- The Brain
- Nature v. Nurture
- States of Consciousness
- Personality Disorders
- Anxiety Disorders
- Mood Disorders
- Dissociative Disorders
- Other Disorders
What is Alzheimer’s?
Jayln McCauley and Taylor Gobin
Alzheimer’s disease is one form of dementia that gradually gets worse over time. Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Alzheimer’s will affect your memory, thinking, and your behavior. You are more likely to get this disease if you have a blood relative that has it and If you have certain genes that are linked to it. You have a higher chance of getting this disease if you are a female, have high blood pressure for a long time, or if you have a history of a head trauma. There are two types of Alzheimer’s. One being the early onset Alzheimer’s disease and the other being the late onset. The early onset disease has symptom’s showing before the age of 60. This type is not as common as the late onset. However, it tends to get worse much faster. Late onset is the most common type. This occurs in people over the age of 60. It can run in families, but the role of genes is less clear. Many years ago people have believed that aluminum, lead, and mercury were the cause of AD, but now they have nothing to do with it. Alzheimer’s symptoms affect the areas of mental function and they include: emotional behavior, language, memory, perception, and your cognitive skills. The first symptom is usually forgetfulness. Before the get Alzheimer’s elderly people usually go through a stage called mild cognitive impairment. This is when people have mild problems with thinking and memory that haven’t interfered with their everyday activities. Not everyone will go through this stage. Early symptoms of AD can include difficulty performing tasks that take some thought to them, getting lost on familiar routes, misplacing items, and personality changes. As the disease becomes worse, the symptoms become more obvious. Their sleep patterns change, the experience depression, the have difficulty preparing meals as well as reading or writing, and they become more forgetful.
1 in 8 older Americans has Alzheimer’s disease. In the U.S. it’s the sixth, leading cause of death. This year, an estimation of $200 billion will be used for payments towards people with Alzheimer’s. Symptoms must include decline in memory and in at least one of the following cognitive abilities:
1) Ability to generate coherent speech or understand
spoken or written language.
2) Ability to recognize or identify objects, assuming
intact sensory function.
3) Ability to execute motor activities, assuming intact
motor abilities and sensory function and comprehension
of the required task.
4) Ability to think abstractly, make sound judgments
and plan and carry out complex tasks.
Treatments: Well, unfortunately, as of right now, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease.
There are 7 stages of Alzheimer’s Disease. They are: no impairment, very mild decline, mild decline, moderate decline, moderately severe decline, sever decline and very severe decline.
Just in Kansas, the number of Alzheimers/Dementia Caregivers is 148,508. Hours of Unpaid Care is 169,121,337. Value of Unpaid Care is $2,049,750,604. And the High Health Care Costs of Caregivers is $83,682,912.
Cerebral palsy refers to any one of a number of neurological disorders that occur in infancy and early childhood that permanently affect motor skills. Although it happens early in childhood, the condition does not worsen over time. Cerebral palsy is caused by a variety of things, anything from a vehicle accident, to brain infections like bacterial meningitis.
There is no known cure for cerebral palsy, but there are treatments that help improve motor skills and speech. Children that have trouble walking can take rehab to help build muscle and improve balance to make everyday goals more obtainable. On the other hand, the individuals that have trouble speaking, can have sessions with a speech pathologist, or in extreme cases voice synthesizers.
Currently, research is being done to find early brain development abnormalities, both the nature and the nurture sides of the equation. Scientists are looking at the genetic makeup of the individuals that suffer from these disorders. They are also looking for chromosomal defects to see if it is hereditary or an error in the mitosis cycle. Scientists look at nurture issues. They are analyzing, bleeding on the brain, epileptic seizures, and breathing problems. Anyone of those can cause an imbalance of chemicals that could also cause brain damage.
The reason that I picked this topic is because I have a cousin that suffers from a very severe case of cerebral palsy. She is two years older than me and has had the condition since birth. She has trouble walking, can’t speak, and is totally dependent on others for her well being. During the birthing process she was subcommand to asphyxiation which led to the brain damage.
The scientific term for this is Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy. It causes epilepsy, developmental delay, motor impairment, and cognitive impairment. The majority of the occurrences happen in full term pregnancies which usually affects the putamen, and thalamus. Just like normal cerebral palsy there is no cure, the only thing to do is get help to deal with the symptoms, and there is no full proof way to prevent it. Awareness is the best preventive measure, making sure everyone in the delivery process is aware of the things that could happen.
Cerebral Palsy Information Page: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). (n.d.).National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Retrieved April 25, 2012, from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy.htm
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) Cause of CP | CerebralPalsy.Org. (n.d.). The Ultimate Resource for Everything Cerebral Palsy |CerebralPalsy.Org. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from http://cerebralpalsy.org/about-cerebral-palsy/cause/hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-or-intrapartum-asphyxia/
11 May 2012
Essential Capacity For Creativity
Innovation is driven by the individuals who can think outside the box and see many solutions to a question using their own unique ideas. In “The Journal of Psychology” article “Flexibility and Originality in Children’s Divergent Thinking” published in 2001, Mark Runco claim’s, “Divergent Thinking ability is not equivalent to creative ability,” which aids to further research to identify the creative process. The most effective research “evaluated ideation patterns by comparing the first half of each individuals ideation with the second half and was proven successful because subjects were not evaluated with the same temporal intervals” (Milgram and Rabkin, 1980). The investigations provide evidence to incorporate ideational flexibility within divergent ideation. Divergent thinking is a problem solving skill associated with ideation process that produces a wide variety categories and themes.
Milgram and Rabkin had valuable examination of both ideation patterns. The method in which they tested the individuals was through comparing the first ideation set and the second. In the research, the participants were: fourth, seventh, and twelfth graders with diverse imagination. The studies assessed fluency and originality scores of each 2- min interval of 10- min tests; results showed productivity was constant and dimensions of originality increased as a function of time and originality was defined as “cleverness” (Christensen, Guilford, and Wilson 1957). In short, flexibility is important in the investigation to separate the gifted and non-gifted children; also, divergent thinking tests forecast validity with the real world (Runco, 1985). The research of Ruco and Albert suggest there is a correlation to ideation patterns and intelligence.
Finding in the current research illustrates differences in the ability of divergent thinking. Other research shown in the article, “How Convergent and Divergent Thinking Foster Creativity, Dr. Scott Kaufman proposes, “the convergent and divergent thinking aspects were unrelated to each other simply because both aspects were significantly correlated with the creativity test.” This concludes that the creativity of an individual requires both convergent and divergent thinking. The creative process of a person’s problem solving abilities must see all possible solutions to a question.
