Intro To Sociology 10:10 MWF Spring 2011

Jane Addams

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According to Sociology In Our Times, Jane Addams is one of the best-known early women sociologists in the United States because she founded Hull House, one of the most famous settelment houses, in an impoverished area of Chicago. She was born on September 6, 1860 in Cedarville, Illinois. She was the 8th and youngest child of John H. and Sarah Addams. Jane's mother died while giving birth when she was only two years old. Losing her mother naturally caused Jane's father to be a great influence on her life. In her childhood years she enjoyed playing outdoors, reading, and attending Sunday School.

When Jane was seventeen she followed her sisters to Rockville Seminary. Here, her studies included Latin, Greek, French, natural science, history, literature, and philosophy. After Rockville Seminary, Jane decided to attend Women's Medical College in Philadelphia. After seven months at this college her father died suddenly of shock, combined with an aggravated spinal injury. Her father's death, along with Jane not taking an interest in Medical School caused her to drop out.

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In 1889, Jane moved to Chicago, which was the second largest city in the new nation. It was here that she purchased Hull House and became a settlement worker. Jane felt a sense of responsibility of taking on the world's complications which included the discrimination of women and blacks, the problems of childcare, security for the elderly, the battle with poverty, and world peace. Hull House on Halsted Street in Chicago was Jane's home for half a century. It quickly became the center of the community. The activity there consisted of a reading circle, a kindergarten, a boys' club, and lessons for girls. Here, you could see the true passion and love that Jane had for people. Hull House was one of the first settlement houses in the United States. According to New World Encyclopedia, its main purpose was "To provide a center for a higher civic and social life; to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic enterprises, and to investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago.”

In 1907 the first National Peace Conference was held, which Jane Addams attended. In 1929 there was a celebration for Hull House's fortieth birthday. Its annual income was ninety-five thousand dollars, but, Jane had been earning just one thousand dollars a year for the previous fifteen years. In 1930 she commented, "I believe that peace was not merely an absence of war but the nurture of human life, and that in time this nurture would do away with war as a natural process." This led to her earning the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize. She was the second American to be awarded this. Jane was too sick with bronchitis and heart trouble to travel for her award. Her other accomplishments include, writing ten books, she presented numerous lectures and essays, earned fifteen university degrees and was honored with the Greek medal of military merit. In her life time, Jane survived six major operations, spinal trouble, typhoid fever, pleuropneumonia, hemorrhaging, angina pectoris, tuberculosis of the kidney, appendicitis, and the removal of one kidney.

At age seventy-four, she was honored with a reception in Washington where Eleanor Roosevelt commended her role in peace leadership. This same year, Jane felt a sharp pain in her abdomen, underwent surgery, and a malignant tumor was found. Four days later on May 21, 1935, she died. Fifty thousand people paid their respects to Jane Addams as she lay in state in the Hull House. One of her closest friends declared that Jane "was full of the love of life, of life as it is, not only as it might be." A place beside Woodrow Wilson was offered for her burial site, but the family grave in Cedarville, Illinois was chosen. Jane Addam's headstone is engraved with the following quote, "JANE ADAMS of HULL HOUSE and the WOMEN'S INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE FOR PEACE AND FREEDOM."

Book Sources
Sociology In Our Times 7th Edition, by Diana Kendall, 2010
Women of Light, by Walter Russell Bowie, 1963
Twelve American Women, by Elizabeth Anticaglia, 1975

Online Source
New World Encyclopedia, http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Hull_House

Photo Sources
http://womensphilanthropy.typepad.com/.a/6a011571801c18970b0134817935fe970c-800wi
http://hhsapush.wikispaces.com/file/view/hull_house.gif/110589843/hull_house.gif

by Sena Bailey


Charles Horton Cooley
Jered Rice

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Born August 17, 1864 in Ann Arbor, Michigan to Mary Elizabeth Horton and Thomas McIntyre Cooley, Charles Horton Cooley was the fourth of six children. Thomas Cooley was a Supreme Court Justice in Michigan, and law professor. Thomas Cooley was well known nationally for several Legal treatises. He was also known for being the first chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Charles Cooley was somewhat of an outcast as a kid, and graduated from Ann Arbor High School in 1880. After high school Cooley attends the University of Michigan- Ann Arbor for seven years, a majority of the time ill, some illness believed to be psychosomatic, after which he earned a degree in mechanical engineering. Cooley became a draftsman and statistician.

