- Famous Sociologists
- Social Groups
- Social Control
- Social Structure and Interaction
- Crime and Deviance
- Family and Relationships
- Health, Health Care and Disability
According to Sociology In Our Times, Jane Addams is one of the best-known early women sociologists in the United States because she founded Hull House, one of the most famous settelment houses, in an impoverished area of Chicago. She was born on September 6, 1860 in Cedarville, Illinois. She was the 8th and youngest child of John H. and Sarah Addams. Jane's mother died while giving birth when she was only two years old. Losing her mother naturally caused Jane's father to be a great influence on her life. In her childhood years she enjoyed playing outdoors, reading, and attending Sunday School.
When Jane was seventeen she followed her sisters to Rockville Seminary. Here, her studies included Latin, Greek, French, natural science, history, literature, and philosophy. After Rockville Seminary, Jane decided to attend Women's Medical College in Philadelphia. After seven months at this college her father died suddenly of shock, combined with an aggravated spinal injury. Her father's death, along with Jane not taking an interest in Medical School caused her to drop out.
In 1889, Jane moved to Chicago, which was the second largest city in the new nation. It was here that she purchased Hull House and became a settlement worker. Jane felt a sense of responsibility of taking on the world's complications which included the discrimination of women and blacks, the problems of childcare, security for the elderly, the battle with poverty, and world peace. Hull House on Halsted Street in Chicago was Jane's home for half a century. It quickly became the center of the community. The activity there consisted of a reading circle, a kindergarten, a boys' club, and lessons for girls. Here, you could see the true passion and love that Jane had for people. Hull House was one of the first settlement houses in the United States. According to New World Encyclopedia, its main purpose was "To provide a center for a higher civic and social life; to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic enterprises, and to investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago.”
In 1907 the first National Peace Conference was held, which Jane Addams attended. In 1929 there was a celebration for Hull House's fortieth birthday. Its annual income was ninety-five thousand dollars, but, Jane had been earning just one thousand dollars a year for the previous fifteen years. In 1930 she commented, "I believe that peace was not merely an absence of war but the nurture of human life, and that in time this nurture would do away with war as a natural process." This led to her earning the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize. She was the second American to be awarded this. Jane was too sick with bronchitis and heart trouble to travel for her award. Her other accomplishments include, writing ten books, she presented numerous lectures and essays, earned fifteen university degrees and was honored with the Greek medal of military merit. In her life time, Jane survived six major operations, spinal trouble, typhoid fever, pleuropneumonia, hemorrhaging, angina pectoris, tuberculosis of the kidney, appendicitis, and the removal of one kidney.
At age seventy-four, she was honored with a reception in Washington where Eleanor Roosevelt commended her role in peace leadership. This same year, Jane felt a sharp pain in her abdomen, underwent surgery, and a malignant tumor was found. Four days later on May 21, 1935, she died. Fifty thousand people paid their respects to Jane Addams as she lay in state in the Hull House. One of her closest friends declared that Jane "was full of the love of life, of life as it is, not only as it might be." A place beside Woodrow Wilson was offered for her burial site, but the family grave in Cedarville, Illinois was chosen. Jane Addam's headstone is engraved with the following quote, "JANE ADAMS of HULL HOUSE and the WOMEN'S INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE FOR PEACE AND FREEDOM."
Sociology In Our Times 7th Edition, by Diana Kendall, 2010
Women of Light, by Walter Russell Bowie, 1963
Twelve American Women, by Elizabeth Anticaglia, 1975
New World Encyclopedia, http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Hull_House
by Sena Bailey
Charles Horton Cooley
Born August 17, 1864 in Ann Arbor, Michigan to Mary Elizabeth Horton and Thomas McIntyre Cooley, Charles Horton Cooley was the fourth of six children. Thomas Cooley was a Supreme Court Justice in Michigan, and law professor. Thomas Cooley was well known nationally for several Legal treatises. He was also known for being the first chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Charles Cooley was somewhat of an outcast as a kid, and graduated from Ann Arbor High School in 1880. After high school Cooley attends the University of Michigan- Ann Arbor for seven years, a majority of the time ill, some illness believed to be psychosomatic, after which he earned a degree in mechanical engineering. Cooley became a draftsman and statistician.
In 1890 Cooley began graduate work in political economy and sociology at Ann Arbor. There was no formal Instruction in sociology at Ann Arbor yet, so Cooley got his test questions from Franklin Giddings. Cooley married Elsie Jones in 1890 Elsie’s outgoing personality helped to balance Charles’ shy personality ; they lived in Ann Arbor, the couple had a quiet and somewhat secluded life and had 3 children a boy and two girls. In 1892 Cooley was appointed as an instructor of political economy at the University of Michigan, where Cooley spent most of his time considering the subject of “self.” In 1899 he taught the first sociology class at Ann Arbor after becoming an assistant professor of sociology. Cooley completed a dissertation on human ecology and was granted a Ph. D. in 1894. In 1904 Cooley became Associate professor, and became a full professor in 1907. In 1905, Cooley helped to create the American Sociological Society, later becoming its president in 1918. Cooley had other offers to join better known societies in sociology, but he had no will to leave the University of Michigan. Cooley used his children’s development to make his developmental theories. Cooley’s sociological goal was to learn about society and individual’s relationship to each other. “One’s personality comes from one’s influences: looking-glass self,” Charles H. Cooley. In the March of 1928 Cooley was diagnosed with cancer, the disease ended up taking his life on May 7, 1929.
Cooley’s work consisted of several papers and theories. “The Theory of Transportation,” which concluded that towns and cities tend to be situated at the convergence of transportation routes. “Social Significance of street Railways,” and “personal Competition,” (1899) in which he stated that as the United States was expanding and becoming more industrialized, the people become more individualistic and competitive. “Human Nature and the Social Order,” (1902) Cooley helped Mead’s discussion of the symbolism of the self. “Social Organization,” (1909) Cooley followed up his ideas, accentuation the importance on primary groups. “Social Process,” (1918) it emphasized the non-rational provisional nature of social organization. Cooley later wrote many different articles, including “Reflections Upon the Sociology of Herbert Spencer” (American journal of Sociology 1920, 26: 129-145), and “Now and Then” originally read at the dinner of the 1923 Annual meeting (Journal of Applied Sociology 1924, 8: 259-262).
By Jacob Hutfles
Emile Durkheim was a French sociologist born in Epinal, France on April 15, 1858. When he was young, he started the process to become a Rabbi because of a long family tradition. While in secondary school though, he decided he didn’t want to become a rabbi and would much rather become a teacher, so he enrolled at the École Normale, a prestigious French university. There he was inspired by two of his professors, the classicist Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges and the philosopher Émile Boutroux. Their teachings eventually became part of Durkheim’s sociological method. After he left the University, he became a philosophy teacher and from 1882 to 1885 he taught in many different schools. Then from 1885 to 1886 he stopped teaching to go and study under psychologist Wilhelm Wundt. In 1887, he went back to teaching, becoming a sociology lecturer at the University of Bordeaux. In 1896, he was named a professor at that same university becoming the first sociology professor in France. Also, in 1896 he founded the Année Sociologique, a sociology journal, with the intent to spread knowledge of the social sciences. Eventually he was offered a teaching job at the Sorbonne, so he moved there in 1902 and there he stayed for the rest of his career.
In Durkheim’s doctorial thesis, The Division of Labor, he explained that in all types of social existence there needs to be consensus. He presented two types of solidarities, mechanical and organic. In mechanical solidarity, people differ very little from one another, and for the most part, they all hold the same emotions and values. Thus through coherence, a mechanical society draws consensus. In an organic society, the people have many different functions with each function helping and complementing the other functions, so in order for this society to perform properly everyone must achieve a consensus. After analyzing the two types of solidarity, Durkheim came to the conclusion that for an organic society to succeed, it needs to hold traces of mechanical society and that collective beliefs are necessary in every society.
Before Durkheim, the generally accepted social theory was that a person’s social behavior was the result of their individual biology and their psychological traits. Therefore in his book The Rules of Sociological Method, Durkheim argued that a person’s social environment is responsible for their personality, behavior, and mindset, and that the social environment should be studied because of it’s impact on the individual. Durkheim also presented the idea of social facts, which are social norms, cultural values, and social structures that can only exist externally to the individual.
In his book Suicide, Durkheim discussed the ways society causes individuals to commit suicide. He analyzed many different types of data, comparing suicide rates to religion, age, sex, marital status, and personal finances. He found that people who are not well integrated into society or people not part of a social group are usually the ones most likely to commit suicide. Also, he found that people in a state of anomie, a society with no shared values, will be more likely to kill themselves.
Durkheim in considered by many to be the father of sociology and much of his work was the basis for modern sociology. His works have had a significant impact on the way we view society. Without Emile Durkheim sociology may not have grown into what we know today.