The use of divergent thinking is interpreted as thinking outside of the box. Teresa Amabile, professor at Harvard Business School concludes, “In order truly achieve creative outputs; the creative individual must have a high degree of intrinsic motivation.” This is relevant because an aesthetic experience is one in which you are in the moment and your senses are operating at there peak performance. In other words, an individual is more willing to operate with conviction as apposed to subjects who are less likely to engage in the activities with less motivation throwing off the ideation process and patterns. For instance, the next research group could give specific procedures to enhance one’s creative potential.
To see many answers to a solution rather than just the select few convergent answers makes people think intuitively. Researchers from the University of Hawaii explore children’s ideational flexibility commonly associated with divergent thinking. The results of the research was conclusive that originality and flexibility have a direct correlation with the examinee’s intelligence and remained constant in the later tests. The skill to produce infinite amount of solutions associated with ideation process used to in problem solving is known as divergent thinking; such tool can harness your creativity as many innovators have done in our history.
"Beautiful Minds." How Convergent and Divergent Thinking Foster Creativity. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/beautiful-minds/201202/both-convergent-and-divergent-thinking-are-necessary-creativity%2520%2520>.
“Psychology of Creativity.” AllPsychologyCareers.com. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://www.allpsychologycareers.com/topics/psychology-of-creativity.html>.
Runco, Mark A. "Flexibility and Originality in Children's Divergent Thinking." The Journal of Psychology, July 2001. Web. <http://www.dixonsclass.com/Lissa/4.%20Flexibility%20and%20Originality%20in%20Children's%20Divergent%20Thinking..pdf>.
By Ismael Garcia
The human brain is the most complex part of the body. Scientists today are still studying the full functions and diseases of the brain. To be honest with everyone, I feel scientist will never know everything about the brain, because it controls our whole body’s functions, thoughts, and memories. There is a small part of the brain that I enjoy learning about because of all its duties. There are very few tissues of the body that escape its work. The hypothalamus main function is to control the body’s homeostasis. According to the Human Anatomy & Physiology- Eighth Edition, the hypothalamic – homeostatic responsibilities are: autonomic control center, center for emotional response, body temperature regulation, food intake regulation, water balance and thirst, sleep-wake cycles, and control of the endocrine (hormone) system functioning.
What is homeostasis? The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines homeostasis, “a relatively stable state of equilibrium or a tendency toward such a state between the different but interdependent elements or groups of elements of an organism, population, or group.” This entire definition means to create normal conditions in the body.
The location of the hypothalamus is, “Named for its position below (Hypo) the thalamus, the hypothalamus caps the brain stem and forms the inferolateral wall of the third ventricle [of the brain]” (Marieb & Hoehn 443). The University of Wisconsin Neuroscience Resource Website states, “The hypothalamus is the ventral-most part of the diencephalon” (883).
The autonomic control center regulates the cardiac and smooth muscles and the secretion of glands. Therefore, since it controls the body’s automatic nervous system, it also directs the brain stem and spinal cord. With this role, it has a great amount of power to direct and control the human bodies, “[B]lood pressure, rate and force of heartbeat, digestive tract motility, eye pupil size, and many other activities” (440,444).
Has anyone ever wondered where people’s sex drives come from? The answer is the Limbic system and the hypothalamus. There are special cells in the hypothalamus that involve the rhythms of fear, rage and pleasure. For example, if we fear heights or airplanes, the emotion leaves the limbic system, to the hypothalamus, as a result a pounding heart, high blood pressure, and sweating.
The third regulation is the control our core body temperature which is 100 degrees Fahrenheit. This amazing gland initiates, “[C]ooling (sweating) or heat-generating actions (shivering) as need to maintain a relative constant body temperature” (444). The fourth regulation is the food intake, once the stomach empties its food storage; it sets the feelings for hunger and satiety.
If we are in a hot summer day sweating, we are losing water and the hypothalamus controls our thirst drive. These are called osmoreceptors, and they sense when the body’s concentration fluids are high. The sixth regulation is the sleep cycle, if we get sleepy at a certain time, it’s because our hypothalamus sets our sleep clock, along with other parts of the brain (Marieb 443,444).
The last function is the control of the endocrine system. It produces hormones of its own called ADH and oxytocin. With that said, it controls the releasing and inhibition of hormones throughout the body (Marieb 444). If we are in a flight or fight situation, the hypothalamus controls our adrenaline and epinephrine to survive whatever circumstance in our body.
There is more information about the hypothalamus that can be reviewed and studied in depth; however it controls a great amount of things. No one wants to damage their hypothalamus because of its powerful functions. This fascinating part of the brain controls our organs in order for us to survive. Therefore, there are many damages that can affect the body in so many ways if this part of the brain is not taken in consideration.
Hoehn, Katja. "The Central Nervous System." Human Anatomy & Physiology. By Elaine N. Marieb. 8th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings/ Pearson, 2010. 440-45. Print.
The Existentialist Theory by Hannah Matchell
A philosophy that encompasses everything one may encounter in life based on one’s own truth; sounds too perfect to be true, right? Wrong. There is a philosophy called existentialism that follows this belief. One would think that with so much freedom this philosophy would be easy to understand, but it is the exact opposite of “easy”. Existentialism is a tough concept to grasp due to the vast immensity of subjects that it involves, but by exploring examples in literature and art, one can come to a better understanding of this philosophy and may be able to spot its numerous flaws.
There are four main tenets’ in which the existentialist philosophy is concerned: alienation, absurdity of life, freedom, and the fact that one creates his/her own meaning. The tenet that is most commonly used in existentialist writings is the belief that life is absurd and meaningless. One can find this belief in many pieces of literature such as, Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s short story, “The Yellow Wallpaper”. This story deals with a young woman in the early 1900s who suffers severely from post-partum depression. Her husband, a physician, moves her to the country, hoping the fresh air will help her ailment. He assures her that she is getting better due to the fact that she is cooped up in a large room with ominous yellow wallpaper that will help brighten her spirit, while in reality, her depression and the yellow wallpaper brings her to the brink of madness. The absurdity in this piece can be found once the narrator starts ripping off the yellow wallpaper to remove “the woman behind [who] shakes it” (7). One can clearly find the absurdity in this due to the fact that a person with a “normal” psyche would never believe that there were women living in the wallpaper, none the less, trying to escape. This piece of literature also covers the existentialist belief that life is meaningless, due to the fact that in history women didn’t have much of a role in society except to be the pretty trophy wife, so many women felt that they didn’t have a true purpose. Another piece of literature that covers this belief is the story of The Bald Soprano. (Ionesco, 47). This is the story of Mr. and Mrs. Martin, whom the reader would seem to infer that they are married, but the author uses repetition and a vague sense of humor to make it seem as if this couple isn’t married. This concept is very absurd because as the story progresses the couple seems to be completely oblivious to the fact that they are married, living together and even have a daughter. (Ionesco 47-50). Then as the story comes to a close, we are told that they are not married, which is even more absurd! We can also find this belief of absurdity and meaninglessness even in current media, such as music videos. The music video Once in a Lifetime by the indie-rock band, The Talking Heads, is very absurd and odd in itself. The main character of this video seems to be all over the place with repetitious movements and lyrics that don’t make much sense. With this being said, these three examples also show how existentialism is flawed in the belief that life is meaningless, because if life was meaningless, then the narrator of “The Yellow Wallpaper” wouldn’t have been so distraught over the fact that her husband no longer allowed her to write. (Gilman 1). Also, in The Bald Soprano we can clearly see that life is not meaningless because of the relationships and knowledge one can find in this world. One see’s this in the relationship between Mr. and Mrs. Martin, even though the two are not married the connection they seem to have is very important.
