum of $11,000 per violation, and $50,000 for any violation resulting in serious injury or death, which in certain circumstances can be doubled. Willful violators may also be subject to criminal penalties: a $10,000 fine for the second violation and the same fine plus six months in prison for any subsequent violations. I am still trying to understand how the government is going to keep track to see how many farmers are allowing their minor children still work after this law is passed.
The new law does state that those family’s that are involved in 4-H and FFA are excluded from this law. It is a huge help to exclude these two groups from the law, but it still is not fair for those children to have to suffer what city folks think is “safe” for children now a days. I would not give up living on a farm for anything. Not even a law that states otherwise.
Tara Kelly and Kris Rolle
Everything in our lives starts with culture, which is best defined as socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions and all other products of human work and thought. The language we speak, the symbols we worship, and the values we grow up with are all components of culture. Different countries have different cultures as do different religions and even just different people.
There are two major parts of culture, which are material culture and nonmaterial culture. Material culture is physical or tangible creations that members of society make, use and share—mainly raw materials and resources that are eventually made into things used in different cultures like computers and books. The food we eat is even considered a material part of culture. How we eat it, however, is considered to be nonmaterial. Nonmaterial culture is abstract or intangible human creations of society that influence people’s behavior, such as languages and hand signals. Material and nonmaterial parts of culture are both very important, because without them we would not be able to express ourselves or further our educations or even have the clothes we are wearing today. Culture is the reason why we aren’t all matching our clothes and personalities now.
Most cultures do not stay the same throughout all of existence. There is a good chance that your culture and many other cultures you may know have changed since they began. There are three factors that can cause change. These are 1) forces at work with society, 2) contact between societies, and 3) changes in the natural environment. Some changes within a society have to do with invention and culture loss. Inventions can be like energy sources to preserve energy and calculus to help invent more things that will help your culture thrive. Culture loss is merely old traditions being replaced with new ones. An example of culture loss is that not many Americans know how to properly prepare wild game to be edible after it had just been hunted, when a few centuries ago it was a necessity to know because they didn’t have a designated butcher that could prepare the meat for you. Contact between different societies can change a culture so much. When one society sees something they like, but don’t necessarily want to change their whole culture they will adopt this trait or if the whole society doesn’t want to adopt it a subculture may be formed. A subculture is a subdivision of a national culture or an enclave within it with a distinct integrated network of behavior, beliefs, and attitudes. Changes in the environment have affected many cultures in the past as it will in the future. A good example of this is how the buffalo in the 1800s were quickly declining in numbers and the Native American people had to find another source of food and shelter since they used the buffalo for so many things they made in their culture, such as food, clothing and shelter.
Symbols, language, values and norms are the four most common factors found in culture. Culture would not exist without these factors because we would have nothing to relate to each other to share the same culture. Symbols are anything meaningful that represents something else. Some of these symbols can represent hate, love or peace. For many societies they use a flag to represent their culture. Others can use an animal to worship or sacrifice to represent theirs. Hand gestures can also be a big symbol in society, like in the army they solute and that is a symbol of respect.
Different languages are spoken all over the world by all different kinds of people. Language is a set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another. Both verbal and nonverbal communication is vital to be able to share your knowledge and pass it on so that your culture may also be carried on. Without speech and writing culture would not survive. Some cultures require that we speak a certain language to survive in that atmosphere, and others require that you speak more than one language to be successful in life. In Germany, you are raised speaking German, but when you get in to grade school it is required that you take an English class every year until you graduate.
Values are collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture. Values are extremely important in most cultures. Some cultures require that you be abstinent before marriage and have consequences for those that do not share the same value. However, in every culture there are value contradictions, or values that conflict with one another or are mutually exclusive. Achieving one of these values makes it difficult or even impossible sometimes, to achieve the other.
Values do not directly give us rules on how we should behave, where norms do. Norms are established rules of behavior or standards of conduct. There are two types of norms. Prescriptive norms state what behavior is appropriate or acceptable. Proscriptive norms state what behavior is inappropriate or unacceptable. So basically, prescriptive norms tell you what you should be doing and proscriptive norms direct you away from what you shouldn’t be doing. Laws, mores, and folkways are all different levels of norms, some of more importance than others. Laws―which are formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions―are taken the most seriously and are the most important of the three categories. Mores, which are strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture, are usually based on your culture and usually have less serious consequences. Folkways―informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture―are the least important of the three categories and are normally just looked down upon if they aren’t followed.
Culture is a huge part of every society in the world. Without it we would all be the same. We are all very lucky to have so many different cultures and people that we can learn about. Society and culture are interdependent and neither of them could exist without the other.
Kendall, Diana. Sociology in Our Times: The Essentials 8th Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2010
Life of Animation
By Hodaka Kuwabara & Bryan Ayala
Anime is categorized in different series and types. There are five main types of Anime. The Giant Robot Anime has a very strong influence and feeling in the early and contemporary anime, and its one of more important animations. Samurai Anime is more of an old culture in Japan and shows more history. During the 1990 the samurai Anime has grown to be for of an action and love Animation. The Boys Anime which consists of a lot of fighting action using fists, guns, and swords. Most take place in the future or in imaginary places. There is some laughter most of these animations have added more comedy over the years. This type of animation is called Shounen Anime and it is intended for male audiences. Now that we finished with the Boys Anime, there is also Girls Anime, Shoujo Anime is a very strong and growing to be very popular. This type of Animation has a lot of drama and romanic comedy, and the characters are of Shoujo Anime are usually in school uniforms and live normal day to day lives. The last Animation is known to be random because its not realistic and characters can consist of food, animals, or other unnatural objects. This type of Animation is lesser-known to the American audiences.
Acording to “That Anime Project” Many anime films and series follow the trials and tribulations of student life. Such series include . A good education is important in both American and Japanese cultures, but American TV shows and anime document different aspects of school life. American shows (Head of the Class, Welcome Back Kotter, early episodes of Beverly Hills 90210, or Saved By the Bell) seem to focus more on "popular" kids trying to pulling various scams and pranks to accomplish something. I've never had much of a taste for such shows, but they all seem to have basic theme elements in common. Some anime may do the same things as the American shows, but some document the struggle of the mediocre (Maison Ikkoku), and yet others feature a character's lust for greatness (Battle Athletes). Where might these differences in theme be coming from? Understanding the impetus for such motifs, requires a basic comprehension of the idealized Japanese national attitude.
The top ten Animations in America in 2011 in order are One Piece, Fairy tale, Bleach, Blue exorcist, Naruto, Hitman Reborn, Full Metal Alchemist, Cowboy bebop, Beezlebub, Norarihyon Nomago Sennen Makyou, Ghost in the shell. Three popular animation that might get your attention is the Pokemon series which still gets televised for young children. The Inuyasha series, and the other Anime is the Dragon Ball Z series and its one a lot will never forget. The Future in Animation is not going to deteriorate in fact its growing as we speak. The Anime Fans don’t care what the Genre type it is, and as long as its new and gets the fans attention. In the future, all fans will subscribe to some kind of Anime service through a Manga or Website that will deliver the BLEACH
latest Anime to them directly as soon as it is released in Japan. Getting attracted to Anime is not hard at all its very creative and entertaining. Now that we talked about the future about Animation what would those early Japanese artist think of today’s Television shows, Movies and even the Manga. The industry is growning and in my opinion they would be amazed how far Anime has gone.
The term manga was created by the artist Hokusai, a prolific artist who lived from 1760-1849 and left over 30,000 works. He was the creator of the woodblock The Great Wave, his most famous picture and the one most closely identified with traditional Japanese art. His new term for some of his artwork was made of the words "man," meaning "in spite of oneself," "lax" or "whimsical," and "ga," meaning "picture."
The first examples of what might be called "manga" were picture scrolls created during the 6th and 7th centuries by Buddhist monks. The scrolls ran continually, using common symbols such as cherry blossoms and red leaves to indicate the passage of time.The most famous of these works is Choujuugiga, meaning "animal scrolls", a work that depicted animals behaving like humans and satirized Buddhist priests.
In the early 17th century, woodblock prints gained popularity. The most popular ones were called ukiyo-e, portraits of the "floating world." These illustrations were generally salacious images of scenes from the red-light district, though they also depicted the age's pleasures, such as the latest outfits and the most popular places to visit.
In the late 18th century, kibyoushi, or "yellow-covers," gained popularity. These were stories for adults where the dialogue and text were placed around illustrations. They contained a wide variety of subjects and were frequently contriversal - more than one kibyoushi was banned for satirizing the authorities.
When Japan was opened to the outside world, European artists introduced shading, perspective and anatomy. They also introduced word balloons and separate sequences. Also, new printing techniques were introduced at this time that were more efficent than woodblock prints. Under European influence, Japanese started making humor magazines similar to Punch, the most famous of which was Marumaru Chimbun in 1877.
At the end of 19th century, the first comic strips appeared in John Pulitzer's New York World. Comics of this type appeared in Japanese newspapers soon after and quickly became extremely popular, and Japanese comic artists flourished. But during the late 1920s and early 1930s, the Japanese government started intimidating artists and publishers. Many magazines either closed or started censoring themselves harshly; magazines who did neither frequently had their editors arrested. These types of arrests happened so often that magazines would sometimes pick an employee to be a "jail editor" who would have the honor of taking the punishment and saving his company.