On the side of the street in Ohio, a cardboard sign read out ““I’m an ex-radio announcer who has fallen on hard
times.” People began asking the homely man holding it to speak. After a reporter by the name of Doral Chenoweth
III spoke with him he sent his story over the Internet. Less than a day later, the NBA and the NFL had offered him
jobs. Two days later his suave voice was beaming around YouTube. But who is the man with the so-called “golden
As a teenager, Ted Williams fell in love with the radio. He listened every night and decided that’s what he wanted to
do with his life. Unfortunately, he also fell in love with alcohol. But this didn’t affect him right away. He decided to
join the army. He was in the army for three years. Deciding to pursue the love for the radio, he was honorably
discharged. After getting home, he went to school for acting. After graduating he got a job on the radio. He would go
to work diligently each night. Liquor began creeping in on his life, though. Starting how slow, he finally made his
way up to the label of alcoholic.
While having a fifth of liquor in his system daily, he still would show up to work as a broadcaster on the radio. His
boss let it slide since he was so good at what he did. One day, cocaine made it’s way to Williams. He tried it, of
course. At first it wasn’t bad. Then he began snorting, shooting, and smoking it every day. That’s when he no longer
could juggle work. He would have to decide between addiction and success. He chose alcohol and drugs.
Ted Williams had another problem on his hands. Without his job, his seven girls, two boys, wife, and grandchildren
would suffer. Any form of money earned by the household would be used for liquor and crack. Eventually, his family
couldn’t take it and he wound up on the streets. His mother and family attempted helping him once in a while. Every
time they brought him home, though, he would eat all of their food and get more liquor and drugs.
Eventually, Ted Williams ended up holding the cardboard sign that led him to fame.
Ted Williams after Rehab
Ted Williams had a very stressful life after being found. Ted had to undergo rehab to continue with his career chase. He
stated that while being in rehab in California he had troubles staying focused with all of his excite meant with all the telephone
calls from people wanting interviews with him. There was many shocks with his change from his mother and family from all of
this rehab in California knowing he was becoming successful in his life. The California drug free home is where he resided for
most of his career begins. The home in California would require him to take some random drug tests at night once returning from
work. Ted eventually was able to leave his home in California and live on his own, he states that it’s a challenge every day and
all he can do is take it day by day. Ted is now fifty three and has successfully worked in many radio stations and has been
aired on many television stations as well. Now that Ted has been able to help his family now that he has had his job he has
been able to support his nine children, and some of his grandchildren as well. He has had many struggles with this before so he
is really happy he can finally do something in there lives now. Williams said after his struggles with his life he says he can
really only thank god for his second chance at life. He says god has really helped him with everything he got him through the
down times in his life and helped him get to where he is now, a career and getting better with his family again. His job offers
are what really helped him in his live he recived offers from Cleveland Cavaliers , the NBA basketball which offered him a home
as well as the job which gave him a big start. He also received a job from MSNNBC as a voiceovers for the network. He was
hired as well to be a voice behind Kraft foods. He received many major offers. Ted had an interview at Late night with Jimmy
Fallon he was talking about NBC shows he liked and watched. It helped that when ted was young he was interested in this
career type that he is able to be successful. He said that he loved it and that it was a theater of mind. This is something that
has helped him. Ted is a very lucky man to undergo all that he has and still end up on top. This is a very good thing in the
world and ted is very happy for all of the help he has received. The efforts that he has applied to this in his life has been very
good. This is an example in the world to show there is good out of bad and people can be helped.
Shelton Harvey and Allie Krick
Old Order Amish arrived in the US in the early 1700’s; they have fought to maintain their distinct identity. Today over 75 percent of the more than 100,000 Amish live in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana, where they practice their religious beliefs. According to sociologist, this religious community is a subculture. The Amish have a strong faith in god and reject worldly concerns. There values include work, their home, faithfulness, thriftiness, tradition and humility.
• Church-Church services are divided into districts. This enables them to have the services at the member’s homes. Each church district has its own wagon full of backless benches so they can be transported to the homes for 3 hour services every other Sunday. The men and women sit in separate sections.
• Tradition of Song- over 400 years old, Ausbund is one of the most important books to the Amish community. It was first published in Germany in 1564. With hymns being added over the years it now consist of 900 pages. The Ausbund is important for many reasons, but most notably for the religious heritage that it preserves. They sing without the help of organs or any musical instrument.
• Baptism- Amish youth decide if they want to join the church either in their teens or early twenties. If they choose to be baptized, they have to submit themselves to the order of the church for the rest of their lives. If they are baptized they make a confession of faith and agree to comply with the order of the community. Any church members who refuse to confess their sins are “shunned.”
• Selection of Ministers- Each district has more than one minster, one deacon and one bishop. The Amish do not believe in going to college to be a minster. Ministers are chosen by the men in the church district, deacons are as well, and bishops are chosen by the ministers. Becoming a minister isn’t viewed as an honor but a big responsibility.
• Amish Weddings- Most weddings take place after the autumn harvest, from late October to December. Usually they are held on Tuesdays and Thursdays so there is time for clean up in between each wedding. A wedding is a joyous occasion for two baptized members of the church. Parents do not select who their children will marry but approval must be given. The night of the wedding the newlywed couple must stay the night at the bride’s house and the next morning they must help clean up.
• Funeral Services- Family members may wash the body before the undertaker arrives. The undertaker embalms the body and typically dresses it in long underwear before placing it in the coffin. Their coffins are six sided, with two pieces on the hinges that fold down to reveal the body form the chest up. The coffin is then returned to the family and they body is clothed by a family member of the same sex. The men are dressed in white pants, vest and shirt. The women are dressed in a white dress, cape and apron. The cape and apron are usually the same one they wore on their wedding day.
• Wheat, Rye, Corn and Barley
• Home-baked bread, desserts and other grain based foods became a part of their diet.
• Dairy products, poultry (chicken), vegetables, and apples.
• Amish generally only eat foods from their own gardens. They do not eat processed, store bought foods. Vegetables usually include peas, corn, zucchini, beets, beans, rhubarb and many others.
• Amish women usually bake a large amount of cookies, pies, cakes and homade bread.
• Their beverages include coffee, tea, milk and lemonade.
o Straight cut suits, coats without collars or pockets, trousers with no creases or cuffs and are worn with suspenders. Belts are forbidden as well as sweaters, neckties, and gloves.
o Their shirts fasten with traditional buttons. Young men are clean shaved until they are married. Then they are required to grow their beard out. Mustaches are forbidden.
o Solid –color dresses with long sleeves and a full skirt covered with a cape and an apron. They never cut their hair and are required to wear it in a braid or bun on the back of their head. And then is concealed with a small white or black bonnet.
o Their clothing is fastened with straight pins or snaps, stockings are black as well as their shoes. They are not allowed to wear patterned clothing or jewelry.
• The Amish are against using technology because they feel it weakens the family structure.
• Electricity, TV, cars, telephones and tractors are considered a temptation that could create inequality, or lead the Amish away from their close community.
• To cultivate their fields with horse-drawn machinery. They live in houses without electricity and get around in horse-drawn buggies. They can use telephones but not in the home. Electricity is used sometimes in certain situati8ons such as electric fences for cattle, light on the buggies and heating the home.
• The only 20th century technologies they use are things like inline skates, disposable diapers and gas grills.
• Amish music is primarily German in origin and includes ancient singing styles not found anywhere in Europe.
• Older Amish hymns are monophonic, without meter, featuring drawn-out tones and slowly-articulated ornamentation. Usually there is no harmony in the music.
• Amish do not celebrate Thanksgiving or New Years
• They celebrate Christmas, Easter and Good Friday
• Amish participate in fasting before communion in spring and autumn
• Good Friday and St. Michael’s day are for fasting as well
• At Christmas they exchange gifts but do not put up a Christmas tree or teach kids about Santa Claus
Tiffany Wilson and Karen Jack
by: Stefanie Eicher
The 1920’s, also referred to as the Roaring ‘20s, was a time of prosperity and the introduction of a modern United States. The 19th Amendment was ratified on August 26, 1920. The Jazz Age was in effect. Prohibition began. To welcome this busy era was the Flapper, an independent woman who challenged and rejected the norms laid down by her elders.
The Flapper Look
Before the Flapper girl there was the Gibson girl, a feminine, polite individual who wore tight, constricting corsets, long dresses, and always had long, flowing hair. The Gibson girl was the ideal before WWI. With the beginning of a new era, the Gibson girl was shoved out of the spot light for the playful Flapper. The Flapper did away with constricting clothing and preferred short straight dresses, which typically stopped before the knee, a fashion that was considered “sluttish” in the eras before. Curves were not important to the flapper as they were for the Gibson girl. Flappers sometimes wrapped cloth around themselves to obscure them even further. The waistline would only reappear during the later part of the Flapper fashion. The Flapper outfit, unlike the fashion of before, was not as tedious to sew or put on. Some dresses could be made in one hour. It did not matter if a woman was rich or poor, the flapper style was afforadble enough that anyone of any social class could be a flapper. Saturday Evening Post writer Samuel Crowther in 1926 explained, "There is no distinction in the cut of the clothing between the rich flapper and the poor flapper — national advertising has attended to that. The rich flapper has better clothing than the poor one, but a block away they are all flappers."