The next tenet of existentialism that is most commonly discussed is the belief or theory of alienation. One example of this belief can be found in the painting The Scream (Munch). In this picture, one see’s a man who seems to be very distraught. One may infer that he is distraught due to the fact that he is alone or alienated from the rest of society. Another inference made on this picture may be that the subject seems to be showing emotions of fear and anxiety, a not as often mentioned belief, in the existentialist theory.
A second example of the belief of alienation is found in the story “A Hunger Artist” by Franz Kafka. In this story the reader finds a man who fasts for very long periods of time in order to find some sort of enlightenment. This man is locked in a small cage for all to see his emaciated image, like he is some sort of attraction. The hunger artist forces his alienation from society upon himself, unlike the previous example. In the last few minutes of the hunger artist’s life, the overseer asks him why he can’t do anything but fast; the hunger artist whispers, “because I couldn’t find the food I liked. If I had found it, believe me I should of made no fuss…” (A Hunger Artist 5). In this quote one may find many aspects of existentialism such as the belief of alienation or how one creates his own meaning, by the way the artist alienates himself from society in order to find his meaning. These two examples very much show the existentialist belief of alienation, but also demonstrate another flaw of this philosophy. One may believe that the subjects in these pieces of literature have indeed been alienated, but in reality no one is ever completely alienated because of how deeply society is intertwined into one’s life. This tenet of existentialism may have been true when Kafka was living, but as for our time period this belief is obsolete, due to social media.
As stated earlier, another tenet of existentialism is the theory that one creates his own meaning. In the story “The Myth of Sisyphus”, the idea that one creates his own meaning is stressed heavily throughout the entire story (Camus). Sisyphus was said to be “the wisest and most prudent of mortals” but, he stole the gods’ secrets (Camus 1053). Therefore, he is condemned by the gods’ to endlessly roll a rock to the top of a hill, and then watch it roll back down. This demonstrates that Sisyphus created his own meaning just by consequence of his own actions. Sisyphus chose to lead a happy life, even in the middle of all of his ruin, he makes the best out of his situation by accepting his consequences. Another example of this belief can be found in “The Fifth Story”, by Clarice Lispector. In this story one comes across a woman who is, at first, very keen on exterminating the cockroach population in her apartment, but as the story progresses, the narrator shows an immense change in the way she feels about the killing of these creatures. The narrator expresses this moral dilemma in her choice of deciding to continue to kill the cockroaches or not. “[Killing them] would mean sacrificing myself or my soul” (Lispector 477). With this quote, one can see how in the existentialist theory every choice one makes leads to his or her own meaning. This means one needs to make the right choices for himself in order to reach his meaning. A more common example comes from the book East of Eden (Steinbeck). In this novel one sees many characters, from very different backgrounds, but one in particular seems to be an existentialist: Kathy. This spitfire of a woman, or demon, never seems to be happy, until she has shot and killed the only two people who ever truly loved her. This may seem very sadistic, in the way that Kathy creates her own meaning, but with the death of these people Kathy is able to create her own happiness and meaning by being her own woman and running a “business”. Within these examples, one may see that regardless of the negative or positive connotations of one’s action, that each individual is responsible for his own actions. The only problem with this belief of existentialism is that in reality, the choices one may make in order to bring them to one’s meaning, have been shaped throughout one’s life by the society in which one may live. According to Face to Face corporation, people’s actions are shaped by said, “society in which they live [that] gives space for the exercise [of such freedom]…” (Face to Face).
The fourth and last tenet of existentialism is the belief of freedom. Franz Kafka’s novella, The Metamorphosis, is a perfect example of the existentialist theory of freedom. This story is about a young man who transforms into a giant bug, due to the fact that his family treats him as though he has no worth. Once Gregor’s transformation is complete, he finally has all the freedom he was missing out on while he was being a slave to his parent’s needs. At first he tries to go back to work, but that idea is quickly revoked once his manager is horrified by his appearance (Metamorphosis 15). Throughout the story, one hears of the struggles that Gregor encounters with being a bug, mentally and physically. Gregor is a good example of the freedom aspect of existentialism because prior to his life as a bug he didn’t have much freedom because he was always working to keep his family satisfied, but post-bug he has the ability to have all the freedom he wants but he chooses his own fate by alienating himself once again. Or at least he thinks he chooses his own fate. In all actuality, his family still chooses for him. Furthermore, one may see this tenet of existentialism in Samuel Beckett’s play Waiting for Godot. Here the belief of freedom is drilled into both acts. What happens in this play is that two men, Vladimir and Estagon, end up waiting for the same person, Godot. While waiting for this man, they come across a man and his slave who entertain them until they receive a messenger from Godot who tells them he won’t be coming to see them. Upon receiving this information, our two main characters leave and decide to come back the next day. One sees here that Vladimir and Estagon are using their choice of free will to come back, or are they? While waiting for Godot, once again our characters encounter the man and his slave from the day before, but they have changed significantly. The man and his slave are portrayed as being “deaf and dumb,” not being able to remember meeting our main characters the day before (Waiting for Godot). Now, this play seems to hold many themes of existentialism such as freedom and absurdity, freedom because they have the choice to keep waiting for Godot, and absurdity, because they don’t even know who Godot is! Is there an outside force that insists for these two men to keep coming back and waiting, day after day, on a man whom they don’t even know? It appears that one may be relatively free, but according to Andy Blunden, a professor who lectures on Sarte, “the actual power of the human will that Sarte celebrates is far more limited than most existentialists believe” (Sarte), thus making this idea of existentialism nonexistent.