In conclusion, Animation spread from Japan to all over the world and effect economics and people. Animation not only make people happy but also make profit. Many country try to
Richard Maidment, Colin Mackerras Culture and Society in the Asia-Pacific New York: The Open University 1998.
Whip Em Out
New parents face a lot of decisions for their newborn; many of these decisions are made before the baby is even born. Baby’s name, where baby is going to sleep, cloth or disposable diapers, and nursery sets are just a few of these decisions. Most decisions have several different options, each with its own pros and cons. One of the biggest of these decisions is whether to formula or breast feed.
In the 1950s, formula became popular and it was widely believed that it was more beneficial than breastfeeding. At this time, breastfeeding rates dropped to 20 percent in the US. La Leche League was founded in 1958 with the intent of raising this number. In the 1970s, breastfeeding began to make a comeback. Since then, many studies show the many benefits to breastfeeding over formula and any doctor would say it is the preferred method of feeding an infant unless medically contraindicated. Now there seems to be a great deal of societal pressure on mothers to choose breastfeeding; there are numerous support groups, birthing centers and physicians heavily encourage it, and there are many advertisements promoting it.
Because the benefits are so widely known among both medical professionals and the common public, women can now be looked down upon by society for choosing formula feeding. Babies who are breastfed tend to not have digestive issues, are less likely to be overweight, may have better brain development, and don’t get as many infections as formula fed babies. (“What to Expect When You’re Expecting” 331-2). The majority of pros for formula are conveniences for the parents, so they can be seen as selfish and putting convenience ahead of baby’s best interests.
While society does seem to expect women to breastfeed, there are still discrepancies on where they should be allowed to do it. Many people who are quick to say that women should breastfeed are uncomfortable with seeing women do it in public. Only in recent years have laws been enacted to protect women’s right to breastfeed. Most states have laws that simply state a woman has the right to breastfeed anywhere that she has a right to be. In 1999, a federal law was passed that states women have the right to nurse on any federal property (“What to Expect the First Year” 87). Employers with more than fifty employees must provide an area other than restroom for women to breastfeed or pump. Women cannot be charged with indecent exposure for breastfeeding in public.
Before these laws were enacted, women could be asked to leave the area if they were breastfeeding. One severe case in 2003 involved parents losing custody of their two children after having pictures developed that depicted the mother nursing their one year old son. The drugstore clerk that developed the pictures turned them in to the authorities and the couple was arrested and charged with sexual performance of a child. It took six months for the charges to be dropped and the children to be returned to the home (“Lactation and the Law”).
While this is a very personal decision for families to make and dependent on each individual’s circumstances, there are societal implications. There is a lot of outside pressure to breastfeed and pregnant women are loaded with information as to why it’s the best choice for their baby. But while society pushes more and more women to make that decision, many still appear to believe it should only take place behind closed doors. Women have had to push for over twenty years to be legally protected to nurse their infants in public. In most societies throughout the world, people don’t think twice about a woman breastfeeding her baby in public; slowly but surely, the US is catching up to that way of thinking.
Marcus, Jake. “Lactation and the Law”. Mothering.com. July/August 2007. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://mothering.com/breastfeeding/lactation-and-the-law?page=0,0>.
Murkoff, Heidi, Mazel, Sharon. What to Expect When You’re Expecting. 4th ed. New York: Workman Publishing, 2008. Print.
Murkoff, Heidi, et al. What to Expect the First Year. 2nd ed. New York: Workman Publishing, 2003. Print.
Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations
In society today we need groups to help keep the order. There are numerous groups people may be classified. The following essay will discuss a few groups.
According to the class textbook Sociology in our times: the essentials, a social group is classified as a collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another (Sociology). Basically it is an individual and his or her friends. It is also stated that members of social groups have a sense of interdependence and share a strong sense of belonging. In direct contrast to a social group, we have an aggregate. According to Sociology in out times: the essential, an aggregate is defined as a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common (Sociology). An example of this would be going to a mall. Thousands of people go through malls on a daily basis, but the majority of them do not know each other. Everyone in this room is classified as a college student, and that is an example of a category. The textbook details the essentials of a category as a number of people who may have never met one another but share a similar characteristic (such as education level, age race a gender).
Groups have become increasingly more important as society continues to progress. Some examples of groups include primary, secondary, in-groups, out-groups, and reference groups. Because groups are important in society, it is best to define each type of group. Sociologist Charles H. Cooley helped define primary and secondary groups. He defined primary groups as a small group in which the members engage in face to face emotional interactions over long periods of time, such as a family. Secondary groups, as he defined them, are larger more impersonal groups in which you worker together to achieve a goal over a short period of time, such as a sports team. William Graham Sumner gave us the terms in-groups and out-groups. He described in-groups as a groups in which a person belongs and with which a person feels a sense of identity, conversely an out-group is a group to which a person does not belong, and the individual person may feel a sense of competitiveness toward the group. As a society we have a major problem with in-groups and out-groups. While they may promote numerous thing that can be beneficial to a society such a heightened sense of social cohesion, they may also lead to higher levels of racism, ageism, and sexism. Also member of the in-groups may become very egotistical and begin to believe very negative things about the members of out-groups. Also problems may arise when members of a certain group feel that they may act out their personal beliefs without any fear of consequence. Finally, there are reference groups. A reference group is group that strongly influences a person’s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member. The main example of this in today’s world is political parties.
Sources: http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Social-Groups.php, Sociology in our time: the essentials, Chapter 5
By Chris Ferguson
A social movement is “an organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action.” Social movements are outside of the mainstream, so many people who feel like “outsiders” can have their voices be heard. They mostly occur in industrialized societies because in preindustrialized societies people are much more compliant of beliefs and practices. Social movements come into place because of people who are upset and want their voice to be heard about the issue that that they believe is plaguing many other people in their society. The main reason for a social movement is because every day, middle-class citizens don’t normally have the means, whether that be money or power, to promote change, unless they mobilize into a collective response. Democracy seems more available to minorities or excluded groups if social movements are allowed to transpire.
There are five specific types of social movements, and these include reform, revolutionary, religious, alternative, and resistance movements. Sociologists differentiate movements on “the basis of their goals and the amount of change they seek to produce.” All types of social movements try to change either people or society.
These intend to “improve society by changing some aspect of the social structure.” Reform movements usually consist of people working to change the status quo, but working within the system to do it. Reform movements are intended to create change in societal attitudes, as well as change in a person’s emotions. Some specific movements help to replace “shame with pride.”
Examples: Labor movements, animal rights movements, civil rights movements, and gay rights movements.
This type of movements searches for a complete overhaul of the current system, by replacing it with a new one. Working within the existing system is not an option for revolutionary movements. Revolutionary groups can be utopian groups, which try to set up an ideal society, as well as terrorist groups working toward a changed view of people they disagree with, ideologically, utilizing fear tactics.
This movement seeks to reform individuals’ thinking “based on spiritual or supernatural belief”. They attempt to bring change through “inner change” in specific people. A very common example of a religious movement is fundamentalist religious groups trying to convert other nonbelievers to their belief. Sometimes religious movements can be millenarian in nature, ie: “the end is near.” These millenarian religious movements urge a change in behavior.
These movements only seek to produce limited change in a specific aspect of one’s behavior. An example of an alternative movement would be the Women’s Christian Temperance Union attempting to stop people’s consumption of alcohol. Some sociologists say that “therapeutic social movements” (like Alcoholics Anonymous) fall into the alternative movement category, but some disagree. Lately, movements have been cropping up which attempt to change “people’s behavior by emphasizing spiritual consciousness.” Examples of this include vegetarianism, meditation, holistic medicine, and movements which include the practice of yoga.
The final type of social movements strives for a prevention or undoing of change. Examples include resistance movements from “the 1950’s to oppose school integration, civil rights, and domestic partnership initiatives.” Possibly the most popular resistance movement among recent years is the pro-life advocates.
Sociology in Our Times, Chapter 16.
Society Interacts on Social Media
By Roger Agnew
Most everyone has some form of social media interaction every day. Those who say they do suffer from memory loss. Social media has quickly become one of the most popular forms of social interaction in the last 5 years. There always seems to be a news story floating around or someone has their phone out checking Twitter or Facebook. But how has it changed society’s interactions?
While it is generally people under the age of 30 who are using social networks, such as Twitter and Facebook, many older people are picking up the habit. One of the more trending items on both networks is the amount of businesses that are using each respective network. But what helps create a name for businesses on the social media network is the amount of relative content that they are able to post.
Have you seen the Discover card commercials with Peggy? Or the Geico the Gecko commercial where the Gecko is on his way across America? Both Discover and Geico have begun using Facebook and Twitter, along with video website YouTube, to strike interest in the person who’s TV is turned on to Monday Night Football, the Stanley Cup, or Prime Time TV. They know that you will most likely get on Facebook that night and so will go watch more video’s of this jerk named Peggy who makes you laugh until it’s you stuck on hold.
These companies think that a combination of comedy and ease of access will help you be more willing to buy their product or service. There’s a new commercial on where people talk about where they take a sheet. A number of these commercials have been made just not that many are live and these commercials main target are Twitter users. They use #takeasheet which is a way for people to follow how other people either have, or wish to, take a sheet of this energy.
But has this been effective? I think some of them have. However, some of these commercial has lacked relative content. Sure these commercials are very hilarious; however, they aren’t always relevant. Just like a Super Bowl ad a few years ago had Bud Light drinkers worshipping a refrigerator. Sure it’s interesting how they came to the beer but it’s completely irrelevant to enjoying an ice cold beer.