The flapper preferred boyish haircuts in contrast to flowing long hair. Thus, the bob was introduced, a haircut that was just as or more controversial than the rest of the flapper outfit. The bob was typically cheek length and straight cut. When the flapper wore a hat, it was typically the cloche, a small brimmed hat to complement her hairstyle.
Make-up was very popular in the flapper culture. In the eras of before, the only women who wore make-up were seen as prostitutes. Blush, eye shadow, and lipstick were all bought and used by the flapper. The high demand of make-up caused cosmetic industry to rapidly grow and established it as a major business.
Individuals predominant in the flapper fashion and culture included Coco Channel, a French designer who revolutionized women’s fashion, and Clara Bow, an actress that many flapper based their looks on.
The Flapper Way
Women were supposed to be submissive, polite, and feminine. The flapper rejected all three and quite brashly. The flapper drank, smoked, swore, and was as open about her sexuality as much as she pleased. She openly dated and with the new music of the Jazz age, danced as much as she wanted. Dance marathons, activities in which individuals would dance until they were exhausted, were very popular. Other activities the flapper enjoyed included enjoying films from the rapidly expanding motion picture industry and driving.
Perhaps inspired by the added independence of suffrage and no longer having to fight against constricting clothes, the flapper could enter the labor force. In the 1920’s around 21% of women and 23% of married women worked, where women in earlier generation were expected to quit working once they entered marriage. As Clara Bow explains, “Marriage ain’t woman’s only job no more. A girl who’s worked hard and earned her place ain’t gonna be satisfied as a wife. I know this, I wouldn’t give up my work for marriage. I think a modern girl’s capable of keeping a job and a husband."
The flapper may be seen to some as frivolous and flighty who was more concerned with consumption and living in the moment, but she was a revolutionary figure. The flapper pioneered the idea of women working the workforce and challenged norms that had been strictly followed for many centuries. The flapper was not just a fashion statement or a simple way of life, but a symbol of change and equality.
Obesity- is defined as a condition in which a greater than normal amount of fat is in the body, it is more severe than overweight. Usually if you are obese you have a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more.
There is a major epidemic throughout the United States; child obesity has tripled since the year 1980, and 20% of children aged 8 to 16 years are having two or less gym classes per week. 25% of children watch four or more hours of television per day. 30% of children are at or above obesity status in 30 U.S. states. According to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation: In 2008, Kansas was ranked 22nd in the nation with 31% of 10 to 17 year old children identified as overweight and obese. Blacks have a 51% higher prevalence of obesity compared with whites. Hispanics have a 21% higher obesity prevalence compared with whites.
Overweight children and adolescents are more likely to become obese adults. For example, one study found that approximately 80% of children who were overweight at 10 to 15 years old were obese at 25. Another study found that 25% of obese adults were overweight as children. This study also estimated that if being overweight begins before the age of 8 years, obesity in adulthood is likely to be more severe. Finally, childhood obesity has psychological and emotional consequences. Obese children are at an increased risk of teasing and bullying, low self-esteem, and poor body image.
Obese children are at risk for a number of diseases and conditions, including:
- Diabetes -Type 2 diabetes
- Heart Disease
- High Blood Pressure
- High Cholesterol
- Liver Problems- cirrhosis.
- Menstrual Problems- uterine fibroids
- Trouble Sleeping- obstructive sleep apnea
- Liver Damage
- Metabolic Syndrome
- Cardiovascular Disease
There are many factors that increase your child's risk of becoming obese, they include:
- Diet- Regularly eating high-calorie foods, such as fast foods, baked goods and vending machine snacks, can easily cause your child to gain weight. Loading up on soft drinks, candy and desserts also can cause weight gain. Foods and beverages like these are high in sugar, fat and calories.
- Lack of exercise- Children who don't exercise much are more likely to gain weight because they don't burn calories through physical activity. Inactive leisure activities, such as watching television or playing video games, contribute to the problem.
- Family history- If your child comes from a family of overweight people, he or she may be more likely to put on excess weight, especially in an environment where high-calorie food is always available, and physical activity isn't encouraged.
- Psychological factors- Some children overeat to cope with problems or to deal with emotions, such as stress, or to fight boredom. Their parents may have similar tendencies.
- Family factors- If many of the groceries you buy are convenience foods, such as cookies, chips and other high-calorie items; this can contribute to your child's weight gain. If you can control your child's access to high-calorie foods, you may be able to help your child lose weight.
- Socioeconomic factors- Children from low-income backgrounds are at greater risk of becoming obese
Over the past thirty years, childhood obesity has become a major domestic issue for those living in the United States. With figures doubling for pre-school aged children and teenagers and almost tripling for children aged eight to eleven it appears that the threat of childhood obesity is becoming ever more present. In a recent study, nine million children in the United States aged over six are considered obese. What can be done? And where do we stand on this matter?
The term obesity is used to refer to children and youth between the ages of 2 and 18 years who have body mass indexes (BMIs) equal to or greater than the 95th percentile of the age- and gender-specific BMI charts developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Since being considered an epidemic, obesity creates numerous health problems for young children. Such examples are;
An obese child is more susceptible to developing psychological problems; such as self-esteem issues, self-blame and self-shame.
- Low self-esteem and psychological problems affect the child’s ability both academically and socially.
- Clinically obese children are also at more risk of Heart and Cardiovascular disease, as compared to a child of the same age.
- Type 2 Diabetes is also more prevalent in children who are over-weight.
- Potential for reduced life expectancy.
- Arthritis, Cancer, and Metabolic Syndrome.
After it’s classification as an epidemic, childhood obesity prevention has received great attention from the federal government in the hope of reducing and ultimately eliminating it from today and tomorrows youth. In research conducted, many contributing factors have been associated with childhood obesity. These are;
- Recent urban designs have not been developed with health in mind. More often than not such urban environments do not promote a healthy lifestyle.
- Tough economic times have caused families to scrutinize their weekly food bills. Therefore, in the hope of saving money, fast food is a simple and cheap option for hungry kids.
- There is minimal advertising of the benefits of healthy and nutritious foods. Furthermore, school cafeterias do not place the same emphasis on fruits and vegetables as they do on cheap, easy, fatty foods.
- Schools do not provide adequate chances for children to become active in fitness orientated activities.
- In the past decade the availability of video games has made children think twice about playing outdoors.
All of these five examples can be related in some way to every obese child throughout the nation. However, there is only so much these children can do. Ultimately the onus is on the parents of these children to take responsibility and steer them away from such things. From the information listed thus far, the main question is; where do we go from here? It appears obvious from the information showed so far that the health concern for these children is calling for some kind of serious action. All of these can be implemented from a national, state, community, family and personal way of thinking.
Derek J. Brown. “Childhood Obesity in America”. http://www.emporiagazette.com/news/2010/jan/19/childhood_obesity_america/
L. Bellows and J. Roach. “Childhood Overweight”. http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09317.html
“Health Risks of Overweight Children”. http://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/education/health_risks_for_overweight_children/index.html
Amanda Shearmire & Ross Freeman
Homeschooling and Socialization
“Why aren’t you socially inept?“
Do you think that going to school necessary for socialization?
According to our text book “schools […] play an enormous role in the socialization of young people.” Maybe this view is the reason that people think school is necessary for socialization, and why homeschooling is viewed as it is.
Homeschoolers are expected to be either super shy and unable to hold conversations, very religious, or super smart and unlike school educated students. These type of homeschoolers exist, but I have met students from schools who act the same way. It just shows there are exceptions to every rule!
Most parents choose to homeschool their children because they are concerned with the environment in school. Believe it or not, the majority of students are not homeschooled because they had/have social problems.
“What? you were a homeschooler? But you are pretty normal!” Or “You were homeschooled? Why aren’t you socially inept?” I was homeschooled and those are actual questions I have received from people I know, and those aren’t the only times I have heard statements like this. Why did the idea of homeschooling create the role expectation of someone unsocial/ “socially inept?”
The family is one of the agents of socialization, it’s actually called “the most important agent of socialization in all societies”, so it shouldn’t be hard to believe that someone raised by their family has social skills. Often homeschoolers are asked questions such as “can you do math?” and “do you know how to read?” and “do you actually learn things?” and "do you have friends?" When homeschooled students are asked questions such as these, it leaves the mind to wonder. Who is the socially inept one in these circumstances?