One may still believe, whole-heartedly, in a philosophy that encompasses any thought, on any given topic, specially, with the given sources from art and current media. But as Professor, Gordon E Bigelow stated, “authors are not necessarily conscious existentialist theorizers or even know the writings of such theorizers” (4). One may choose to believe in freedom, alienation, absurdity and the creation of his own path, but before you adhere to these tenets, make sure you know what you are in for.
One of the most basic yet important parts is self image regarding how we see ourselves and how we think the world see’s us. Early in life we begin to establish a specific view of ourselves. This view comes from parents, siblings, friends, society and the media. The development of self has two general aspects the existential and categorical self.
The Existential Self
Deals with the basic self concept of being unique and distinct from others in society, we develop this concept early in life. This stage begins when a child realizes they are their own person, this stage is known to happen as early as anywhere from 2 and 6 moths. How the child interacts and see’s the world is the biggest influence on this type of self image.
Ex. A child waving at someone and that person waving back will assure the child the world is a kind and loving place to child can feel secure in.
The Categorical self
When a child realizes that they are set apart from and are an object in the world and/or society. During this stage a child becomes aware of his or her own traits, distinctiveness, and properties.
Three main characteristics of Self Concept
1.) Self Image- The mental picture that is very often resistant to change that depicts how one see’s themselves. Factors that can determine self image include but are not limited to physical appearance, social rules, social roles, personal traits and existential statements.
2.) Self Esteem- Is the extent in which in which we like, approve or value ourselves and can be either a positive or negative view depending on a person’s beliefs and experiences with the world.
3.) Ideal Self- What we would eventually would like or hope to become. In a lot of cases a person’s ideal self may not be the same as how their life actually is, this is due to experiences and how nature vs. nurture has took a toll on their life. These aspects can often make a person’s life and ideal self much different from what they would ideally want it to be.
Self Image of victimization
This is seen in people that get abused and manipulated, victims go through feelings of helplessness, guilt, negative thinking, self blame and depression.
Differences in self image among genders
• Males often have a higher self image disparities then females.
• Whites than African Americans.
• Rich more than poor.
Self Image among Children
• Statistics show that about 5 percent of American girls and women age 12-23 years old are unhappy with their bodies.
• One third of high school students thought they were overweight and they actually were not.
• Seventy five percent of girls as young as 9 admitted to dieting within any given year.
• At any given time 5 to 10 million women and girls have a eating disorder
• Self Image with men is more associated with body image as well as achievements because men have a high tendency to be competitive then their female counterparts.
What can be done to STOP Self Issues
1.) DO NOT discuss diet and weight with friends.
2.) Challenge media issues regarding your body and social image.
3.) Become a leader and set a good example to others dealing with the same issues.
4.) See a counselor or psychologist
5.) Simply talk to someone when you are having a bad day.
6.) Try and develop a better appreciation of your body and do not craze over small things.
7.) Find a support group that may understand what you are going through.
Self Confidence in Teenage Girls
Mariah Woolsoncroft and Savannah Isely
“I think everybody's weird. We should all celebrate our individuality and not be embarrassed or ashamed of it.” These words about self confidence come from the handsome man himself, Johnny Depp(goodreads.com). Everyone is different so why don’t certain individuals have troubles with their own self confidence? For some reason girls have the tendency to tear themselves down. Because of this, girls have particular difficulty developing self-confidence. There are effects from low self confidence and there are causes behind it. A prominent cause is that we have a tendency to turn to the TV or magazines to see what “perfect is” and how those perfect people appear to have so much self confidence. Girls tend to compare and contrast their bodies, normally in a negative view to those people. “By the time most girls reach their teens, they've consumed years' worth of messages about what a female body should look like […]” (webmd.com), and normally, what the body should look like is not what it really does look like.
Many girls base their self-confidence off of their image on the outside. According to kidshealth.org, “Many people, especially those in their early teens, body image can be closely linked to self-esteem. That's because as kids develop into teens, they care more about how others see them.” Some teens struggle with self esteem during the time of puberty because all they want is to be accepted by their peers. The changes that come along with puberty are different for everyone so it is impossible to measure ourselves to other people. All people grow at different times and in different ways. These variations differ from girls to boys in many ways. Girls hit puberty earlier in their lives, and it is worse socially for a girl to develop early than for a boy to develop early (class slides). In addition to the physical changes, one especially sees a difference when it comes to self-perception between boys and girls. “Body image is one reflection of how we perceive ourselves. Girls are three times more likely than boys to have a negative body image, according to the National Mental Health Information Center.” (articles.cnn.com) Furthermore there are yet differences from girl to girl, as some girls grow bigger hips, butts, and stomachs. It is often hard for girls to accept and/or embrace these differences and when someone does not accept themselves, it can have ill effects. These ill effects can be low self-esteem, or bad self confidence, or bad self image. When someone has bad self confidence/a bad self image, it can affect all parts of their life. The site mayoclinic.com says, “When you have low or negative self-esteem, you put little value on your opinions and ideas. You focus on your perceived weaknesses and faults and give scant credit to your skills and assets. You believe that others are more capable or successful. You might be unable to accept compliments or positive feedback. You might fear failure, which can hold you back from succeeding at work or school.” This would be true for many people and young girls especially. The psychological effects of low-self esteem can and does lead to depression. These effects can last throughout someone’s life as well, “[Possessing] little self-regard can lead people to become depressed, to fall short of their potential, or to tolerate abusive situations and relationships.” (psychologytoday.com).
In today’s economy the social media has the biggest influence on a girl’s self confidence. Every day we see women that have these “perfect bodies” and all that these teenage girls want to do is be like them. When people wonder why there is a higher documented occurrence of depression in young adults, it seems that an area that should be investigated is social media. If young people are always looking at what they believe they should look like, and wishing to be something else, it cannot lead to anything but unhappiness “For too many American girls, being "model thin" is a very real aspiration, and it starts at a shockingly young age. In one recent study, researchers found that TV programs focused on appearance are swaying the self-esteem of girls as young as 5” (webmd.com). The images of models give girls an ideal body form that is not common, and often not even real, as the use of “Photoshop” runs rampant. Teenage girls always want to read Seventeen, Cosmopolitan and the other magazines in that genre for articles on dating boys, getting advice on female issues, and those infamous beauty tips on how to look like the models in those glossy pages.
Seventeen and the other magazines have airbrushed and “photoshopped” those models that are within the magazine for years. These women’s looks are edited to be as eye appealing as possible, and it seems to work because the targeted female readership is high. Are these the type of magazines that teenage girls look at? Yes they are. Furthermore, it is not just one or two thousand teenage girls reading these magazines. According to answers.com, “Seventeen sells 4.56 billion magazines in a month!” That is a huge number of magazines going into the population, and that is just one magazine title. Combined with the other magazines circulating, there are an uncountable number of magazines being distributed to teens throughout the US having potentially negative effects.