Despite the lackadaisical work put forth by advertisers to show what their product or service is all about, social media has helped to fulfill expectations. You can currently like hundreds of businesses that we all have been to. These include JC Penny’s, Sonic Drive In, Starbucks, Macy’s, the Buckle, Payless, McDonalds, and many many more. And to be following these businesses will get you some special discounts and offers. Altogether, social media’s interactions have been helpful to society and business’s alike.
By Paige Todd
Nondenominational christian churches are independent of any denomination. They have their own structure and priorities.
The idea of a "typical" nondenominational church does not exist, since nondenominational churches, by definition, have no affiliation with a particular sect of Christianity, such as Catholicism, Methodists, or Episcopalian. One nondenominational church may vary widely from the next. Nondenominational churches, like all churches, have various numbers of members, from less than fifty to thousands. Most nondenominational churches are evangelical and are based on New Testament teaching.
Therefore, there is one pastor, then possibly an associate pastor, then church elders selected from the church body by its members, then the congregation en mass. The church is independent and geographically based, not part of a national or international organization of leadership.
The sacred canopy of nondenominational churches (things that are considered sacred) is very small compared to denominational churches. The Bible is sacred, and hymns are sacred. Objects, such as the eucharist, are not.
Nondenominational churches choose to be such so that they can minister to congregants without interference from outside sources. For example, there isn't a set schedule of message topics circulated throughout nondenominational churches from which to choose. This self-governing church body is based upon biblical teachings that show that the church is answerable to God alone, not a church hierarchy.
Despite being independent from denominations, churches who try to practice the example shown in the Book of Acts in the Bible believe that churches should have community with one another and support each other. Churches wrote to one another, and they greeted each other through Paul's letters.
Timothy Dalrymple, an evangelical columnist, says "American Christianity is a vital open marketplace of religious ideas in churches. These non-denominational churches can try 100 things and find a model that works." The model that works often has a "well-defined conservative expression of Christianity," instead of mainline churches' social action agendas. Left-wing politics is where the leadership is, but not the congregation. That may be why people are gravitating towards churches with strong biblical teaching.
Faydra Rice and Robert Hill
Cause and Effects
What are behavioral disorders and the reason and result of these disorders? Behavioral disorders usually develop during childhood or teenage years. Although the cause of behavioral disorders is not known, risk factors have been identified, such as family history of mental illness or substance abuse, exposure to tobacco or illicit drugs during fetal development, abuse, stress, lack of supervision, and inconsistent but harsh disdiscpline. Children with behavioral disorders may have other mental, emotional or behavioral disorders, such as neglect or child abuse. Child abuse and neglect have been shown, in some cases, to cause important regions of the brain to fail to form or grow properly, resulting in impaired development (De Bellis & Thomas, 2003). These alterations in brain maturation have long-term consequences for cognitive, language, and academic abilities (Watts-English, Fortson, Gibler, Hooper, & De Bellis, 2006). NSCAW found more than three-quarters of foster children between 1 and 2 years of age to be at medium to high risk for problems with brain development. Children with these disorders may develop personality disorders, depression, or even bipolar disorder as adults. Kids with behavioral disorders could throw frequent and extended tantrums, which may hurt themselves or cause them to get involved in criminal activities like, lie, smoke, use alcohol or drugs, are openly defiant, or engage in early sexual activity. Some behavioral issues may be normal in children, but those who have behavioral disorders may develop chronic patterns of aggression, disobedience, disruption and hostility. People who have behavioral or emotional disorders can exhibit a wide variety of types of behavior, including both internalized behavior (such as depression or an eating disorder) and externalized behavior (such as verbal outbursts). Other common characteristics and behaviors include these: Hyperactivity; Aggression or self-injurious behavior; Withdrawal; Immaturity; Learning difficulties. Including both internalized behavior (such as depression or an eating disorder) and externalized behavior (such as verbal outbursts). these: Hyperactivity; Aggression or self-injurious behavior; Withdrawal; Immaturity; Learning difficulties. The impact of neglect on a child may not be obvious at an early stage except in the most extreme cases. On the other hand, the effects of neglect are harmful and possibly long-lasting for the victims. Its impact can become more severe as a child grows older and can encompass multiple areas, including: Health and physical development; Intellectual and cognitive development; Emotional and psychological development; Social and behavioral development.
1. Vanessa: Holds Sybil's musical abilities, plays the piano and helps Sybil pursue a romantic relationship with Richard. She's a young girl, possibly 12 years old (that's what Richard says and Vanessa does not dispute).
2. Vicky: 13 year old who speaks French, a very strong, sophisticated and mature personality who knows about and has insight into all the other personalities, though Sybil does not. (states age when she is looking in the mirror at her doctor's home)
3. Peggy: 9 year old who speaks like a little girl. Holds Sybil's artistic abilities, often appears while crying hysterically due to Sybil's fears. She has many misconceptions; for instance, she does not know that she is in New York City and, instead, thinks she is in the small town that Sybil grew up. Peggy feels the greatest trauma from her mom's abuse, often feeling sad/depressed and unable to find happiness. Her biggest fears include the green kitchen, purple, Christmas, and explosions.
4. Marcia: dresses in funeral attire and constantly has suicidal thoughts and attempts suicide. Supposedly tried to kill Sybil in the Harlem hotel but was stopped from Vicky. She thinks the end of the world is coming, but what she really fears is the end of Sybil.
5. Mary: is Sybil's memory of her grandmother; she speaks, walks and acts like a grandmother, and is anxious to meet Sybil's grandmother.
6. Nancy: who kept waiting for the end of the world and was afraid of Armageddon. She's a product of Sybil's dad's religious fanaticism.
7. Ruthie: is one of Sybil's less developed selves, a baby in fact. When Sybil hears her mom's voice, she is so terrified that she regresses into Ruthie, an alter that parallels Sybil as a helpless, regressive, pre-verbal baby.
8. Clara: Around 8–9 years old. No info given.
9. Ellen: Around 13–14 years old. No info given.
10. Margie: Around 10–11 years old. No info given.
11. Sybil Ann: Around 5–6 years old. Very shy.
Sybil had a doctor named Wilbur who is best known for her work with Shirley mason , a woman purportedly abused as a child who, Wilbur decided, had developed 16 different and distinct personalities as a result. Wilbur remained friends with Mason for the rest of her life, and the two women shared a home for some years. Since 1998, however, Wilbur’s diagnosis of Mason has publicly been called into serious question, and both she and Flora Schreiber have been accused of inventing or exaggerating the multiple personality diagnosis and manipulating Mason for professional and financial gain. Many people wanted to get the audio recordings of the sessions that they had for many years . no one can get the audio because Sybil nor her parents signed it over to where it would have made it public . If you want to see what we are talking about just go see the movie and you will see how messed up she was in the head . thanks for reading .
Prison’s Population in the U.S.
The overwhelming number of offenders in the prison system could make up a state the size of New Hampshire. This is a very small percentage of the 311 million total population of people that make up the U.S. as of 2011. Prisons have been increasing with very many crimes since the start of late 80’s and leading with the 90’s. Moving into the new decade the United States was in a big demand for more room in prisons or correctional facilities to be technical with the term. Laws were enforced as well after 9/11 happened which changed the way we look at deviant or petty crimes.
Federal, State and local prisons have seen a big increase since a twelve month period which the local jail populations went to a near 34,235 inmates the largest percentage since 1997. State prisons have added more inmates as well which was an increase of one percent which does not seem relatively a huge number but housing these offenders has caused an increase in cost for new facilities and cost of training jailors or supervisors to run the prison. Prisons were increased by 5.7 percent which was quite the number but many of the crimes have not been recorded according to the U.C.R. (Uniform Crime Report) which does deal with showing true statistics of crime rate. December 1, 2001 was a change for the District of Columbia which transferred the felons the Federal system and contributed to making the federal system the largest prison jurisdiction in the nation. These prisons populate varies of characters that only one can imagine what goes through their mind or if they even have morals. The hard criminals that fill the small quarters of places like Leavenworth, Louisiana State Penitentiary, San Quentin, Attica, Folsom and many more others are put in these notorious prisons that run the U.S. Most men and woman that call these places home now are rapist, murders, drug dealers, drug addicts, gang affiliated members with multiple counts of grand larsening, aggravated assault, and weapon charges. Gangs are clicks that make up of a certain race or what street creditability they contain. Most of the population is or was gang affiliated and makes up most of the prisons numbers. Also in the lead are non-citizen men and woman that have committed crimes while on visa or come here illegally, which has been a serious matter with our government. These illegal immigrants are tried and jailed here until their crime is repented then shipped to their native country, and its put a damper on housing our own because these people.
In conclusion the population fluctuates from time to time and more prisons are starting to add on to save more on cost but as the crimes being committed keep increasing we will have to pay as citizens and tax payers to house inmates. The only way we can avoid the cost of paying more is to decrease crime rate and follow the rules of this great nation.