Socialization and social control are said to be two of the five manifested functions of education, but I believe socialization and social control can occur without going to a school for education. Socialization is defined in schools as “from kindergarten through college, schools teach students the student role, specific academic subjects and political socialization.” And social control is explained with, “schools are responsible for teaching values such as discipline, respect, obedience, punctuality, and perseverance. Schools teach conformity by encouraging young people to be good students, conscientious future workers, and law-abiding citizens.[…]”
Is it possible for students to not attend school and be “good student[s], conscientious future workers, and law-abiding citizens?” Being homeschooled generally doesn’t inhibit a student from succeeding in any of those ways later in life or learning these aspects of socialization.
Just an example on the “good student” part, Mary Matalin, a co-host of CNN’s “Crossfire,” when speaking of homeschoolers in June of 2000 said, “[…]in every single case they [homeschoolers] have to take a test to get into college, and when they get into college, they are identified by the teachers as already having learned to manage their time, as being self-initiated, being good students, they don't have any social problems. This compares with their public- and private-school counterparts over whom — over half of whom have to take remedial classes in their freshman year.” Humorously enough, she used the exact words, “good student.” Notice, she also said that they “don’t have any social problems.”
The students develop social skills by participating in activities in which they are interested, and because they are able to complete their school work faster they have more time to learn about other things and interact with a variety of people. Homeschoolers often get opportunities to learn from and be around different kinds of people that other students don't get.
Now it is true, there are social disadvantages that homeschoolers experience, such as homeschoolers are often more comfortable socializing with adults than their peers. They grow up and go to activities with others of varying ages, and the experience of being around students their own age is lost. So homeschoolers are sometimes unsure of how different their peers in school are. But they normally get past that fairly quickly once they enter a situation where being around their schooled peers becomes more common. Overall, I would say that there are social disadvantages to being homeschooled, but that they are not bigger disadvantages than those that result in school where the students have to deal with far more peer pressure, cliques and scenarios of that type. So, no, I don’t think that any education (social or not) has to occur in school to be successful.
Sociology In Our Times, The Essentials, 7th Edition -Diana Kendall
"Unsocialized Homeschooler Sign" http://homeschoolmania.kpsearch.com/active/b_member/supplier/po/supplier.asp?view=C&ch=&s=278933&bloc=&b=&btype=C&sloc=&c=
"Schools are for Fish" http://www.freewebs.com/mytwomonkeys/favoriteresources.htm
Every year, countless children, teenagers, and young adults lose one or both of their parents. Drunken drivers in car accidents, medical problems, divorce, or a variety of other causes can suddenly strip away one of a child’s most influential teachers. Where will that child turn for help? Who will that young person rely on for support and encouragement as they start their family and career? Will that teenager grow into a rebellious adult, or a prominent and law-abiding citizen? What influences the outcome?
The answer: Mentors can have a profound impact on the lives of those who are in need of someone to offer guidance and direction to their lives.
According to Kansas Mentors, a state wide organization encouraging mentoring, there are several popular ways to mentor. One-to-One mentoring is the traditional form which generally consists of one adult working with one youth. This would be the case in working with a pastor, teacher, or some other trustworthy figure on a personal basis. Group mentoring is when one adult works with a group of youth. This commonly occurs in a coach and team situation. In the locker room, much more than just the logistics of the game can be taught. Principles of life can be shared and demonstrated by the coach to a large audience at one time. And finally, and perhaps the form that could be most applicable to us: peer mentoring where caring youth mentors other youth.
With the help of a mentor, a troubled young person can change from being a deviant and nuisance in society, to becoming an esteemed person of great value to the community around them. This change can occur in many different forms, but I would like to examine a few of the basic principles behind successful mentoring: Accountability, Moral Support or Encouragement, and Learning.
First and foremost however, there must be the ability for both the mentor and the mentee to listen. Without actually listening and being able to understand what the other person is saying, the mentoring process will suffer greatly. By listening, trust can be built in this friendship, and a mutual respect for each other occurs. When a mentor is able to comprehend what the mentee is going through by listening to him or her, they are able to help in a suitable manner. The mentee gains confidence in their mentor, and the relationship will continue to grow and flourish.
Providing the means for a trusted mentor to help a mentee through life, accountability challenges the mentee to watch their actions, words, and thoughts. For example, if a teen spends too much time playing video games or surfing the internet, a mentor can intervene and encourage the mentee to be involved in healthy activities that can be beneficial. They can also support the mentee as he or she struggles with classes, teachers, or just everyday life.
“You’re doing great!” “I am so proud of the work you’ve accomplished!” “Keep persevering!” Who wouldn’t want to hear phrases like these from another person? When an important milestone is reached in a mentee’s life, a mentor can help the mentee to see that they are valuable and can achieve their goals. At the other end of the spectrum, life will always have failures, distresses, and disappointments. Many times, we can react negatively, but by discussing the situation with a mentor, we can begin to see a bit more of the ‘big picture,’ and be encouraged to continue on. There are times when I stumble in life, and I am grateful for a mentor who helps me to get back up emotionally and continue on.
Finally, I would like to share from my own experiences of mentoring. My father passed away when I was twelve, and since then, I have learned innumerable bits of wisdom and advice from the men who have mentored me over the past seven years. Careers, finances, marriage, and fatherhood, are just a few of the topics I’ve discussed with my mentors. Because of these men, I feel like I am becoming equipped and prepared to be the person God has called me to be. I have also had the privilege of working with other young men in peer to peer relationships, whether through being on a basketball team, work, or school, the blessings are tremendous!
Seeking a friendship? Become a mentor! We’ve only caught a glimpse at the power of mentoring. Who knows? We might have the opportunity to encourage a future statesman, prominent scientist, great parent, passionate community leader, or successful businessman.
Whatever the situation, I believe mentoring is a powerful way to influence those around us, as well as future generations.
Kansas Mentors. http://kansasmentors.kansas.gov/Pages/default.aspx
Gambino Mob Family
Carlo Gambino was born August 24, 1902 and died in October 15, 1976. He was named “boss of bosses” even though he was never a legal citizen of America. He smuggled aboard a boat among crates of wine, olive oil and anchovies to Newport, Virginia then made his way to Boston New York when he was only 19. He first worked with illegal liquor thanks to his cushions’ getting him a job when he got to New York. Then during the war he would steal rashtion stamps for the purchase gas and met. He quietly made his first million selling them on the black market. At 29, Carlo was named a capo of his own crew. Then at 30 he married his first cousin, Catherine, and had two sons and one daughter. In 1933, Gambino moved contraband liquor, selling alcohol without paying government taxes. Gambino invested his profits in a business that was low-key and taboo, running Gay Bars for homosexuals. Then in 1951, Gambino’s mob boss disappeared and he was named under boss in 1956 by Anastasia. He was under boss until Gambino got tired of feeling he would never be the boss so he sent out a hit on Anastasia in 1957. In the 1960s he got control of the union that handled cargo at JFK airport so he could know what was moving in and out of the bisiest line of entry. This made smuggling drugs and stealing things a lot easier and no one would find out due to cops that Gambino paid to “look the other way”. The Gambino crime family is one of the "Five Families" that control organized crime activity in New York City. The group was named after Gambino, boss of the family, in 1963. After becoming to be known as the “CEO of organized crime” after running the garment industry and getting his own part of the profit, moving into construction, gambling and even embezzling form Wall Street. In 1966 the justice department ordered a deportation against Gambino, but it was never followed up on and he never had to go to court for it. Gambino also had legit ways of making money, such as trucking and pizza businesses threw out New York. In the early 1970s, he was arrested on suspicion of masterminding an armed robbery but was never convicted. When Gambino came close to facing trial his heart would always frequently give out. He finally did die of a heart attack on October 15, 1976 in his own bed. A mob bosses dream. There was never a battle between the justice system and Gambino due to the fact they never made a successful prosecution in his case. After his death Gambino’s last wish was to have his brother in law/ cousin the new boss of the family instead of his underboss. He believed blood was more important than rank and he got his wish.
Freeganism is an anti-consumerist lifestyle whereby people employ alternative living strategies based on limited participation in the conventional economy and minimal consumption of resources.
Freegans "embrace community, generosity, social concern, freedom, cooperation, and sharing in opposition to a society based on materialism, moral apathy, competition, conformity, and greed. Freeganism involves choosing to salvage discarded, unspoiled food from supermarket dumpsters, known as 'dumpster diving'.
According to Sarah Dowdey, the word freegan is a combination of "free" — as in its free because you found it in a dumpster — and "vegan," a vegetarian who abstains from all animal products. Not all freegans are strict vegetarians, however. Some would rather eat found meat, dairy and eggs than let food go to waste. Freeganism started in the mid 1960s, out of the antiglobalization and environmentalist movements.
Many freegans get free food by pulling it out of the trash, a practice commonly nicknamed 'dumpster diving' in North America and 'skipping' or 'bin diving' in the UK, as well as 'bin raiding.' Retail suppliers of food such as supermarkets, grocery stores, and restaurants routinely throw away food in perfectly good condition, often because it is approaching its sell-by date (without thereby becoming dangerous), or has damaged packaging. Freegans find food in the garbage of such establishments, which they say allows them to avoid spending money on products that exploit the world's resources, contribute to urban sprawl, treat workers unfairly, or disregard animal rights. By foraging, they believe they are keeping perfectly edible food from adding to landfill clutter and that can feed people and animals who might otherwise go hungry.