There are numerous ways to help improve the confidence of those individuals. Here are a few things to think about when it comes improving the situation and helping the mental state of those who need it. For parents, “Experts suggest that parents' energy is […] spent getting their daughters to look at and think critically about the unrealistic way the media portrays girls and women.” (webmd.com). It appears that one of the first steps is to get the teenage girls to look at their bodies and accept them for what they are and that they are real. It also improves the situation to be conscious of how much of what we see has been edited. “When parents can help their daughters recognize how unrealistic these images are — airbrushed to trim tummies and hide blemishes — girls may begin to feel better about the way they look, flaws and all.” (webmd.com) For teenage girls who are developing an identity, feeling good about their own self image, and accepting who and what they are will lead to positive things happening in their lives. It is not an easy battle, particularly when faced with the mass media, and harsh peers (an effect that was not discussed in this paper). However it is a doable proposition. With the help of others and an awareness of the situation it is possible for teenage girls to appreciate themselves and find an identity. And when that happens good things come of it. “When you value yourself and have good self-esteem, you feel secure and worthwhile and have generally positive relationships with others. You feel confident about your abilities and tend to do well at school or work. You're also open to learning and feedback, which can help you acquire and master new skills.”(mayoclinic.com) Girls should be aimed towards possessing self value so that they can have the tools to be successful, happy individuals who can “celebrate” their “individuality and not be embarrassed or ashamed of it.” (Depp)
Life is Short
As part of a every child's growing up experience children go to school, dream, learn, laugh, and love. While other children grow up to live their lives some are not so lucky. One in Eight million live births a child's gene is mutated into a super aging nightmare called progeria.
Children affected by this rare disease are subjected to untimley aging. Only occurring in less than a hundred cases since the time it was classifeied in the late 1800's. Every culture is different but in the case of these children is they all have familar similarities. Like any other aging person the child expereinces hair loss, shrunken face, and growth failure, stiffened joints, and thinned skin. As the disease continues the symptoms become more severe and they begin to decline in health. O
n average the age of death for a child is 13 years of age. As so with millions of middle aged and late aged persons the risk for heart disease and stroke are more expected. Along with the symptoms of aging progeria, these youths expererince narrow faces with large heads. Within their first year of ther lives they cannot grow like a normal infant can. The size of the cranium for a child with progeria is unproportional to the face. The jaw is very small giving them an alien like quality, teeth can be either missing or be slow to develop. Usually the height is that of a small child and have a soft spot on the cranium. Unlike normal aging persons children with progeria have not documented near or far sightedness, arcus senillis, senile personality changes, or Alzheimers. The immune systems are normal and are able to withstand various infections like the general population.
Causes for this advganced aging is a gene called lamin A. LMNA produces a protein needed to hold the brain of a cell called the nucleus together. Without this protein the cell becomes unstable and causes the accelerated aging. This discovery was annouced in April of 2003. after almost a century later after it was first classified. Researchers have not found a cure but they believe by studying this mutation that they may unlock the secret to youth. In the begining stages of a developing cell the gene LMNA encodes a protein call prelamin A at the end of this protein is called a farnesly group. A farnesly group is a 15-carbon isoprenoid. Steps to a normal cell differ by just removing farnesly group from the protein called prelamin A(in a normal cell). By remaining attached to the protein prelamin A the new form is called progerin which is then embedded into the nuclear rim which causes the adnormal shape of the nucleus.
Although these children are unique they still live fullfilling lives. They act, learn, and play just like normal children their own age. Around the world 89 children are living with this disease in 32 different countries and making the most of what time they have. These children have the courage to go to school, learn, play, laugh, and love.
Methamphetamine, aka Crystal Meth, was invented in the early 1900’s and was very popular in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It had all but vanished in the 1980’s, but has made a major come back in the past 20 years.
Crystal meth is a very addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system. I t is a bitter tasting, odorless, white crystalline powder that can be swallowed, snorted, eaten, mainlined or smoked. Meth has many street names, some of these are “speed”, “meth”, “chalk”, “sketch”, “go”, “junk”. When it is in its smoked form it is called “ice”, “crank”, “crystal”, and “glass”.
The meth epidemic is spreading across America like a wildfire. It is not just a rural drug. Riverside, CA is known as the meth capital of the world. The US Department of Justice claims that meth has surpassed cocaine. Thus making meth the new “drug of choice” of America’s youth. It is cheaper than cocaine and more readily available. A hundred dollars of cocaine will get you high for about 20 minutes; a hundred dollars of meth will get you high for a couple of days.
According to the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 4.3% of the American population, (almost 10.4 million people), ages 12 and older have used meth at least once in their lifetime. A study of just students showed that 3.1 % of 8th graders, 4.1% of 10th graders and 4.5% of high school seniors have tried it at least once.
Anyone with a general knowledge of chemistry can “cook” meth. Meth can be “cooked” pretty much anywhere; in a bath tub, the trunk of a car, in a skillet on the stove, with glass beakers and tubing in a basement. Studies have shown that the meth residue stays on a surface for up to seven years no matter how much you clean it. There is not a recipe for meth, the “cook” just kind of uses his own ingredients. Some of these ingredients can include gun bluing, liquid fertilizers and sinus pills.
The levels of norepinephrine and dopamine are increased with the use of meth. In small doses meth reduces hunger and fatigue, and increases alertness. Some women get addicted to meth because it affects weight loss, but the weight loss doesn’t always stay. Higher doses can cause euphoria, agitation, paranoia and odd behavior.
The physical effects include increased body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure. These effects can be long lasting depending on the duration and amount of use. Most users suffer the long term conditions. The psychological effects with chronic use include paranoia, mood swings, anxiety, hallucinations and paranoid delusions.
Women who use meth during pregnancy take a very high risk of giving birth to a severely deformed or mentally handicapped child. Meth reduces the blood flow to the fetus causing limb deformities. But the main problem is with the toxins that go straight to the brain of the fetus. It reduces the levels of the neuro-transmitters dopamine and serotonin. Studies show that by age seven children are showing signs of aggressive behaviors and higher rates of school failure.
Studies suggest that the “meth craze” in America started in California and spread all the way to the east coast. It knows no boundaries, it is not just a “rich mans” drug. The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse shows that 49% of users are women, between the ages of 20 and 39. Over 50% of these women say that they were sexually abused as a child and more than 80% had at least one parent that had a drinking problem or drug addiction.
Even though a meth addict is in recovery, they will always be an addict.