By Derek Ridenour
Criminal gangs are estimated to have 1 million or more members responsible for up to 80% of crimes committed in communities around the nation. Since 2005 gangs have estimated to increase by 200,000 members. Reports show that 900,000 members are in communities and that around 147,000 are in prison or jail. Gangs have increased their ways of recruiting members by the internet. They also use the internet to encrypt emails to send to members. In 2004 the government created the National Gang Task Force for a very dangerous gang called MS-13. MS-13 is one of the largest and dangerous gangs in the nation. Investigators say that out of the 50 states, 42 have active MS-13 gangs instead of 33 from 2005. MS-13 founding members were young kids from immigrants of El Salvador. With one of the largest gangs MS-13 has roughly 150,000 members. MS-13 has a lot of tattoos that you can identify them by. MS-13 tattoo is the main one you can recognize them by. Many of there tattoos are dark spirited. 666 is another one you can see on them. Many members of MS-13 get tattoos all over their body, they receive these tattoos when they have done a “mission” (like task that they perform for the gang to either get into the gang or to rank up the ladder of the gang). Members of the gang wear blue and white colors which are taken from the El Salvadoran flag. 11-40 are the ages that the members in the gang range from. Crimes of gangs and MS-13 range from robbery, assault, drugs, drug smuggling, human smuggling, getting hired to kill someone, and murders. In Texas a MS-13 gang member admitted to leading a gang rape of a 24 year old women and than kicked her in the neck with so much force that it killed her, robbing and beating a young boy in Houston, and also stabbing a man three times in an attempt to kill the man. They asked the gang member if murdering someone elevated his rank in the gang, he said “Hell yeah. The crazier you are known to be, the more respect the gang gives you”. Most gangs offer a easy way to get into the gang by getting jumped in, but MS-13 is harder to get into because you have to commit a violent act like beating, raping, or murdering someone. Once you are in the gang you are in it for life. Trying to get out of the gang is impossible, one case is a 16 year old named Edgar Guzman who tried to get out. He came to the United States illegally from Guatemala and was brought to the US Bureau of Immigration and Customers Enforcement in Colorado. His reason for coming to America illegally was so that he could get out of the MS-13 lifestyle and go to college and become something better. He begged Immigration to let him stay because he knew if he were to go back that he would be kill. He saw the gang murder a lot of members that try to get out of the gang. On March 10, 2004 Edgar was deported back to Guatemala where his former gang was located. On March 20 Edgar was found dead with multiple gun shots. He had been hiding in his house for those 10 days and than he heard that his grandmother had died. He left his house and was killed only five blocks from his house. The only way out of the gang is to be murdered.
More and more young kids are going to Juvenile Detention Centers and even Federal Prison. A big reason for this problem is related back to being associated with gangs. Criminal gangs do illegal acts to help support themselves and their family. They smuggle, produce, transport, and distribute illegal drugs. They also traffic weapons, sell prostitutes, and sell stolen property. Getting caught in these activities results in being arrested and being sent to jail.
Troubled individuals join gangs looking for a belonging. They may feel a companionship from the other gang members that they are not getting from family or friends outside of gangs. Some are brought up in gang areas and fall into it, sort of like a family tradition. Some people are looking for a sort of power being able to be in control of a gang and the members. But many individuals look for an acceptance somewhere. It is a natural instinct to find acceptance somewhere and have a sense of belonging, so with that troubled people peruse being accepted in these gangs.
To get into a gang they have to go through initiation. Initiation can include fighting with other rival gangs, drive by shooting of an innocent person, thefts, and even murders. An individual has to follow the rules of the gang which can vary depending on the gang. They can not be associated with any other street gangs otherwise it can result in death. Going through these criminal acts it can send them to jail, and the people in the gang will have no remorse for that certain individual.
Leaving these gangs is not an easy task to complete. The safety of the individual is up for risk. Leaving a gang can result in death. In 2004 a 19 year old in Fort Worth, Texas was sentenced for thirty years in prison for shooting a child hood friend for trying to leave a gang they were both apart of. The childhood friend was shot and killed. Also, having a reputation of being in the gang puts them up for risk of being shot by other people in other gangs that knew they use to be associated with their past gang. It also puts their families safety up for risk as well.
Being in a gang as a young individual and being in school usually don’t mix well. Gangs usually look down on the school system making kids associated with gangs do poorly in school or they even drop out. Also, being a gang has pressures of doing the drugs they sell, which also can impose on school. Also, doing illegal drugs and drinking underage can get children and adults arrested and sent to jail, which takes education away as well. Without a education hope of becoming a participating part of society becomes less likely to happen, which in turn hurts the individual severely.
Being in a gang gives troubled individuals sense of belonging and makes them feel accepted when they feel they can’t be accepted anywhere else. They sell or use drugs and weapons, and sometimes even rely on them for themselves. Leaving gangs is near impossible unless the individual leaving the gang relocates, but that also doesn’t ensure their safety. It also puts their friends and families safety up for risk. And going and getting a good education while being in a gang is also near to impossible. Gangs are a big reason for young individuals going to jail in the United States.
Juvenile Detention Centers
What is it like to be in a juvenile detention center? There are 591 Juvenile detention centers across the country. Juvenile detention centers have strict rules from what they wear to who can visit to make sure that everybody in the facility is safe. There are children from ages of ten years old to teenagers and adults at the age of eighteen or nineteen all housed in the same building. There is normally a basic process for booking that relates to all detention centers in the country. Detention centers are definitely not a place that you or your parents would want you to be, but here is a little bit of a peak inside the locked doors.
First, is the booking; going from the cop car to the office to get your news clothes and room. Most juvenile detention centers have a process of taking a picture, taking fingerprints, and entering personal information into the computers. They will sometimes have to be strip searched if the crime that they committed involved a weapon, or they will be patted down. After they are searched some places may require for the juveniles to take a shower and then get their sandal like shoes, shirt and pants that look like scrubs, and socks. All of their personal things that were brought in with them when they were booked are locked up securely. Some of the kids booked will have to share a room and others that have committed a violent crime will have to have a room to their selves.
Generally, juvenile detention centers are not meant to be a permanent place for juveniles to stay but to be a temporary place for them to stay so that they don’t skip their court date, and to help keep them from preventing another crime. It is said that one out of five kids that go to court are sent to jail or a juvenile detention center.
Furthermore, most centers have rules that need to be followed. There are visitation rights and most detention centers have visitation two days a week at certain times of the day for a little bit of time like fifteen or twenty minutes. Also letters can be written, but juveniles can’t receive packages. Phone call can also be made but they are sometimes monitored. About seventy percent of youths in detention centers have committed violent crimes, and two thirds are there for property offenses, etc. If the rules in the detention center are broken they could have to stay in their room for a period of time, and if they break a bigger rule they could face bigger consequences.
In addition, to all the rules there are also services that are offered for teens in the centers. Unlike adult jail troubled teenagers can talk to counselors, and take substance abuse classes, and other things like that in these detention centers. Also kids that have not gotten a GED or a diploma are required to be enrolled in classes to receive at least a GED.
In conclusion, Juvenile detention centers are not a preferable place to be, but you know the basics from booking, to what they offer for the youths while they are contained. The detention centers try to keep the kids out of trouble by offering services, requiring classes, making sure that they don’t miss their court date, and enforce consequences when the rules are broke. It’s surprising that age limits differ from fourth or fifth graders to people that may already be out of high school. Obviously detention centers aren’t like a five star hotel, but they do as best as they can trying to contain the juveniles inside.
"National Statistics." Main. Web. 02 Dec. 2011. <http://www.campaignforyouthjustice.org/national-statistics.html>.
County, Ada. "Detention Services." Ada County - Home. Web. 02 Dec. 2011. <http://www.adaweb.net/JuvenileCourt/DetentionServices.aspx#Rules>.
More and more young kids these days are going to Juvenile Detention Centers (JDC) or even jail! This is what happens when your child joins a gang, in which that gang is a criminal gang. Over a million of teens are associated with criminal gangs.
Troubled individuals join gangs looking for a belonging. They may feel like the other gang members will accept them for who they are unlike their parents. Some kids are brought up in gang areas and fall into it, and some just be in gangs because they parents were in gangs. Some people are looking for a sort of power being able to be in control of a gang and the members. But many individuals look for an acceptance somewhere. It is a natural instinct to find acceptance somewhere and have a sense of belonging, so with that troubled people peruse being accepted in these gangs.
Kids think that gangs are easy to go in and come out of, but it’s not! To join a gang you have to go through initiation. This is hard to go through because of the way you join the group. Most gangs during initiation usually let its gang members beat up the kid, or make them do illegal things, which lead them to jail or JDC.. Some of the members have no choice of joining. Some just pick kids that they want to be in there gang and target them. In this case they will most likely get beat up too. When a kid tries to get out the gang it’s not possible, because once you’re in the gang you are in for life. The only way you will be able to get out the gang is most likely died or in jail! Getting out of a gang is not easy! Gangs members do not believe in quitting there gang.
Schools Gang members do not believe in going to school when they are in a gang. They hate to have to look up to authority. Being in a gang as a young kid and being in school usually don’t mix well. Gangs usually look down on the schools. Also, being a gang has pressures of doing the drugs they sell, which also can impose on school. Also, doing illegal drugs and drinking underage can get children and adults arrested and sent to jail, which takes education away as well. Without an education hope of becoming a participating part of society becomes less likely to happen, which in turn hurts the individual severely. So kids if you knew what I knew then you know not to be in a gang. Because the only thing they are good for is landing you in a bad spot in life.