Dumpster diving is not, however, limited to rummaging for food. Many 'dumpster divers' search for anything that can be recycled or reused, from accessories to power tools in need of small repairs. Some divers collect aluminum cans, which they can then sell for a small profit. Often, these people have all sorts of equipment such as a long pole that they use to move items in the dumpster around. When searching for food, a forager may come across food waste that is not entirely sealed from the unwanted waste in the same rubbish sack. This lower quality food is commonly referred to as "Scree." As bugs, rodents and other disease carriers also forage in such places, there are some risks associated with sourcing and eating such food.
In addition to the belief that people should not have to go without food when plenty of unused food is thrown away every day, freeganism also encompasses the idea that people should not be homeless when unused buildings are available. Freegans consider housing to be a right instead of a privilege. As a result of this philosophy, many freegans are involved in squatting. Squatting is the act of someone occupying a building that they do not have any legal claim or ownership over. “Squatters take a stand against councils and landlords, who would rather keep properties boarded up if they cannot make a sufficient profit from them". Freegans see this practice as senseless and a counter-productive use of resources. The questionable legality of squatting makes it hard to accurately track the number of people involved in this activity; however, there are estimated to be around one billion squatters worldwide. Striving for equality and reform, squatting is a political action that has been incorporated in numerous movements. Squatters view the act as a necessity because of the lack of housing available. They believe that there should not be buildings remaining empty when there are people who are in crucial need of a home but lack the resources to legally obtain one. Ultimately, squatting is a way of housing the homeless. However, the buildings that squatters reside in are sometimes used for other purposes as well, such as being changed into community centers that house programs for children, community organizations, and environmental education.
Working less is another component of freeganism. Freegans oppose the notion of working for the sole purpose of accumulating material items. The need to work is reduced by only purchasing the basic necessities for things such as housing, clothing, and food. Not working resists the idea that joy can only be found through the purchase of material items. Working is seen as sacrificing valuable time to “take orders from someone else, stress, boredom, monotony, and in many cases risks to physical and psychological well-being”. This time could be spent volunteering in service activities, bonding with family, or participating in a number of other endeavors. The concept of voluntary joblessness has been described as means of completing tasks out of love for others while not expecting anything in return for one’s services". Working is viewed as a component of a system that has abused our world both socially and ecologically. It is realized that not working at all is not an option for everyone, but that there are ways to limit the need to work as much. Employment does not need to take over or define one’s life, and such complete control does not need to be given to supervisors and managers.”
According to a Freegan website, Freegans often endeavor in a waste reclaimation program called “Food Not Bombs.” “Food Not Bombs recovers food that would otherwise go to waste to serve warm meals on the street to anyone who wants it. They promote an ethic of sharing and community while working to expose the injustice of a society where fighting wars is considered a higher priority than feeding the hungry.”
Homelessness, as defined by the HUD ( The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development), is:
○ an individual who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence; and
○ an individual who has a primary nighttime residence that is -
i. a supervised publicly or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations (including welfare hotels, congregate shelters, and transitional housing for the mentally ill);
ii. an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized; or
iii. a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings.
These are the government given terms for identification of what it means to be homeless, but as people we know that being homeless it much more then that. To be down on your luck doesn't even seem to be a suitable term for describing what it means to be homeless. Instead we can see it as a time of intense fear, frustration, desolation, and utter sadness. No one chooses to be homeless, but there are a wide number of predicaments which can occur and throw one's life into chaos as such. In this project I'll be covering a few and going a bit more in depth about what homelessness is and how its caused, and how we can change things for the better.
Photo courtesy of TheGiantNapkin.
"Why are people homeless?"
People around the world are homeless for a number of reasons. Some of these reasons are the outcome of poor decision making, but other reasons are determined by a clear mishap in someone's life. Things which are Uncontrolled Factors such as being the victim of domestic abuse and having nowhere to go after leaving your abusive spouse, all the way to having developed a mental illness and having no family or friends who can take care of you, and even a declining rate of employment in an economy. These are just a few of the known, and listed reasons as to why a person, couple, or entire family could be thrown into an impoverished position so bad that they're left without any of the basic human needs; being water, food, a home and even clothing.
Controlled Factors which lead to homelessness may include, drug abuse, a lack of ability to hold down a job, not because one is downsized, but quits because one feels the job is either too rough or not right for them, or other addictions which may consume one's budget such as gambling or shopping. Regardless of what the reasons people are homeless, the issue of homelessness is definitely a continually growing problem, not only in the United States of America, but around the rest of the globe as well.
"Who is homeless?"
Two trends are largely responsible for the rise in homelessness over the past 20-25 years: a growing shortage of affordable rental housing and a simultaneous increase in poverty. Persons living in poverty are most at risk of becoming homeless, and demographic groups who are more likely to experience poverty are also more likely to experience homelessness. Recent demographic statistics are summarized below.
In 2003, children under the age of 18 accounted for 39% of the homeless population; 42% of these children were under the age of five (National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty, 2004). This same study found that unaccompanied minors comprised 5% of the urban homeless population. However, in other cities and especially in rural areas, the numbers of children experiencing homelessness are much higher. According to the National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty, in 2004, 25% of homeless were ages 25 to 34; the same study found percentages of homeless persons aged 55 to 64 at 6%.
Most studies show that single homeless adults are more likely to be male than female. In 2007, a survey by the U.S. Conference of Mayors found that of the population surveyed 35% of the homeless people who are members of households with children are male while 65% of these people are females. However, 67.5% of the single homeless population is male, and it is this single population that makes up 76% of the homeless populations surveyed (U.S. Conference of Mayors, 2007).
The number of homeless families with children has increased significantly over the past decade. Families with children are among the fastest growing segments of the homeless population. In its 2007 survey of 23 American cities, the U.S. Conference of Mayors found that families with children comprised 23% of the homeless population (U.S. Conference of Mayors, 2007). These proportions are likely to be higher in rural areas. Research indicates that families, single mothers, and children make up the largest group of people who are homeless in rural areas (Vissing, 1996). All 21 cities with available data cited an increase in the number of persons requesting food assistance for the first-time. The increase was particularly notable among working families. (U.S. conference of mayors 2008)
As the number of families experiencing homelessness rises and the number of affordable housing units shrinks, families are subject to much longer stays in the shelter system. For instance, in the mid-1990s in New York, families stayed in a shelter an average of five months before moving on to permanent housing. Today, the average stay is 5.7 months, and some surveys say the average is closer to a year (U. S. Conference of Mayors, 2007 and Santos, 2002).
In its 2006 survey of 25 cities, the U.S. Conference of Mayor found that the sheltered homeless population is estimated to be 42 percent African-American, 38 percent white, 20 percent Hispanic, 4 percent Native American and 2 percent Asian. (U.S. Conference of Mayors, 2006). Like the total U.S. population, the ethnic makeup of homeless populations varies according to geographic location. For example, people experiencing homelessness in rural areas are much more likely to be white; homelessness among Native Americans and migrant workers is also largely a rural phenomenon (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1996).
(INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE NATIONAL COALITION FOR THE HOMELESS)
"What We can Do To Help"
When it comes to helping the homeless, there's an almost unlimited number of things that can be done! Food can be donated to your local food bank, you can start a clothing drive, you can simple donate, volunteer at a local shelter, if there isn't a local shelter then organize one with the aid of a local church. The list literally goes on and on and you can honestly do so much. There have even been a few documented events of people taking in a homeless person, giving them a place to stay, cleaning them up, and finding them work before sending them on their way. Just have an open mind, and the next time you see someone begging for aid, then give it to them in good will, regardless of whether they're really homeless or not. If a person is willing to impersonate a homeless person for free things, then chances are they need it more than you think.
Remember that a homeless person isn't any less of a person merely because they're homeless. They could be a distant relative, so treat them as such.
Video of a homeless man playing make-shift drums for donations.
Thank You for Your Time!
Images & Sources:
[ TheGiantNapkin - Homeless Man]
[ HUD.Gov - Homelessness]
[ National Coalition for the Homeless - Factsheets]
The Black Panthers
Huey P. Newton- Huey P. Newton was born February 17, 19424, in Monroe, Louisiana. He was the youngest of seven children. In 1945, he and his family moved to Oakland, California to take advantage of a job opportunity. Huey attended the Oakland public schools where he was made to feel “uncomfortable and ashamed of being black”. He and his family were poor and victims of discrimination and segregation. Newton attended Merritt College and earned an Associate of Arts degree and also studied law at Oakland City College and at San Francisco Law School. In Oakland City College, Newton became politically oriented and socially conscious. He joined the Afro-American Association and got the first black history course adopted as part of the college’s curriculum. After reading works from Frantz Fanon, Malcolm X, and a few others, Newton became aware of Oakland’s black community by noticing that there were fewer organizations to speak for and represent the lower class African-Americans. That as when Newton and Robert Seale organized the Black Panther Party for Self Defense in October of 1966. Seale Became the chairman and Newton was appointed as minister of defense.