Drinking And Driving
Drinking and driving more people do it then most people think. Other say “oh I don’t drink and drive. I drink then I drive. That’s like saying I don’t eat out and then asking do you want to go to a restraint. People that go out and drink and drive around are stupid. They are more likely to wreck the vehicle then some one that is texting and driving. 1314, 14 and younger kids in 2009 where killed in traffic crashes. Also in 2009 drivers who blew .08 or greater where eight times more likely to be in a fatal crash. Those who had a .15 BAC caused 6685 fatal crashes. BAC is Blood Alcohol Content.
In 2002 there where 4 kids killed in a car wreck. There where three that where 18 and one that was under the age of 14. They were fallowing one of the 18 year old and the boy under 14 Mom. They had just got done canoeing. They came to an inter section that had a two way stop sign. They couldn’t see the stop sign and went threw it. A guy that was driving didn’t have a sign. And hit the car with the kids in it. The two 18 year old boys and the boy under 14 where killed but the 18 year old girl wasn’t. The driver of the other vehicle had a passenger with him. He had also had beer in the pickup with them, and he had been drinking.
The average BAC is .16 for fatal crashes. The majority of them are males the age of 25 to 35. They have also have had other records of DUI or other forms of driving record. Some one that is caught with a illegal BAC will be given a ticket and taken to court. They can take your drivers license and give you a large ticket. If it is bad enough you could go to jail and serve time. And on top of all of that one would have to live with knowing that if they wouldn’t have drank they probably wouldn’t have killed someone’s mom, dad, brother, sister, or anyone’s loved one. The only reason I know about the car wreck in 2002 is because my brother was one of the 18 year old boys. It was his best friend and little brother who also passed away in the wreck to. The girl was friends with both of the older guys she made it out and had scaring on her face form the wreck.
State /Total Fatalities*/ BAC=.08+/ Number Number Percent
Texas /3,071 1,235 /40%
California /3,081 950 /31%
Florida /2,558 770 /30%
Pennsylvania /1,256 /406 /32%
South Carolina /894 /377 /42%
North Carolina /1,314 /363 /28%
Georgia /1,284 /331 /26%
Ohio /1,021 /324 /32%
New York /1,156 /321 /28%
Illinois /911 /319 /35%
Tennessee /989 /303 /31%
Missouri /878 /300 /34%
Louisiana /821 /295 /36%
Alabama /848 /280 /33%
Michigan /871 /246 /28%
Virginia /757 /243 /32%
Oklahoma /738 /235 /32%
Mississippi /700 /234 /33%
Arizona /807 /219 /27%
Wisconsin /561 /213 /38%
Indiana /693 /210 /30%
Washington /492 /206 /42%
Kentucky /791 /194 /25%
Arkansas /585 /168 /29%
Maryland /547 /162 /30%
Colorado /465 /158 /34%
Kansas /386 /154 /40%
New Jersey /583 /149 /25%
Oregon /377 /115 /30%
West Virginia /356 /115 /32%
New Mexico /361 /114 /32%
Minnesota /421 /108 /26%
Massachusetts /334 /108 /32%
Connecticut /223 /99 /44%
Iowa /372 /96 /26%
Montana /221 /81 /36%
Nevada /243 /68 /28%
Nebraska/ 223 /66 /30%
Idaho /226 /58 /26%
North Dakota /140 /54 /38%
South Dakota /131 /53 /40%
Hawaii /109 /52 /48%
Maine /159 /47 /29%
Wyoming /134 /47 /35%
Delaware /116 /45 /38%
Utah /244 /40 /16%
Rhode Island /83 /34 /40%
New Hampshire /110 /30 /27%
Vermont /74 /23 /32%
Alaska /64 /20 /31%
Dist of Columbia /29 /10 /35%
For many people, the facts about alcoholism are not clear. What is alcoholism, exactly? How does it differ from alcohol abuse? When should a person seek help for a problem related to his or her drinking?
For most people who drink, alcohol is a pleasant accompaniment to social activities. Moderate alcohol use-up to two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women and older people-is not harmful for most adults. (A standard drink is one 12-ounce bottle or can of either beer or wine cooler, one 5-ounce glass of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits.) Nonetheless, a large number of people get into serious trouble because of their drinking. Currently, nearly 14 million Americans-1 in every 13 adults-abuse alcohol or are an alcoholic. Several million more adults engage in risky drinking that could lead to alcohol problems. These patterns include binge drinking and heavy drinking on a regular basis. In addition, 53 percent of men and women in the United States report that one or more of their close relatives have a drinking problem.
The consequences of alcohol misuse are serious-in many cases, life threatening. Heavy drinking can increase the risk for certain cancers, especially those of the liver, esophagus, throat, and larynx (voice box). Heavy drinking can also cause liver cirrhosis, immune system problems, brain damage, and harm to the fetus during pregnancy. In addition, drinking increases the risk of death from automobile crashes as well as recreational and on-the-job injuries. Furthermore, both homicides and suicides are more likely to be committed by persons who have been drinking. In purely economic terms, alcohol-related problems cost society approximately $185 billion per year. In human terms, the costs cannot be calculated.
People who are not alcoholic sometimes do not understand why an alcoholic can't just "use a little willpower" to stop drinking. However, alcoholism has little to do with willpower. Alcoholics are in the grip of a powerful "craving," or uncontrollable need, for alcohol that overrides their ability to stop drinking. This need can be as strong as the need for food or water.
by Kayla Faus
Imagine being kidnapped for 10 or more years. Your kidnapper keeps you locked up in a closet in the basement for the first year after being abducted. When he finally lets you out you’re so desperate not to go back in there that you would do anything to earn his trust.
That’s how I interpret Stockholm Syndrome, but it’s more profound than just that. You have to depend on your kidnapper for everything, regardless of what he does to you. It becomes a matter of survival.
Stockholm Syndrome doesn’t affect everyone though. FBI researchers have done studies with people that have been taken hostage in all kinds of situations. They have found people who feel helpless in other stressful life situations or are willing to do anything to survive are more likely to develop Stockholm syndrome if taken hostage,
People with Stockholms usually start having positive feelings toward the kidnapper. They start supporting the reasons and behaviors of the kidnapper and then they are unable to run away when they have the chance.
Researchers have found four conditions in which a person is more likely to develop Stockholm Syndrome. Like if:
1) There is a perceived threat to the victims’ physical or psychological survival and a belief that the kidnapper will go through with the threat.
a) The perceived physical and psychological threat could be anything from being told stories of revenge the kidnapper obtained on others that crossed him to being a witness or receiver of the violence he is capable of.
2) There is a perceived small kindness from the kidnapper to the victim.
b) The perceived small kindness could be something as simple as letting the victim use the restroom or giving them food or water.