By: Sydne Massey
Have you ever been cyber bullied? Cyber bullying is when teens are cruel to one another by posting or messaging anything that is harmful or aggressive with most technologies today like cell phones or the internet. It can have different forms like: harassment, flaming (online fights with vulgar language), outing, impersonation, and many more. Cyber bullying is only between minors, if adults get involved it becomes cyber-harassment and cyber stalking. In a poll from 2006 the national organization Fight Crime: Invest in Kids found that one in three teens and one in six preteens are victims of this cruel cyber bullying. Girls are most likely to be a cyber bully than boys. Most teens don’t realize the consequences of what cyber bullying can cause. Teens can lose their cell phone and online accounts from cyber bullying and it can reflect on them when they apply for college or a job. But most of the damage from this kind of harassment is not visible by sight. Most of it causes emotional damage, and can damage to a teens self worth, confidence and ability to connect with other teens their age without hesitation. There are also a ton of legal issues that follow when you get in trouble for cyber bullying. Fewer than 1 in 5 cyber bullying incidents are reported to law enforcement. This bullying can rise to be a misdemeanor charge, or it may even result to a charge of juvenile delinquency if the child is young enough. Usually it doesn’t tend to go that far even if parents try to pursue criminal charges but, if any hacking or identity theft is involved, it can be a serious criminal matter under state and federal law. If schools try and discipline the teen for something that happened off campus or school property the school may be sued for violation of exceeding their authority and freedom of the speech from the student. Plus, if the cyber bullying was sexual in any nature or involved in sexting the teen or adult could be registered as a sex offender. About 1 in 5 teens have posted or sent sexually suggestive or nude photos of themselves to others. There are many organizations that have been created to advertise against cyber-bullying. And through their advertising they have decreased this harassment in America quite a bit in the last couple years. In Kansas, the 2008 Legislature made an anti-bullying statue that took place July 1, 2008, it requires schools to adopt a plan to address cyber bullying and other bullying also.
Now that we know what cyber bullying entails here are some facts about it.
• Nearly 42% of kids have been bullied online and have had it happen more than once.
• About 75% have visited a site bashing another person
• Girls are twice as likely to be perpetrators as well as victims of cyber bullying
• The emotional effects on cyber bullying victims can be drastic.
With the growth of cyber bullying we have also seen an increase in bullycide which is a new term used to describe children who became so emotionally distressed due to cyber bullying that they committed suicide.
The Death Penalty
Grady Brunk, David Stephens
Should someone deserve to die because of their actions and wrongdoings? Possibly one of the most controversial questions in our nation today is this question. While this form of punishment has been around for thousands of years, there is still a huge debate on whether or not this is morally the right thing to do. I think this quote says it best, “I don’t think you should support the death penalty to seek revenge. I don’t think that’s right. I think the reason to support the death penalty is because it saves other people’s lives” (GEORGE W. BUSH, presidential debate, Oct. 17, 2000).
The first known execution in the territory now known as the United States of America, was of Captain George Kendall. He was shot by a firing squad in Jamestown in December 1607 accused of sowing discord and mutiny (History of the death penalty and recent developments). Since then the death penalty has almost always been a feature of the criminal justice system, first in the American colonies and then, after independence, in the U.S. A lot has changed since then but as of January 1998, there are still 38 states that have capital punishment laws in effect. In a U.S. poll, sixty-one percent of Americans approve of using the death penalty. This is the lowest level of support since 1972(Newport, Frank.). Also republicans, men, whites, and those living in the Midwest and south are most likely to support it.
Capital punishment is a serious thing. It works pretty simple, you execute the bad guy and he can no longer do any harm to anyone, thus reducing crime one execution at a time. There is no proof that murderers can be successfully rehabilitated, and sentences of “life-imprisonment” seldom really mean life because many murderers are released from prison after seven or ten years. If capital punishment was used more often and made it a public event, it would be an even more effective deterrent. Religion also plays a part here. We have the Ten Commandments, which one of them is, “Though shall not kill”. I believe God is the only one that should be able to make that call. Besides, if the person who receives capital punishment is in fact innocent, then it’s morally wrong.
Green, Melissa S. (02-May-2005). "History of the Death Penalty & Recent Developments." In Melissa S. Green, compiler (1998-2009), Focus on the Death Penalty (website). Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage. <http://justice.uaa.alaska.edu/death/history.html
Newport, Frank. “In U.S., Support for death penalty falls to 39 year low; Fifty-two percent say the death penalty is applied fairly.” Gallup Poll News Service (2011).Academic OneFile. Web.29 Nov.2011
Thiroux, P. Jackson, Krasemann, Keith P.. Ethics Theory and Practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ.; Pearson. 2009.
Graczyk, Michael. www.msnbc.msn.com/id/44605916/ns/usnews-crimeandcourts/?GTI=43001. The assosciated press. Copyright 2011
A Growing Problem
By Melissa Ritter
Up to one out of every five children in the U.S. are overweight or obese, and this number is continuing to grow. What does being obese mean and how can you tell if you or your child is overweight or obese? Well, Body Max Index is a measure used to determine childhood overweight and obesity. It is calculated by using a child’s height and weight. Why do children become overweight? Children can become overweight for an array of reasons. The leading factors contributing to a child’s weight are genetics, behavior, and environment.
It has been shown that overweight tends to run in families suggesting a genetic link. (Bellows and Roach) These cases of obesity do exist, but are extremely rare. They only account for a small number of those who are overweight and obese. So far, only six single gene specific defects that result in obesity have been found and appear to affect fewer than 150 people. The recent increases in weight were observed and it showed that the American population is not correlated with genetics. Thus, the rising problem of obesity can’t be blamed on genetics!
Behavior can consist of many things such as nutrition, physical activity, and televisions and media. First of all, there is an increase in availability and consumption of high calorie foods and beverages. Snacking more frequently and eating more meals away from home has also increased, not to mention there are greater portion sizes. A decline in breakfast consumption has been shown, and we’ve all learned that breakfast is the most important meal of the day, so kids definitely shouldn’t be skipping it!
Participation in activities has been reduced. Why you might ask? Well, schools are decreasing the amount of free play or physical activity the children receive during school hours. (Bellows and Roach) It is crucial to keep your kids physically active because physically active children are more likely to remain physically active into adolescence and adulthood and that right there can keep the growing numbers of obesity down.
What do kids do instead of physical activities? They watch television, are on the computer, and engage in video games. Children 8 to 18 years of age spend an average of 7.5 hours a day using entertainment media, including TV, computers, video games, cellphones, and other media. (Snyder) The downfall to watching too much TV is that it can cause extreme snacking of high calorie foods. Most food advertisements influence children to make unhealthy food choices. As you can see, media can take away so much time from physical activity.
As a final point, the environment can also play a role in childhood obesity. Some locations include home, childcare settings, school, and the community. It is becoming progressively important for all children to have access to healthful food choices and safe physically active opportunities. (Bellows and Roach) There are sugary drinks and less healthy foods at schools and many kids are apt to drink, eat meals, and snacks there.
If children aren’t old enough for school yet then where do they go? More than 12 million children regularly spend time in child care arrangements outside of homes. There might not be a safe appealing place in a community such as a park. Some communities have limited access to stores and supermarkets that sell healthy affordable foods, especially rural, minority, and low income neighborhoods, and some might be surrounded by convenience stores and fast food restaurants.
Low income families face numerous barriers including food insecurity, lack of safe places for physical activity, and lack of stable access to healthful food choices, especially fruits and vegetables. One of seven low-income, preschool-aged children is obese. (Snyder) Recent reports also indicate racial disparities, with the greatest prevalence among Mexican American boys and African American girls. With both sexes combined, roughly 21 percent of both are overweight compared to a 15 percent for white non-Hispanics.
“Recent studies have raised concern that a significant percentage of children and adults in this country are overweight or obese to an extent that may decrease their life expectancy.” (Kendall 470) There are numerous diseases and consequences that come with being obese such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, early heart disease, diabetes, bone problems, skin conditions, sleep apnea, asthma, arthritis, and liver damage. Risk of teasing, bullying, low self-esteem, and body image also come with the package. Seventy percent of obese children had at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor and 39 percent had two or more.
Parental influence can play an immense part. Several parental influences shape eating habits of youth. Parents whose diets are high in fat, there kid’s diets also are high in fat. Constraints on parent’s time contribute to kid’s weight problems. Working parents rely more heavily than non-working parents on prepared, processed fast food. (Bellows and Roach) Children left unsupervised after school may make poor nutritional choices and engage in more sedentary actions. They will more than likely spend a great time indoors watching TV.
However, lifestyles and behaviors are established early in life. It is important to focus on healthful behaviors to promote a healthy weight. Kendall states, “Lifestyle choices also include positive actions such as a healthy diet and good exercise.” As parents, friends, teachers and family, what can we do? As a parent, provide plenty of fruits and vegetables, limit sugary drinks, and make sure they are physically active each day. Let’s encourage children by providing them with a variety of healthy food choices and get the bad ones out. Be a role model by eating a healthy meal as a family. Engage in physical activity with your kids and limit screen time to two or less hours a day.
How can schools, communities, and even states help? States and communities can establish businesses in low-income areas to gain access to fresh, healthier items. Increase access to free drinking water and limit the sale of sugar drinks in schools by establishing school wellness and nutrition policies. Create and maintain safe neighborhoods for physical activity and improve access to parks and playgrounds. Also, support daily physical activity in child care facilities.
Conclusively, Seventeen percent of kids 2-19 years old are obese, since 1980 obesity prevalence among children and adolescents has tripled. Getting all the statistics down is easier said than done. Slowly but surely it can be done. In time, the numbers can significantly decrease if we can come together to help each other. If we all work to fix certain behaviors and the environment we can save so many lives without even knowing it! Don’t you want to save your child’s life? We can all take a stand to make a change starting…now!