In 1890 Cooley began graduate work in political economy and sociology at Ann Arbor. There was no formal Instruction in sociology at Ann Arbor yet, so Cooley got his test questions from Franklin Giddings. Cooley married Elsie Jones in 1890 Elsie’s outgoing personality helped to balance Charles’ shy personality ; they lived in Ann Arbor, the couple had a quiet and somewhat secluded life and had 3 children a boy and two girls. In 1892 Cooley was appointed as an instructor of political economy at the University of Michigan, where Cooley spent most of his time considering the subject of “self.” In 1899 he taught the first sociology class at Ann Arbor after becoming an assistant professor of sociology. Cooley completed a dissertation on human ecology and was granted a Ph. D. in 1894. In 1904 Cooley became Associate professor, and became a full professor in 1907. In 1905, Cooley helped to create the American Sociological Society, later becoming its president in 1918. Cooley had other offers to join better known societies in sociology, but he had no will to leave the University of Michigan. Cooley used his children’s development to make his developmental theories. Cooley’s sociological goal was to learn about society and individual’s relationship to each other. “One’s personality comes from one’s influences: looking-glass self,” Charles H. Cooley. In the March of 1928 Cooley was diagnosed with cancer, the disease ended up taking his life on May 7, 1929.

Cooley’s work consisted of several papers and theories. “The Theory of Transportation,” which concluded that towns and cities tend to be situated at the convergence of transportation routes. “Social Significance of street Railways,” and “personal Competition,” (1899) in which he stated that as the United States was expanding and becoming more industrialized, the people become more individualistic and competitive. “Human Nature and the Social Order,” (1902) Cooley helped Mead’s discussion of the symbolism of the self. “Social Organization,” (1909) Cooley followed up his ideas, accentuation the importance on primary groups. “Social Process,” (1918) it emphasized the non-rational provisional nature of social organization. Cooley later wrote many different articles, including “Reflections Upon the Sociology of Herbert Spencer” (American journal of Sociology 1920, 26: 129-145), and “Now and Then” originally read at the dinner of the 1923 Annual meeting (Journal of Applied Sociology 1924, 8: 259-262).

http://www.asanet.org/about/presidents/Charles_Cooley.
http://sobek.colorado.edu/SOC/SI/si-cooley-bio.htm


Emile Durkheim

By Jacob Hutfles

Emile Durkheim was a French sociologist born in Epinal, France on April 15, 1858. When he was young, he started the process to become a Rabbi because of a long family tradition. While in secondary school though, he decided he didn’t want to become a rabbi and would much rather become a teacher, so he enrolled at the École Normale, a prestigious French university. There he was inspired by two of his professors, the classicist Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges and the philosopher Émile Boutroux. Their teachings eventually became part of Durkheim’s sociological method. After he left the University, he became a philosophy teacher and from 1882 to 1885 he taught in many different schools. Then from 1885 to 1886 he stopped teaching to go and study under psychologist Wilhelm Wundt. In 1887, he went back to teaching, becoming a sociology lecturer at the University of Bordeaux. In 1896, he was named a professor at that same university becoming the first sociology professor in France. Also, in 1896 he founded the Année Sociologique, a sociology journal, with the intent to spread knowledge of the social sciences. Eventually he was offered a teaching job at the Sorbonne, so he moved there in 1902 and there he stayed for the rest of his career.

In Durkheim’s doctorial thesis, The Division of Labor, he explained that in all types of social existence there needs to be consensus. He presented two types of solidarities, mechanical and organic. In mechanical solidarity, people differ very little from one another, and for the most part, they all hold the same emotions and values. Thus through coherence, a mechanical society draws consensus. In an organic society, the people have many different functions with each function helping and complementing the other functions, so in order for this society to perform properly everyone must achieve a consensus. After analyzing the two types of solidarity, Durkheim came to the conclusion that for an organic society to succeed, it needs to hold traces of mechanical society and that collective beliefs are necessary in every society.

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Before Durkheim, the generally accepted social theory was that a person’s social behavior was the result of their individual biology and their psychological traits. Therefore in his book The Rules of Sociological Method, Durkheim argued that a person’s social environment is responsible for their personality, behavior, and mindset, and that the social environment should be studied because of it’s impact on the individual. Durkheim also presented the idea of social facts, which are social norms, cultural values, and social structures that can only exist externally to the individual.

In his book Suicide, Durkheim discussed the ways society causes individuals to commit suicide. He analyzed many different types of data, comparing suicide rates to religion, age, sex, marital status, and personal finances. He found that people who are not well integrated into society or people not part of a social group are usually the ones most likely to commit suicide. Also, he found that people in a state of anomie, a society with no shared values, will be more likely to kill themselves.

Durkheim in considered by many to be the father of sociology and much of his work was the basis for modern sociology. His works have had a significant impact on the way we view society. Without Emile Durkheim sociology may not have grown into what we know today.

Sources
http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=UHIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CK1631001944&mode=view
http://www.emile-durkheim.com/emile_durkheim_bio_001.htm

Photo
http://www.nyu.edu/classes/persell/aIntroNSF/Documents/Field%20of%20sociology033108.htm


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