Robert George Seale- Better known as Bobby Seale was born in Dallas, Texas on October 22, 1936. Seale’s Family moved around in Texas before settling in Oakland, California, during World War II. Seale tried out for basketball and football teams but was rejected because of racial prejudice and in the end quit Oakland High School and joined the U.S. Air Force. With Three years of military service, he was court-martialed and given a bad conduct discharge for disobeying a colonel. After the military Seale went back to Oakland and got his high school diploma through night school then in 1962 began attending Oakland City College. There he became aware of the struggle for civil rights and joined the Afro-American Association, a campus organization that stressed black separatism and self-improvement. This is where Bobby and Huey met. They both found that they didn’t want to be in the AAA and decided that they would make their own group that would lessen the economic and political oppression of the black community. The group that they would form would be the Black Panther Party.
What They Stand for:
The main purpose of the BPP was to empower African Americans during a period of time when most African Americans could not make much progress. In many poor neighborhoods many young African Americans were looking for leadership and the BPP filled this void. Self-defense was taught to discipline its members so that some sense of organization could be put in place. Membership was restricted to African Americans and most of the ideology was based on Socialist principles. Armed with the 10-step program the BPP had a clear vision, goals and objectives that endeared many young men and women who became staunch members of the BPP. There was no lack of leadership and even today most everyone agrees that the BPP attained most its goals and objectives with great distinction.
The black Panthers were a racial and social controlled group. They first organized in Oakland California lead by Huey P Newton and Bobby Hutton. They first appeared in 1966, after they notice police brutality in their neighborhood. They soon after decided to make a difference for there people. They knew that they need to get the public attention, so they dressed in all black and marched up and down the streets handing flyers to all black people only. Their main base was based in their hometown of Oakland. After they had a couple of relays and group settings. They decided to hit the people that they felt were there enemy, which where the Oakland police. Soon after they first marched on the police, they decided to name themselves after the beautiful, majestic animal Black Panther. The first attack against the city took place in their neighborhood that didn’t have a stop light, that was the cause of many deaths thanks to hit and runs. After they won that case light they gained the support of the community. Their leader decided that in order to fight the system and the government, that they need discipline and be educated under the system.
The black panthers where mostly known for this discipline and the way they constructed themselves. They were looked at as a mixture of Martin Luther King followers and the Muslims of Malcolm X. They were loud and strong. They preached the strength of the black man and that the people need to equip themselves. With their militant order there came certain things that every member needed in order to be considered a Panther. They had to share in their beliefs and goals, read the “10 Point Platform”, can’t do drugs or consume alcohol, and must serve in community services which is called the Action. They also were required to get a gun owners license, so that they can march with the group down the streets with no hassle and humiliation. The Panther’s method was to rub everything in the government’s face, as in they use the laws that the government used to oppress the people. Thanks to these tactics there was a lot of up raise against the government, with the Panthers moving westward to areas such as Cleveland, Houston, New York, Chicago, and Detroit. With all those stations, they all had one common mind. The Panthers also got some Olympic athletes to show support. Their main mission was to stop the way their people were being treated, but they did so much more. They helped all the other races such as Spanish, Asian, and even Middle Eastern.
The New Black Panthers:
The New Black Panther group is thought to be a disgrace to the originals because they show ignorance and racism because they are young and are very miss guided. Many of them are aggressive and don’t conduct themselves the way that the older group tried to do. They have no association with the originals except for the logo and the name.
by: J Raynor and Damion Walls
Adolf Hitler was born April 20, 1889 in Austria. He was born to Alois Hilter and Klara Polzl. Klara was Alois’s third wife and his niece, making him not only Adolf’s father but great uncle too. Adolf seemed to have a miserable childhood due to his very abusive father. His father would beat him and his mother; this could where Hitler’s hate first started. He struggled in school and didn’t choose the career he wanted (art), but instead pursued the career his father wanted him to. After his mother died, he moved to Vienna, Austria to pursue his passion art. The town of Vienna is also very anti-semitist; which means they do not like Jews. Living in Vienna could be why Hitler never liked Jews. Not to mention a Jew rejected Hitler from art school. After being rejected from the art school, Hitler was homeless living on the streets of Vienna. He was too lazy to get a real job; he thought he was better than everyone else even though he was homeless. Once WW I had started, Hitler dodged the draft in Austria and moved to Germany, but he later enlisted in the German Army. Hitler was a decorated soldier; he won the Iron Cross 1st class and the Iron Cross 2nd class due to bravery. An injury to mustard gas would take him out of the war until the end.
After the war, Hitler was assigned to spy on the NSDAP (would later become the Nazis). Not long after, Hitler became a member of the NSDAP. From here he would start to become the powerful leader we know him as. As of 1923, the German economy was absolutely terrible. In fact, 130 million German marks were equal to 1 US dollar. When the NSDAP tried to revolt against the government, Hitler was arrested for treason and sentenced to 5 years in prison. There he would write his famous book, Mein Kampf. In this book, Hitler describes his hate for Jews, communist, and many other minorities and social groups. Hitler was released from prison after 9 months and would go on to help the Nazis overthrow the German government.
Now Hitler begins his plan to knock out two birds with one stone to rebuild the German economy and save the pride of the German people. Germans were trillions of dollars in debt and many people were unemployed. Hitler had a plan; he was going to rebuild the German nation and then some. He started off by creating construction programs to give people jobs; he began building autobans and highway networks. He also sent people to start building ships and airports throughout Germany. Many pilots began training too, for what they thought was going to be the German National Airlines. Steel factories had also begun hiring more workers. Little do they know that Hitler wasn’t just putting them to work to knock out unemployment, but for his master plan to take over Europe. The autobans were developed so that the German army could be mobilized faster. And the ships, airplanes, and pilots were obviously the future German Navy and Air force. Then the steel factories that were increasing the number of workers were also building weapons for the German Army. The women also played a key role in Hitler’s plan. Women were encouraged to get married and start families, then have babies. This made more jobs available for those unemployed men in Germany.
It is obvious why the German people loved Hitler. He restored both the pride and economy of the German people. Using Jews as scapegoats, the German people eventually turned on the Jews too. It soon became a social norm to discriminate against the Jews. The Germans believed that the Jews were responsible for everything that had happened to them.
by Sean Cherry and Jensen Foss
By: Chelsea Kinnett
Social norms are what people who are considered “normal” follow. Examples can be anything from what music is listened to, to the style of clothing people choose to dress themselves in. Social deviance is when people break the norms, and follow their own idea of what they want to be. It is generally thought of as a negative influence. According to Gary T. Marx, there are five elements of the process into a negative form of social deviance. The first one is an “increase in the frequency of the original violations.” The second one deals with the increase of the seriousness in violations and the third deals with the categories of victims or violaters. The fourth deals with the increase in commitment to the crime and the fifth deals with how often the crimes appear. An example of a negative form of social deviance would be robbery, assault, burglary, or more. Examples of positive deviance could include groups that deal with Animal Rights or the Free Hugs campaign (shown in the picture).
People can also break the social norm with small actions, with perhaps clothing or sentences that people can say. Trends can occur with certain forms of social deviance. The trends that I usually see most often are within the clothing styles and types of music. My theory is that these type of trends start with someone performing a social act of deviance, and other people following their lead. The style of clothing and the type of music that was listened to differed throughout the seventies, eighties and the nineties, probably all due to some individuals performing social acts of deviance. Most of the acts die out with time, but new ones start up almost immediately.
According to Robert O. Keel, “Reality is structured out of our definitions and interpretations.” He is right in the sense that people as a whole decide what the social norm is. Meaning what is acceptable and what is not acceptable within a society. With a lot of deviant acts, it takes a lot of courage to step up and go against a social norm. An example of an act would be one such as the free hugs campaign. It took some time of standing on the sidewalk holding a Free Hugs sign until people would use some of their courage to help break a social norm. In this case, the norm that was broken was hugging a stranger and setting a huge example in random acts of kindness. There have been many experiments for acts of deviance throughout the years. Some people will perform them by walking to close to a person in a public place. They could even be small like wearing pajama pants to school one day. Without social deviance, reality would be dull as society followed the social norm. It makes life interesting and fun to live in even though there are also negative social deviant acts mixed in with the positive.
The American Gangster
Frank Lucas, the American gangster. Frank Lucas was one of the most notorious drugs lord’s of America in the 1960’s and 1970’s. He was born September 9th, 1930 in La Grange, North Carolina and raised in Greensboro, North Carolina. Still alive today, Frank is at the age of (80) eighty years old. Frank Lucas is a former heroin dealer and organized crime boss who operated in Harlem during the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. He was particularly known for cutting out the middleman in the drug trafficking trade. He imported from The Golden Triangle, located in southeast Asia.