Bellows, L., and J. Roach. "Childhood Obesity." Colorado State University Extension. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09317.html.
Kendall, Diana. Sociology in Our Times. Baylor University. 2010 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Snyder. "Obesity and Overweight for Professionals: Childhood | DNPAO | CDC." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/.
Families and Intimate Relationships
By Lyssa Beard
Relationships can be personal, but even personal relationships are still related to something larger such as the happening of society. In the study of Sociology things are broken up into microlevel, and macrolevel, for families the microlevel is the personal “biography” that each family has. The macrolevel of the family is how it plugs into society and the importance the society has on the family.
The definition of families is a relationship in which people live together with commitment, form an economic unit and care for any young and consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group. With that said it is understood that not all families are consisted of strictly a mother, father, and child. There are many different terms to classify how a family is structures.
Structure and Characteristics
Some families can be considered a Kinship. Kinship is a family structure that is most often thought of, or considered the “normal” structure. This form of family is created by ancestry, marriage, or adoption. In the view of society the family works together to support the life and the basic necessities like, food, health, and shelter. Everyone works together and puts the whole unit as a priority. In this kinship you see the passing of property or goods.
Marriage patterns are another way to classify what kind of family one has. The term marriage is defined as legally recognized or socially approved arrangement between two or more individuals. Marriage is not only done these days with one man and one woman but is seen in many different ways. Monogamy is the marriage between two partners, normally a man and women. This is the “normal” term used when talking about marriage. Polygamy is when there is one person of a sex married to two or more of the opposite sex. This form of marriage is illegal in all areas of the United States, however people still practice it.
Some people do not even legally tie their marriage but still live as a married couple. Domestic partnership is when two unrelated adults who have chosen to share a mutually caring relationship, reside together, and agree to be jointly responsible for their dependents, basic living expenses, and other common necessities. After a length certain length of time, decided by the state, a domestic partnership will be recognized as a common law marriage.
Child-Related Family issues and Parenting
When planning for a family, children come into play. However some people can have children so adoption becomes an option. Adoption is a legal process through which the rights and duties of parenting are transferred from a child’s biological and legal parents to new legal parents. Anyone that wants a child has the option of having one. There are always children out there that need a good home and a family.
Families start at a younger and younger age every day. Teenage pregnancy becomes more normal as many teens do not give the proper care or attention to having a sexual active life style. Some times cause by accident, some teens sees a pregnancy as a good thing. Granted it is the job of people to reproduce, but doing so in a teen stage of life is not ideal. For some it is a way to pass into adult hood and to be recognized as one.
Every family is structured differently, but not one form of family is more correct than the other. When it comes down to it, family is simply a group of people coming together, caring, and helping each other survives.
PFD/Adobe Acrobat http://aspringe.weebly.com/uploads/1/3/6/4/1364481/flashcards_ch12_6_per_page.pdf
Kendal, Diana, Sociology in Our; Times Families and Intimate Relationships, pgs 348- 369
The Cause and Effects of Divorce
Kayti Davis and Sara Crawford
What happens after a wedding, after the glory and spotlight is gone? Real life happens. The couple settles in to their new home together, and most typical first arguments appear due to a disagreement with money. Money can be one of the main causes for divorce, one person may not like the way the other person controls the money, or they may not like or approve of each other’s spending habits (causeandeffect). Money may not always be the root of the problem; there are many other causes of divorce. Statistics show that marrying too young will put a strain on the marriage. Younger people can get upset easily, and the maturity to deal with adult situations that marriage leads to is too difficult to sustain for a younger couple. Having children too early or family disapproving of the chosen spouse may also lead to divorce (kendall). Both of these examples have one similarity, they involve family support. If a couple has children early in the marriage, they may not have had enough time to learn how to live with each other, let alone how to raise a child. Family is important, grandparents and siblings are able to step in and assist to help the couple through tough times, and be able to help them with their struggles of learning to be a new family. When a family does not approve of the chosen spouse, tougher situations arise. Not only does the couple have to learn to deal with the ups and downs of marriage, but they have to also find a way to deal with a family who disapproves. This could build their marriage and make it stronger because they have no one to lean on but each other, or it could destroy them, because the family is no longer a much needed part of their lives. Not knowing the partner very long before getting married can also lead to divorce (kendall). It is difficult to get to know a person, their good side and bad and what the other person can handle. However, the reason for dating is to find that balance, and be able to adapt or accept different pet peeves. If a couple choose to get married without really dating very long, in most cases may put a strain on the relationship. It would not be until after the marriage that they learn how to adapt to each other’s different styles of living.
Effects of divorce can also be as difficult as the actual divorce. Although the couple that is getting divorced suffer pain, heartbreak or anger and hostility, if children are involved they suffer too. Children from divorced families tend to suffer more in school, as well as have more health and emotional problems (effects). Although the children may suffer, it is normally best to remove them from the environment of an unhappy life. Divorce may be too easy for some couples, when they have an argument, or continue to disagree, they feel it is just time to give up, divorce and move on. They do not try to stick it out, solve the problems and continue to live in unity. Different suggestions could be made to help boost the length of marriages. A government incentive program that grants a tax credit when the couple’s youngest child turns 18 and they are still married (effects). Other suggestions are to force couple’s to complete pre-marital classes, or have to go through specific programs before they file for divorce, on learning how to parent after divorce . Although divorce is common in the United States it has remained stable at about 50% of first marriages ending in divorce. The causes and effects of divorce will always be there, however each person should really step back and take a hard look at the person they are planning to marry before taking that leap.
Many children/teens hear their friends talking about their parents getting a divorce and they not know what it truly means. Well a divorce happens after a husband and wife decide not to live together anymore and that they no longer want to be married to each other. They agree to sign legal papers that make them each single again and allow them to marry other people if they want to.
Most divorces today are granted on the grounds of irreconcilable differences. Which is a stating no-fault, no blame, towards neither partner. After the divorce is filed, there may be orders to follow concerning parental rights, responsibilities and support. One partner may be ordered to move out of the house and find a new one. At trial, the plaintiff first presents his or her case, including grounds for the divorce, financial information, property and the welfare of the children. After all the evidence has been presented, each side may give oral or written arguments to explain to the court what he or she is requesting and why the request is reasonable and appropriate. The court makes a decision and files the final order.
Divorce might sound simple, but it's not easy for a husband and wife to decide to end a marriage. Often they spend a long time trying to solve problems before deciding to divorce. But sometimes they just can't fix the problems and decide that a divorce is the best solution. Change is a natural part of life, but when it happens to your family, it is sometimes really hard to deal with. Sometimes both parents want to divorce, and sometimes one want to and the other one doesn't. Usually, both parents are disappointed that their marriage can't last, even if one wants a divorce — and to live apart — more than the other.
Sometimes it hurts kids' feelings when one parent wants to leave the house where they live. It is hard for them to not to take it personally. Some kids might feel that it was their fault and become depressed. Especially at a young age, children might not really understand a hundred percent what is going on, and might feel they caused mommy and daddy to fight. Some children might have problems later on in life, or may even get married and divorce also, or may not even get married because they saw what their parents went through. It's important to remember that divorce happens between the husband and wife, and even though it affects the whole family, it doesn't mean that a parent who leaves the house doesn't care about the kids.
Many kids don't want their parents to divorce. Some kids have mixed feelings about it, especially if they know their parents weren't happy together. Some kids may even feel relieved when their parents divorce, especially if there's been a lot of fighting between parents during the marriage in the house.
It's important to remember that divorce doesn't change one important fact: A dad or mom who lives somewhere else is still your dad or mom. That's forever. That will never change.
Ambekar, Ashwini. "Cause and Effects of Divorce." Articles Wave. 12 Jan. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <http://www.articleswave.com/divorce-articles/causes-and-effects-of-divorce.html>.
Kendall, Diana. "Chapter 11/ Families and Intimate Relationships." Sociology in Our Times The Essentials. 8th ed. Mason, OH: CENGAGE Learning Custom, 2011. 374. Print.
Fagan, Patrick. "Effects of Divorce in America |Divorce Education." Conservative Policy Research and Analysis. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2000/06/the-effects-of-divorce-on-america>.
Divorce and The Effects It Causes In Families
By Curtis Mazurkewich
The foundation of marriage has undergone great stresses in the past fifteen years. High divorce rate and the trend of living together has resulted in broken families and troubled children. Today's society promotes the thought of one or two month marriages being okay and accepted in society. It's almost as if there saying marriage is a joke and you do not have to take it serious anymore. This image is what’s making divorce a growing conflict especially in the United States. The media frequently reports that 50% of American marriages will end in divorce. This number appears to have been derived from very skimpy data related to a single county or state. However, it appears to be reasonably close to the probable value. The Americans for Divorce Reform estimates that "Probably, 40 or possibly even 50 percent of marriages will end in divorce if current trends continue. However, that is only a projection and a prediction."
Affects it has on the child or children in the family:
Children see divorce as a threat to their protection and security.Thousands of kids experience the stress of divorce each year. How they'll react depends on their age, personality, and the particular circumstances of the separation and divorce process. Every divorce will have an effect on the kids involved — and many times the initial reaction is one of shock, sadness, frustration, anger, or worry. But kids can also come out of it better able to cope with stress, and many become more flexible, tolerant young adults.Below are some normal reactions and themes that you can look for in a child that is dealing with divorce.