3) Complete isolation from other people other than the kidnapper.
c) Isolation from others such as not allowing them to go outside or answer the door, being kept in one room and nobody is allowed in other than the kidnapper.
4) Thinking they are unable to escape the situation.
d) The idea they are unable to escape could be because after all the abuse and violence they have seen or endured , the kidnapper has threatened their loved ones and the victim may think the only way to keep them safe is to stay and do as she is told.
Possible victims of Stockholm Syndrome are:
Patty Hearst abducted in 1974 and was rescued in 1975, held captive for 1 year.
Collen Stan who was abducted in 1977 and didn’t escape until 1984, held captive for 7 years.
Jaycee Dugard was abducted in 1991 and was rescued in 2009, held captive for 18 years.
Shawn Hornbeck was abducted in 2002 and was rescued in 2007, held captive for 4 ½ years.
Elizabeth Smart was abducted in 2002 and was rescued in 2003, held captive for 9 months.
All of these people had a chance to escape before they were rescued or released. The question will always remain of why didn’t they seek help when out by themselves? I don’t think any of us will ever really know and I don’t think the victims will ever really understand it themselves. One thing we have to remember is it’s all about surviving. We all do what we have to to survive; very few times will we take the chance of reaching out when the end result could be death if nobody believes us.
Narcissistic personality disorder
Jay Kapadia, Keithen Fortin, Mustapha Darboe
Narcissistic personality disorder is a mental disorder in which people have an inflated sense of their own importance and a deep need for admiration. Those with narcissistic personality disorder believe that they're superior to others and have little regard for other people's feelings. But behind this mask of ultra-confidence lies a fragile self-esteem, vulnerable to the slightest criticism.
Narcissistic personality disorder is one of several types of personality disorders. Personality disorders are conditions in which people have traits that cause them to feel and behave in socially distressing ways, limiting their ability to function in relationships and in other areas of their life, such as work or school.
Narcissistic personality disorder treatment is centered around psychotherapy.
It's not known what causes narcissistic personality disorder. As with other mental disorders, the cause is likely complex. The cause may be linked to a dysfunctional childhood, such as excessive pampering, extremely high expectations, abuse or neglect. It's also possible that genetics or psychobiology — the connection between the brain and behavior and thinking — plays a role in the development of narcissistic personality disorder
Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by dramatic, emotional behavior, which is in the same category as antisocial and borderline personality disorders.
Narcissistic personality disorder symptoms may include:
• Believing that you're better than others
• Fantasizing about power, success and attractiveness
• Exaggerating your achievements or talents
• Expecting constant praise and admiration
• Believing that you're special and acting accordingly
• Failing to recognize other people's emotions and feelings
• Expecting others to go along with your ideas and plans
• Taking advantage of others
• Expressing disdain for those you feel are inferior
• Being jealous of others
• Believing that others are jealous of you
• Trouble keeping healthy relationships
• Setting unrealistic goals
• Being easily hurt and rejected
• Having a fragile self-esteem
• Appearing as tough-minded or unemotional
Although some features of narcissistic personality disorder may seem like having confidence or strong self-esteem, it's not the same. Narcissistic personality disorder crosses the border of healthy confidence and self-esteem into thinking so highly of yourself that you put yourself on a pedestal. In contrast, people who have healthy confidence and self-esteem don't value themselves more than they value others.
When you have narcissistic personality disorder, you may come across as conceited, boastful or pretentious. You often monopolize conversations. You may belittle or look down on people you perceive as inferior. You may have a sense of entitlement. And when you don't receive the special treatment to which you feel entitled, you may become very impatient or angry. You may insist on having "the best" of everything — the best car, athletic club, medical care or social circles, for instance.
But underneath all this behavior often lies a fragile self-esteem. You have trouble handling anything that may be perceived as criticism. You may have a sense of secret shame and humiliation. And in order to make yourself feel better, you may react with rage or contempt and efforts to belittle the other person to make yourself appear better.
All children are born with an ‘id’ complex (Freud), demanding that their basic needs are met. As good parents we insure that those needs are met, in a timely fashion. In creating a Narcissist those needs are preempted, or attended to, the instant they are needed or demanded.
In most households one of the first words learned is ‘No’. By the time a child starts toddling around and touching things they should be told ‘No’. If the offending object could cause harm then it should be removed, other than that ’No’ needs to be used quickly and often.
Consequences of behavior. This is a must in preventing a Narcissist. I am not here to tell you how to raise your child, the consequences must be something you are comfortable with, just as long as there are some.
Every child must be loved and told they are beautiful. Letting them get away with something because they are ’cute’ will only cause problems in the future. Vanity will become something they value, if not attended to early on in life.
Let a child figure things out for themselves. Rather than you build the block house for them while they watch, let them do it. If they make a mistake, you can show them the correct way to do it.
Using positive phrases is a must, but don’t over do it. They will seek constant admiration and attention if over done.
When something is done that is wonderful, giving praise is important. Gushing or over praising what a child has done will cause exaggeration of their talents. Ex; potty training. When they go the first few times, clapping and saying ‘good job’ is important. By the time they have went 100 times if you are still clapping over what a wonderful ‘poopie’ they have made, they will come to believe that them doing something as simple as going to the bathroom is cause for celebration.
When speaking of the child’s accomplishments to others, in front of the child, be sure not to over do it. State that you’re proud, what they have done and go on to the next conversation. If you really feel the need to gush make certain that the child is not around to hear it. Being too boastful of a child’s achievements will cause them to feel as though they are better than others and no one can compete with their wonderfulness.
If you as a parent and your spouse or significant other have differences in opinions of how to raise your child, do not argue in front of the child. Take it to another room. The child will quickly learn to manipulate situations, and take advantage of what they perceive as the ‘weaker’ parent.
With one parent being strict and the other lenient this can cause an imbalance with the child’s feelings being easily hurt. On one hand their told they are wonderful and nothing they do is wrong, on the other everything they do is wrong and nothing right. If there are other children in the home, the ‘golden child’ will be resented. ’They get everything they want’ will be what the others feel. This will also hurt the Narcissistic child, because they won’t understand why they aren’t adored or doted upon by everyone in the home. They may eventually seek adoration outside the home in the form of unhealthy relationships.
If the child becomes ‘doted’ upon, giving in to their every need or want, they will soon feel as though they are entitled. Entitlement means something that is felt they have a right to do. Such as hitting another child because they were made angry by said child.
Attending to yourself as a parent is something that also must be done. Never to an extreme, you must find a balance between attending to your needs as well as your child’s. They must realize that there is a world that they live in rather than the world living for them.