When Frank was asked, what sparked his motivation to embark in a life of crime?
He responded that he witness his 12 year old cousin murdered by the Ku Klux Klan for “reckless eyeballing” (looking at a KKK’s woman). At this point Frank started a life of petty crime until he had a fall out with his former employer and he left North Carolina and fled to Harlem, New York under the advise of his mother.
In Harlem he involved himself in petty crime and pool hustling. Then one day he was taken under the wings of gangster Bumpy Johnson, who was a drug lord. Frank Lucas drove Bumpy Johnson around a couple of times but, Johnson never saw Frank as more than someone to carry his coats. Frank Lucas became the closest person to Bumpy Johnson and learned the business by taking in everything the Johnson shared with him. After Johnson’s death Frank realized that, to be successful in the drug industry he would have to cut the middleman and not deal with the Italian mafia.
Frank found a connect with his cousin’s husband, Lesley "Ike" Atkinson, a U.S. Army Sergeant at the time stationed in southeast Asia. This was Frank’s big break he had his direct contact. The way they went about transporting the heroin from Asia to the U.S.A was in coffins of dead soldiers. Frank Lucas then decided to have a successful business he would have to hire people who he trusted. These people would be his relatives out of North Carolina, Frank flew his family members up to New York. Frank figured that they were less likely to steal from him. Frank called his product “BLUE MAGIC” he stated that is was 98-100% pure from Asia.
"We did it, all right…ha, ha, ha… Who the hell is gonna look in a dead soldier's coffin? Ha ha ha."
"I had the coffins special made and put a false bottom in them, so I'd get 10 to 12 to 15 keys in each coffin. And there was like 500 coffins or whatever it was. All at one time we did that."
Frank Lucas said that he made one million dollars per day. A federal judge Sterling Johnson, a special narcotics prosecutor in New York at that time, called Lucas’ operation “one of the most outrageous international dope-smuggling gangs ever, an innovator who got his own connections outside the U.S. and then sold the narcotics himself in the street." But it wasn’t long before the fed’s caught on to Frank’s operation. Good cop Richie Roberts started his investigation on Frank Lucas.
During his reign in the drug trafficking trade Frank married Julianna Farrait, a homecoming queen from Puerto Rico. The two often bought each other expensive gifts including a coat for which she paid $125,000 and $40,000 cash for a matching hat. He owned several mink and chinchilla coats and other accessories. Frank preferred to dress casually and corporately so he would not attract attention to himself.
Richie Roberts arrested Frank Lucas in 1975, all of Frank’s assets were seized. He was later convicted of both Federal and New Jersey state drug violations. The following year he was sentenced to 70 years in prison. Once convicted, Lucas provided evidence that led to more than 100 further drug-related convictions. For his safety in 1977, Lucas and his family were placed in the witness protection program. In 1981, after 5 years in custody, his 40-year Federal term and 30-year state term were reduced to time served plus lifetime parole. In 1984 he was caught and convicted of trying to exchange one ounce of heroin and $13,000 for one kilogram of cocaine. He was defended by his former prosecutor Richie Roberts the tough and honest cop who ruthlessly hunted him down. Frank received a sentence of seven years. He was released from prison in 1991. Richie Roberts was outside waiting on him on his released date they became the best of friends.
Frank Lucas allowed his life story to be placed in a motion picture, dramatized in the 2007 feature film American Gangster in which Lucas is played by Denzel Washington.
(BOOK) ThE Orginial Gangsters, the real life story of one of america’s most notorious drug lord’s
James Carey(Jay) & Michael Palmer(Mike)
Have you ever wondered what it would be like to have the ability to decide the gender of a child? The power to decide whether couples have a little girl or boy is becoming more of a common trend than it was in the past. Technology today makes gender selection possible & easier than it has ever been before. Gender selection is not permitted worldwide; in some countries it is prohibited. We here in the United States are very fortunate to have this as one of our freedoms. Everyone has their own reasons as to why they would rather have a boy or girl of their offspring but as with every universal topic, there are pros and cons to every side. Many people believe that gender selection is wrong by all means, while others feel that it may be right in certain situations and for various reasons. Gender selection should not be permitted by law because of the ethical issues it raises and the controversy it causes, as for many gender selection is merely an issue between natural conception and medical conception. (Gender Selection Pros and Cons)
People have the right to choose the gender of their baby based on financial freedom. Gender selection can be very expensive, depending on the financial situation of the couple, they will decide whether or not they can afford to do the procedure. Everyone is free to make their own decisions, but in cases like this finances have a large part in the decision making process.
Justice is one of the Prima Facie Duties, so the question can come to surface: Is it just that if people have the money that they should be able to choose the gender of their child? (Thiroux) Is it really fair that just because people have the funds to follow through with gender selection that they really deserve it? There are other people out there that would like to do gender selection but do not have the financial safety to do so, it’s not fair to them that others can do it because they have the money to. It seems that the financial world is not fair to anyone in today’s economy because there will always be those who are wealthy, middle class, or poor.
While financially gender selection is not fair, it is everyone’s right to find happiness whether it be through means of money or not. This can fall under the Prima Facie Duty of Self-Improvement. The parents have the obligation to improve their own virtues and happiness and in turn try to be beneficent to the child by helping to improve their virtue, intelligence, and happiness. (Thiroux)
One large reason for gender selection today is to control family size or to even out the number of boys and girls in the family. Many families prefer to have split sexes, while some prefer more of one gender over the other.
The question now bubbles to the surface: Is it sexist to choose the gender of a child? Some may see it this way, but then again another question forms: Is it fair to the child to have its gender chosen for it? If the child is not born yet, to an extent it is the parent’s choice to decide what is best for the child, even if they feel one of the best decisions is gender selection. Is it selfish of parents to want to choose the gender of a child? Another point to consider in gender selection is disappointment if the preferred sex does not happen.
“Gender selection allows couples to have the number of boys and girls they want in their family without having to "try again"” –Gender Selection Pros and Cons. Some people may want a boy to keep the family name alive, others may want a “Little Princess” instead.
Some decisions may seem like a good idea at the time, but later after it is thought about and pondered upon, was it really such a great idea? What will happen between family relationships if the wrong choice is made? People must live with the decisions that they make every day, whether they are good or bad, and whether or not the outcome is right or wrong.
Often times gender selection goes well and the parents are happy with their “Designer baby” and their families support their decision. The decision of gender selection may give the parents a feeling of power and the special feeling of finding strength in the power to make life decisions together. In times like these, the decision for gender selection would be good and the outcome would seem right to those who agree with it.
Sometimes the idea of gender selection can put strain on families. If part of the family agrees and the other part does not, then relationships are stressful and cause tension in the family. This could cause a couple to second guess their decision and could potentially lead to regret in the end. It is possible that the “What if” question would occur with or without gender selection. Parents could ask themselves “What if we had chosen the opposite sex for our child?” or “What if we had not done gender selection?” These are questions and consequences that a family would have to consider and possibly live with when considering gender selection.
Choosing the gender of a child is a huge life decision. It will not only affect the life of the child but also the life of the parents and the family. In the end they must live with those decisions and the consequences that come about from them, whether good or bad. Everyone has their own reasons for their decisions. Is gender selection morally right or wrong? That all depends on personal preference and who is making the decision because everyone is different and every individual is entitled to their own opinions. This is a universal issue that will be debated forever.
“Gender Selection Pros and Cons.” 2009. < http://genderselection101.com/gender-selection- pros-and-cons.html>
Thiroux, Jacques P. Ethics: Theory and Practice/ Keith W. Kraseman. 10th Edition. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. 2009
“Son Or Daughter (Gender Selection).” Facebook. Web. 27 Apr 2011. <http://www.facebook.com/home.php#!/group.php?gid=119346451449569>
Gender Selection. Film. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D46SpAAyDn4>. gid=119346451449569>.
Kimberly Gerstner and Ashton Domsch
No Child Left Behind Act
By: Kayla Cozza and Anthony Vrbas
In 2001 President George W. Bush signed the act No Child Left behind Act which is a number of measures that are designed to make sure students achieve in schools and it holds states and school accountable for their students’ progress. It also helps federal and state schools set and follow higher student achievement, stronger public schools and a better-prepared teacher workforce. This act focuses on how to improve student learning, rather than buying the latest technology and not knowing how to use it. The act also helps schools prepare students for the outside world after they graduate. They also want parents to get more involved in their child’s school work and know how the school is doing yearly. Although we stated earlier that this act doesn’t want schools buying the latest technology just because they think they need it, but instead this act wants schools to consider the technology and see if it will benefit the school and the students. This act also wants student’s technology literate by 8th grade. For example they need to complete a computer class that teaches them how to type. There are also some quick key books available for teachers to learn from. The number one main goal for this act is to improve reading, writing, and math scores by the year 2014.