Normal Themes in Divorce
• loyalty binds
• children and parents manipulate each other
• confused about who to love
• they caused the conflict between their Mom and Dad
• responsible for bringing their parents back together
• persistent stress
• loss of motivation for school
• loss of motivation for making friends
• loss of motivation for having fun
• unusually rebellious
• unusually argumentative
• too tired
• too restless
Lately, I have seen some of my close friends go through their parent’s divorces with them. I want to inform and educate the public how to handle a divorce and some steps the reader could take. Keep visible conflict, heated discussions, and legal talk away from the kids, minimize the disruptions to kids' daily routines, confine negativity and blame about each other to private therapy sessions or conversations with friends outside the home, keep each parent involved in the kids' lives. Most adults going through separation and divorce need support from friends, professionals, clergy, and family. Don't seek support from your kids, even if they seem to want you to.
By: Tayla Kimball
What is it?
Divorce is the legal process of ending a marriage that allows both parties to remarry if they choose to do so. Today, most divorces are granted on the grounds of irreconcilable differences. This means that there has been a breakdown of the marriage for which neither partner is specifically to blame, also known as a no-fault divorce. It is determined by the court to having considerable reasons for not continuing the marriage and makes it appear that the marriage should be dissolved. Usually reasons have to do with not being able to agree on fundamental issues, such as raising children. Over the past 100 years, the divorce rate in the United States has when from a low of 0.7 in 1900 to an all-time high of 5.3 by 1981and as of 2009 it has decreased to 3.6. Studies show that 43% of first marriages end in divorce within 15 years.
What causes it?
Research has found a number of factors at both the macrolevel and microlevel that makes couples more likely to get a divorce. At the macrolevel, a big factor that contributes to higher divorce rates is change in social institution, such as religion and family. Some religions are becoming more tolerant toward divorce, and the social stigma associated with divorce has lessened. At the microlevel, there are a number of factors that come into play. The primary factor include marriage at young age, not knowing each other long before marriage, not having family and friend support, a high school education or less, and having parents who are divorced or have unhappy marriages.
Does it affect the kids?
Research shows that there are several factors that will better tell the effects that divorce has on some children. The effects depend on the age of the child at the time of the divorce, the child’s gender and personality, the amount of conflict between parents, and the support provided by friends and family. Younger children, under the age of two or three years, don’t usually suffer from divorce. Children from the ages of three to five most times believe that they are the cause of their parents’ divorce. For example, they might think if they had cleaned their room or had done their chores when told to do so, Daddy wouldn’t have gone away. They also may fear being left alone or abandon altogether. It is believed that elementary aged children have a more difficult time then for younger or older children. They are old enough to understand that they are in pain because of their parents’ divorce, but too young to understand how to deal with their pain. They may experience grief, embarrassment, resentment, divided loyalty and intense anger. Teens may also feel anger, fear, loneliness, depression and guilt. They could feel pushed into adulthood if they must take responsibility for many new chores or care of siblings. Teens may also feel pressure to choose one of their parents over the other, or to fault one parent for causing the divorce. Divorce effects everyone: spouses, children, family, friends, but there’s a way to make it work.
Sociology in Our Time: The Essentials
Women in the past were known as house wives who cooked, cleaned, and took care of their children. This made it hard to get education that would be needed for the work place. Back in the day women’s education was probably limited, but without education women can’t perform the nessassary skills needed for a particular job. Men were the breadwinners who would work all day and took care of the family’s needs. Years passing more women began working to help support the family as well. Unfortunately dealing with a lot of sexism on the job. It has taken years for women to prove themselves to be just as hard working as men. Even working just as hard sexism still occurs such as lower pay. Women through out history have always gotten paid less than men. Sexism is not just pinned against women but men as well. The type of job men and women apparently should have can be considered sexist. For example, men are not known to be elementary school teachers, secretaries, and clerks. That in people’s mind is known as a women’s job. Only about 12 percent of women have higher paying jobs such as doctors, lawyers, and other jobs. When women work these jobs records show they still get lower pay then men. Supposively men get the job done better in these situations.
In 2004 women who work full time earned only 80 cents for every dollar earned by men. Women have a lower status in the work force. When working with males in the same job they are more likely to get paid less even with better training or skills then the man. If there was a promotion more than likely the male will get it over the female just because he a man and it suposively makes him better. Women getting paid less than men for whatever reason with the same job and hard work is discrimination. Why should men get this power? Men have been biased against women since the beginning of time. “Since the bible in the old testament states that when a vow offering is made to God, it should be based on the value of a person, and if a male, from the age of 20 years up to the age of sixty years, your assessment shall be fifty silver shekels…and if it is female, your assessment shall be thirty shekels.” (Barko 48) In the Bible it even talks about women are just an offering for men and they are the “superior” ones. Women were not treated well for the longest time until finally some women finally got sick of the men and their power with money. Women had a boring life with just staying at home taking care of as many kids as they could have, and doing whatever their husband asks. It took women a long time to build themselves up to think they could do anything men can do. In conclusion, sexism will probably never disappear and is something that no one can get rid of.
Sociology and You-Glencoe
Women’s Rights-Naomi Barko
When people think sexism they think of women. People have stereotyped men and women for years. Men are known as the strong, manly, independent, don’t really care of how they look. Women are known as the needy, weak, emotional, and always focusing on their looks. Men think women need them to survive. In the book, Sociology, In Our Times, it states that eating disorders is a type of social significance of gender. There are three common eating disorders, anorexia, bulimia, and obesity. With anorexia a person has lost a huge amount of body weight, bulimia people pretty much eat and then throw up their food again, and obesity is just gaining a large amount of weight. In the United States 8 million people have eating disorders, 10% being men. According to Deborah L. Rhode when women get an eating disorder it is because they feel fat not because they are. Men get an eating disorder more than likely from gaining weight then losing it all through binging. Another way guys can get an eating disorder is through sports such as wrestling or running. Wrestling you have a weight class and I have personally seen guys go without eating for a day just because they are overweight. It is ridiculous for guys to do that for a sport when it can be dangerous from going an amount of time from not eating just to wrestle. Sociologist Becky W. Thompson figures up the main victims of eating disorders are middle class heterosexual women. No one really thinks man when they think eating disorder. Although men and any other race or culture can get an eating disorder. Another significance of gender is bodybuilding. Bodybuilding is just lifting weights constantly increasing your muscle mass excessively. Now when we think body building and lifting weights we think of men, but more and more women are active in bodybuilding. This activity made men feel strong and masculent with their muscles and abs. Sociologist Susan Bordo says that eating disorders and body building are not complete opposites. The body feels objectified through weight loss and compulsive muscle gain. Both bodybuilding and eating disorders are dangerous. With bodybuilding people can take steroids and suppliments just to look like a monster. What are they trying to do, look like the hulk. With eating disorders its hard for you to get your weight going and to eat again. Your so used to not eating that it becomes a habit therefore destroying your body. More and more women are building muscles just as strong as men and some stronger. Body building gets excessive to the point where it looks disgusting. The thing about body building and eating disorders is once you dig yourself a deep enough hole in the situation, it is hard to get yourself out. No one thinks of the other gender for certain situations. We are based off of our gender stereotypes and that’s how society works.
Sociology In our Times-Diana Kendall
Male Female Roles-Deborah L. Rhode
Sexism in sports is common in both genders. In sports against women the most common is football and wrestling. Girls have been always known as week, and to play a sport like football. Is it sexism or is it just for their safety? There are some pretty tough girls out there but can they really handle keeping up with buff and strong guys where some have spent their whole life training. Girls can maybe play football when they are littler, but when they try to compete against someone twice to three times their size it is just best if they do not play. In wrestling you have some pretty akward moves and techniques, and wrestling with a girl would be even more akward. With men sports like cheerleading and dance are sexist. They were never known for a time to go together. For people today it is still hard to picture some males in girl activities. In society it is not surprising to see men dominate in sports like other aspects. Women are normally second to men like in employment and income. Even though women the main victims of sexism has dealt with it through history they have came a long way. Women used to not be allowed to play sports. It was considered to be a men’s game. Women were just support for whatever their husband decided to do. Now though they have created more sports some for just women mainly. Volleyball as far as I consider it is known as a girls sport, especially with the outfits they wear. Basketball is both genders but it did not use to be. Now they have created the WNBA. Women have created some chances for themselves like men. One thing I have noticed though is when you go to a sporting event, do you see more people watching the girls game or they guys? Normally I see more watching the men sports then women. The guys team could completely suck and the girls could be good like in basketball and I have still seen more watch the guys game. Even in sports women get paid less in the professional sports than men do. Unfortunately that is just how things work still today. It could be because men sports are more fun to watch, or maybe a bigger crowd with big intensity. It could be the skill level. Men are normally faster and stronger and better at sports, but not always. Honestly I barely ever see women sports on TV. For air time men receive 92 percent, women 5 percent and nutral 3 percent. Women do have the right to just as much air time but it is probably because of how many more people watch male sports then women’s. Sexism in sports is everywhere and probably happens in every sport someone can think of. Normally sports are just known as women or men sports so when the opposite gender tries to join it becomes an issue for them. In reality it will always be there.
Feminism-Andrea C. Poe
Sports and Athletes-Steve Sailer and Stephen Seller
Sexism in Sports
by Dominique Padilla
Sports play a huge role in today’s society influencing people of all ages whether you play them or are just a fan. Not only are sports good for you physically wise but can also teach you a number of life lessons. However there are some negative issues surrounding sports as well. One is sexism. According to Dictionary.com, sexism is defined as “attitudes or behavior based on traditional stereotypes of sexual roles” or “discrimination or devaluation based on a person's sex, as in restricted job opportunities; esp., such discrimination directed against women”. Some of the main instances of sexism we see in sports today include a small amount of women athletes in male dominated sports, women athletes salaries are substantially lower than men’s, media attention towards women in sports is poor, and women generally are not given opportunity to coach men’s teams. It is a fact that women just do not receive the same treatment as men especially psychologically and financially in professional sports today. Women have strived to be recognized as well as respected for their accomplishments in sports but seem to be overlooked by the media and the public in general. These stereotypes have been created over time because of difference in views between men and women. Although the sexism in sports is generally aimed at women there are some instances where men are looked down upon when they participate in female dominated sports such as cheerleading or gymnastics. Title XI which states “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of gender, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance”. For a while this seemed to have fulfilled its purpose however it’s hard to break down social barriers that have lasted a long time. Therefore generally sports are still categorized by gender. This is created by the difference of opinion between males and females, for instance females tend to think that mean and women are equal and therefore should be allowed to participate with men. Males on the other hand firmly believe they are superior in strength and skill and size when it comes to sports. This is not surprising considering they are basing these ideals on stereotypes. Either way if men aren’t going to be accepting of females in male dominated sports women should at least be equally compensated and respected for their accomplishments in professional sports. For example a top WNBA player generally makes a maximum of 87,000 while a top NBA player rakes in a whopping 20 million dollars. How is this fair both are athletes playing at the professional level of the same exact sport? This fact however not only applies to sports because in general men are paid more to do the exact same job a woman is doing. But the reason I believe it exists in sports is due to the fact that women get horrible media attention in professional athletics. And when I say horrible I mean close to none. And when they are which is rare nobody cares because they are not men. It makes no sense that while the men in professional athletes claim to be in it for the love of the game the NFL NBA and MLB have all experienced lockouts this year due to the fact they want more money. While women don’t even make a quarter of what they make are still doing their jobs.
Health Care Today
Have you ever gone to a doctor’s appointment, or maybe had to go to the emergency center and wondered who pays for all the services being provided to you? Honestly, Kids our day and age probably don’t think about it, but it’s important to know! It is our duty as Americans to take on a conflict perspective when looking into health care. Conflict theory focuses on the political, economic, and social forces that affect health care. Conflict theorists concerns are the ability of all people to obtain heath care; how race, class and gender inequalities affect health care.
Recently the United States was demoted from a high income nation without some form of universal health care coverage. However in 2010 the U.S congress passed a health care reform bill that was signed into law and will gradually bring about some changes in how health care is funded. President Barrack Obama’s health care plan will cost $940 billion dollars over the next ten years and would expand coverage to 32 million Americans who are currently uninsured.
Although the health care plan is expensive, it would reduce the deficit by $143 billion over the first ten years according to the updated CBO estimate. The first estimate was calculated to reduce the deficit by $130 billion over ten years then, $1.2 trillion dollars the next ten years.
“The uninsured and self-employed would be able to purchase insurance through state-based exchanges with subsidies available to individuals and families with income between the “133 percent and 400 percent of poverty level. Separate exchanges would be created for small businesses to purchase coverage which will be effective in the year 2014” (Jackson).
“Individuals and families who make between 100 percent - 400 percent of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) and want to purchase their own health insurance on an exchange are eligible for subsidies. They cannot be eligible for Medicare, Medicaid and cannot be covered by an employer. Eligible buyers receive premium credits and there is a cap for how much they have to contribute to their premiums on a sliding scale.” (Jackson)
It is our duty as Americans to take on a conflict perspective when looking into health care. Conflict theory focuses on the political, economic, and social forces that affect health care. Conflict theorists concerns are the ability of all people to obtain heath care; how race, class and gender inequalities affect health care.
According to Thomas Szasz (1984) mental illness is a myth. “Mental illnesses” are actually individual traits or behaviors that society deems unacceptable, immoral, or deviant. After learning this approach, should we have to pay for the mentally ill for their health care?
Or what about the capable Americans who do not have jobs, should we have to pay for their health care? These are questions that Americans need to ask ourselves and form opinions on. Whatever side you may take on the health care plan, take it full force and stand behind it. Help our generation realize the changes that are about to take place.
1. Kendall, Diana. Sociology in Our Times. Ed.
Poverty is the main cause of homelessness.
Twenty and thirty percent of homeless families surveyed have gone without food for part of the previous month.
The homeless face persistent deprivation and constant threat of harm.
They spend more time in the hospital and in jail than other people living at the poverty level.
The majority of homeless people are victims of violent crimes, and one fourth lack needed medical care.
Children in homeless families have lower GPA’s and fewer attendances
Single men account for about sixty percent of the homeless population.
Families constitute about one third of all homeless and are the fastest-growing group of homeless.
The homeless elderly population are also growing
The majority of homelessness occurs in large cities.
The rural homelessness is a growing problem.
Rural homeless are more likely to be families that are homeless for shorter periods of time, often as a result of domestic violence.
One of the hardest groups to reach, however, is the one fourth of homeless who have been homeless for at least five years.
Preventing Homelessness in America
Permanent housing provides a “base” for people to move out of poverty.
Many organizations that address the homeless population have shifted their focus from emergency shelter to prevention.
McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987, is a federal law that provides funding for homeless assistance programs.
Provides services and housing for an entire range of needs, from medical care to employment.
Placing the Homeless into Permanent Housing
Families and independent able adults should be placed in programs designed to place the homeless into permanent housing as soon as possible.
Tenants who have both serious mental illnesses and substance abuse problems have the hardest time thriving in permanent independent housing.
Groups that assist people in permanent housing should:
Provide services, such as job training, to the residents for a year after placement.
And follow up on the status of their placed people.
Homeless Transitional and Supporting Housing
Transitional housing provides a temporary place for the homeless to live for one to two years.
Transitional housing is becoming less popular with the focus shifting to moving homeless into permanent housing as soon as possible.
Services of the transitional housing include education and job training and homeownership and employment counseling.
Supportive housing provides treatment for the mentally ill and substance abusers.
Clients have access to in-house or off-site services such as medical and psychological care.
Substance abuse treatment is also provided.
Supportive housing is vital because about half of all homeless adults have problems with alcohol and one third with other drugs.
Twenty and twenty-five percent also have a major mental illness.
Supportive housing can be very effective in facilitating treatment of mental illness and preventing emergency hospital visits.
Italian Organized Crime
Since their beginning in the 1800’s the Italian criminal syndicate known as the mafia has infiltrated the social and economic structures of Italy and now impact the world. They are one of the most notorious and prolific of all criminal societies. They are involved in international criminal activities with various other criminal organizations around the world, especially drug trafficking. These groups don’t just limit themselves to drugs though they are also involved in illegal gambling, political corruption, extortion, kidnapping, fraud, counterfeiting, infiltration of legitimate businesses, murders, bombings, and weapons trafficking. Experts estimate that their global criminal activities are worth $100 billion annually. The La Cosa Nostra is believed to be the foremost organized criminal threat to American society. La Cosa Nostra, or the LCN as it has been dubbed by the FBI, consists of different families or groups normally arranged geographically and are deeply involved in racketeering activities. The LCN operates all over the United States as well as around the world but the highest concentration is centered in New York City and its surrounding areas. La Cosa Nostra has not always been the huge criminal empire it is today but evolved over many years as various gangs gained and lost control. The mafia as it is now known began with a man named Charles “Lucky” Luciano. He organized the Commission, the ruling body of the Mafia. The Commission consists of the heads of several mafia families, which meet and vote on issues that affect all the families. The advent of the Commission heralded 75 years of relative peace and prosperity for La Cosa Nostra. The mafia has thrived by following a strict set of customs and rules such as Omerta, which is the code of silence taken by all family members. The power and influence of the mafia during the prohibition continued after the alcohol was re-legalized by expanding into other criminal enterprises. In recent years there have been reports of mafia associates and members in workers’ unions, these are used to create legitimate business opportunities and cloak members as legitimate business men. The most notable of these are the Teamsters and International Longshoreman’s Association. This allowed crime families to make inlays into very profitable legitimate businesses such as construction, demolition, waste management, trucking, and in the waterfront and garment industry. Additionally this allowed them to pilfer Union pensions and welfare budgets. In the port and docking unions the mafia bribed and threatened union members to inform when valuable shipments arrived so the mob soldiers could steal them. Recently the mafia has been in decline due to incessant Federal law enforcement raids and prosecution and many former mafia members turning states evidence. However, law enforcement officials fear resurgence in mafia activity due to more federal focus on homeland security and less on organized crime due to the September 11 attacks. To avoid FBI attention and prosecution, the mafia has started out sourcing much of its work to third-party sources such as outlaw biker gangs and other low-end criminal organizations.
Arlacchi, Pino (1988). Mafia Business. The Mafia Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-285197-7
Chubb, Judith (1989). The Mafia and Politics, Cornell Studies in International Affairs, Occasional Papers No. 23.
Critchley, David. The Origin of Organized Crime: The New York City Mafia, 1891-1931. New York, Routledge, 2008.
Dash, Mike. The First Family: Terror, Extortion and the Birth of the American Mafia. London, Simon & Schuster, 2009.
Servadio, Gaia (1976), Mafioso. A history of the Mafia from its origins to the present day, London: Secker & Warburg ISBN 0-436-44700-2