There are six ways the act does this.[1) Annual testing is done. Each year students in grades 3 through 8 must be tested over reading and math. Then at least once in elementary, middle, and high school the students must be tested in science. All the test must reach a certain academic standard. That standard can vary between the states. Also a sample of the 4th and 8th graders must participate in the National Assessment of Education Progress test in math and reading so the state can compare the test results.
2) The second one is Academic process. By the school years 2013 to 2014 all the schools must meet an individual yearly progress goal. The goal is for both the student population and specific demographic subgroups. Schools that are receiving the federal title I funding that fail to meet their goals two years in a row must be given technical assistance and the students must be offered to attend other public schools. If the students in schools fail to make their adequate process goal in three years then the school must offer supplemental educational services, like private tutoring.
3) Third, the school of course must send out report card every year. Some schools send them out a couple times a year. This card must show a range of information that includes: student-achievement data broken down by subgroup s and information showing how the school district is doing.
4) Fourth is teacher qualification. Every teacher that works in publics schools must be “highly qualified” in the subject that they teach. Basically the teacher must demonstrate proficiently in their subject.
5) Fifth is reading first. This is a grant that was funded at $1.02 billion in the year 2004. It helps states and school districts set up “scientific, research-based” reading programs for grades K-3.
6) The last one is funding changes. This means that schools must better target resources for poor children and families. This ensures that every child gets an education. This law also includes greater flexibility on how the schools spend their portion of their federal allotments.
In the end this act has helped out many schools and they have improved their scores. Education is very important and without it people cannot hold a good paying job. The government is not interfering but just helping out and setting goals so the schools can do better.
“Education is the social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural values within a formally organized structure”.
There is certain knowledge and skills people must learn to survive in their society. A society is a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Most societies are related to knowledge and skills meeting competitive job requirements, but there are the societies that are solely based on skills such as hunting or farming. No matter the skill, education has always been the starting point for that knowledge.
Functionalists view education as one of the most important components of society, and according to Durkheim, education is the “influence exercised by adult generations on those that are not yet ready for social life” (Durkheim, 1956: 28). Some functionalist believe that “shared” values should be transmitted by schools from kindergarten through college but not all agree what functions education should be taught. The functions that are distinguished between are manifest functions and latent functions.
Manifest functions are defined as the open, stated, and intended goals or consequences of activities within an organization or institution. In education these are socialization, transmission of culture, social control, social placement, and change and innovation. Latent functions are hidden, unstated, and sometimes unintended consequences of activities within an organization. In education these are matchmaking and production of social networks, restricting some activities, and creating a generation gap.
Conflict theorists argue that schools often perpetuate class, racial-ethnic, and gender inequalities. For example many schools let the upper class have more opportunities because their parents are donating their money to the school. And unfortunately this happens everywhere. Another example is gender inequalities, both toward females and males. In Texas they don’t have as many sports for the females as they do the males, but in many cases girls are viewed as the “smarter” students. Closely linked to the issue of cultural capital is how tracking in schools is related to social inequality. “Tracking refers to the practice of assigning students to specific curriculum groups and courses on the basis of their test scores, previous grades, or other criteria”. Tracking affects many students’ educational performance and their overall academic accomplishments according to conflict theorists.
Symbolic interactionists focus on patterns of communication in the classroom and the practices of education, such as labeling, that affect students’ self-concept and aspirations. Labeling is directly related to the power and status of those persons who do the labeling and those who are labeled. Schools have standardized testing which enable the educators to label some children as “special ed” or low achievers, whereas others are labeled as average or “gifted and talented.” If a child is labeled as “special ed”, the child may start to view themselves as stupid or “not as good” as his or her classmates. Whereas, a student who is “gifted”, may start to feel superior or “better than” his or her classmates.
All of these views have one important thing in common… they all believe that in some way education is a very important component in all types of societies.
Durkheim, 1956: 28
Kendall, Diana. “Sociology in our times. The Essentials” 7th Edition Chapter 12.
Society and Mental Disorders
Today society has labeled people who have mental disorders, crazy, over emotional, unable to be successful in their careers. We are all aware if mental disorders but, do not actually understand the disorders. There is (Approximately 20.9 million American adults, or about 9.5 percent of the U.S.)#2 who have had or that are suffering from a mental illness. So many people do not tell anyone that they are suffering or have a mental disorder, and usually stay isolated away from social events. However there are people who do not care that people know of their illness, and do not let this affect their life.
There are many of us today that can say they wouldn’t treat a person with a mental illness any differently than a person without. Here is a clip that shows examples, of how the person with a mental illness is treated compared to a person without any mental disorders.
Remember the saying “Don’t judge a person by the outside but what on the inside that counts”. There is not any difference, even though you know that person. If that person tells you about their mental disorder they trust you and believe you are a good person and would not judge them. What would make them any different than they were before you found out they have a mental disorder. Here is an example: Most people, when a friend without, or that you do not know that they have any mental disorder is upset, you will ask them if they need someone to talk to, or if they are having a bad day. However if you have a friend with a mental illness and they are upset, most people are more likely to say, “Did you take your medicine?” Or make an excuse such as they are just acting like that because of their illness. Why should we treat anyone differently because everyone has emotions, with or without any mental disorders?
In the U.S., mental disorders are diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV).
Drug addiction and dependency are not just happening to the stereotypical drug addict. Drug addiction is affecting people from all walks of life from the rich and famous to the poverty stricken. For all different types of reason, to get high, to feel accepted or just not to think about their troubles. The matter is Drugs have effect our society in disastrous ways. Lives ruin and ended from drug usages, Careers have been ruined jobs lost from drug use.
Addiction is a labyrinthine condition and in itself is defined as a “chronic relapsing brain disease . In it is compulsive drug use and physical self abuse. Knowing that they are harming themselves addicts still seek and use drugs. This is why it is considered a disease it destroys the brain and changes its structure and the way it works. The changes made from the constant use of drugs can be long lasting or permanent.
The Reasons Why People Use Drugs;
- To feel Good - Most abused drugs produce intense feelings of pleasure.
- To feel better. Some people who suffer from social anxiety, stress-related disorders, and depression begin abusing drugs in an attempt to lessen feelings of distress
- To do better. The increasing pressure that some individuals feel to chemically enhance or improve their athletic or cognitive performance can similarly play a role in initial experimentation and continued drug abuse. (ex. Steroid use leading to smoking PCP)
- Curiosity and "because others are doing it. This affects adolescents in particular because they are vulnerable to the strong influence of peer pressure.
People sometimes use drugs to maintain a social relationship. The relationship might be valued so much to where a person would do drugs to sustain this relationship. This starts with peer pressure teenages might see other teens doing drugs and to feel accepted in certain social groups they would start using drugs
Warning signs that someone is using drugs
Physical warning signs of drug abuse;
- Bloodshot eyes or pupils that are larger or smaller than usual.
- Changes in appetite or sleep patterns. Sudden weight loss or weight gain.
- Deterioration of physical appearance and personal grooming habits.
- Unusual smells on breath, body, or clothing.
- Tremors, slurred speech, or impaired coordination.
Behavioral signs of drug abuse;
- Drop in attendance and performance at work or school.
- Unexplained need for money or financial problems. May borrow or steal to get it.
- Engaging in secretive or suspicious behaviors.
- Sudden change in friends, favorite hangouts, and hobbies.
- Frequently getting into trouble (fights, accidents, illegal activities).
Psychological warning signs of drug abuse
- Unexplained change in personality or attitude.
- Sudden mood swings, irritability, or angry outbursts.
- Periods of unusual hyperactivity, agitation, or giddiness.
- Lack of motivation; appears lethargic or “spaced out.”
- Appears fearful, anxious, or paranoid, with no reason
Different drug effect people differently for example people that use heroin develop tolerance for heroin and need to use more & more to get the same effect.
Lawrence Taylor "NFL Hall of Fame"
Lawrence Taylor was one of the most feared linebackers in the NFL. He played his entire career for the New York Giants and won two Super Bowls with them, he was a three time Defensive player of the year and was named league MVP in 1986. Taylor was listed the #3 most feared tackler of all time on NFL Network. In contrast to his fame and success his personal life was filled with controversy and Drug addiction. The Drug Lawrence Taylor preferred was cocaine. While still playing in the NFL Taylor tested positive for cocaine in 1987, and consequences was a 30 day suspension from the league. Taylor then tested positive for the second time in 1988. After testing positive for the second time in fear of losing his career in the NFL he stopped using drugs for the next 5 years. Coming up close to his retirement Taylor looked forward to being able to use drugs again and no longer having to abide by the rules of the NFL. After his retirement he went in to rehabilitation twice and was arrested 3 more times for buying cocaine and position of cocaine. He even had a case against him for the alleged rape of a 16 year old girl.