Treatments and drugs
Narcissistic personality disorder treatment is centered around psychotherapy. There are no medications specifically used to treat narcissistic personality disorder. However, if you have symptoms of depression, anxiety or other conditions, medications such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications may be helpful.
Types of therapy that may be helpful for narcissistic personality disorder include:
• Cognitive behavioral therapy. In general, cognitive behavioral therapy helps you identify unhealthy, negative beliefs and behaviors and replace them with healthy, positive ones.
• Family therapy. Family therapy typically brings the whole family together in therapy sessions. You and your family explore conflicts, communication and problem solving to help cope with relationship problems.
• Group therapy. Group therapy, in which you meet with a group of people with similar conditions, may be helpful by teaching you to relate better with others. This may be a good way to learn about truly listening to others, learning about their feelings and offering support.
Because personality traits can be difficult to change, therapy may take several years. The short-term goal of psychotherapy for narcissistic personality disorder is to address such issues as substance abuse, depression, low self-esteem or shame. The long-term goal is to reshape your personality, at least to some degree, so that you can change patterns of thinking that distort your self-image and create a realistic self-image.
Psychotherapy can also help you learn to relate better with others so that your relationships are more intimate, enjoyable and rewarding. It can help you understand the causes of your emotions and what drives you to compete, to distrust others, and perhaps to despise yourself and others.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Personality disorders include extreme behavior patterns that impair one’s social functioning. Antisocial personality disorder is just one of the different personality disorders that exist. Many consider those with antisocial personality disorder to be psychopaths and sociopaths.
People with antisocial personality disorder exhibit a lack of conscience, empathy, morality, and fear. When these traits are paired with keen intelligence, you can end up with a charming and clever con artist or worse. Other symptoms include:
• Consistent irresponsibility
• Stealing and fighting
• Unrestrained sexual behavior
• Failure to conform to social norms
• Irritability and aggressiveness
• Reckless disregard
• Lack of remorse
• Tend to be callous and cynical
• Inflated and arrogant self-appraisal
• Excessively opinionated, self-assured, or cocky
One sign that people note about those, with this disorder, who turn into serial killers is that they tortured and killed animals as kids. It is said that these particular serial killers “graduate” from killing animals to killing humans.
Researchers have yet to find a definite cause of antisocial personality disorder; however, it is believed to be caused by a mixture of genetics and the environment. Studies have shown that those with antisocial personality disorder have smaller frontal lobes, or at least less activity, which attributes to their impulsive and aggressive behavior. It is also believed that some suffer from low levels of serotonin and adrenaline, causing people to act out more often and at a greater magnitude to get the same response. Children with antisocial parents often exhibit antisocial personality traits. Is that because of their genes, or because they watch and mimic their parents behaviors? Children with a disturbed home life are also found to be at a higher risk of displaying antisocial behaviors. PsychCentral.com notes that, “In one large study, the parents of delinquent boys were more often alcoholic or criminal, and their homes were frequently disrupted by divorce, separation or the absence of a parent.” These children also seem to surround themselves with similar children as playmates. This can attribute to gang activity.
It is hard to diagnose antisocial personality disorder before the age of 18. There is no known cure as there is no known cause. Treatment includes long-term psychotherapy with a highly trained therapist that has experience with treating this personality disorder. Medication can be used to help stabilize mood swings, but cannot treat the disorder in itself. People with antisocial personality disorder tend to show no emotion, so therapy can be difficult. These people rarely seek therapy on their own. They often must be mandated by the court or a significant other. Since people with this disorder are disconnected from typical human feelings, it is often beneficial to help them connect the dots between their behaviors and the emotions and consequences that follow. For instance, not having to be incarcerated again is a common positive point made at court mandated therapy. As an added note, hospitalization of these people is typically ineffective.
Not all people with antisocial personality disorder are criminals, nor do all criminals suffer from this disorder. Criminals who show any remorse or other general signs of empathy do not fall under this category, nor do criminals who actually show concern for their friends and family members. People with antisocial personality disorder don’t all turn out to be murderers, as society and the news often lead the public to believe. Some people who suffer from this disorder become murderers, con artists, and thieves, while others lead rather selfish, yet law abiding, lives.
Arluke, Arnold, Levin, Jack, Luke, Carter, Ascione, Frank (1999) The Relationship of Animal Abuse to Violence and Other Forms of Antisocial Behavior. Retrieved from http://jiv.sagepub.com/content/14/9/963.short
Black, Donald, MD (2012, May 10) What Causes Antisocial Personality Disorder? Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/what-causes-antisocial-personality-disorder/
Myers, David G. (2011) Exploring Psychology
Psych Central Staff (2012, May 10) Antisocial Personality Disorder. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx7.htm
Psych Central Staff (2012, May 10) Antisocial Personality Disorder Treatment. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx7t.htm
By: Andy Wood and Andrea Dizmang
Phobias are a common disorder that many people experience. For the victims of it, it is traumatic and agonizing. These experiences are not just a one-time epidemic; these people live their lives in constant fear of their phobia, whatever it may be. According to Medline Plus Online, a phobia is an anxiety disorder wherein people have a strong irrational fear of something that poses little or no actual danger. Yet, don't mistake a common fear with a phobia. Fears are something that one could overcome if they really desired to, while phobias are not as easily conquered and are definitely more unreasonable. Phobias can range from anything, some phobia's being more practical than others. For example, one could possess a common phobia, such as claustrophobia (fear of tight spaces with a lot of people) compared to an outrageous phobia, such as xanthophobia (the fear of the color yellow or the word, "yellow"). Yes, xanthophobia is an uncommon phobia, but no matter how uncommon it is, there are people out there that possess it, and other phobias similar to it. There are many, many uncommon phobias that many people aren’t aware of. Interesting phobias are everywhere, like androphobia, a fear of men. A related phobia is anuptaphobia, a fear of staying single. Some phobias just seem plain unbelievable: Dutchphobia, a fear of the Dutch people and culture; geniophobia, a fear of chins; omphalophobia, a fear of belly-buttons; or maybe urophobia, a fear of urine, or urinating. These phobias are very few of the vast phobias out there.
A very prominent sub-area of phobias is social phobia. Social phobia, also known as social anxiety disorder is an ultimate fear in which one finds themselves in very socially embarrassing situations that normally aren’t embarrassing situations. A person with social phobia encounters normal functions like blushing to be very traumatic ordeal; they feel like all eyes are on them when this happens. Many people often mistake shyness for social phobia, but shyness is not to an extreme degree like a social phobia can be. Also, shy people do not dissociate themselves with people to the intense level that people with social phobia does. In fact, some people that are socially phobic are not at all shy. They may be completely at ease in most social situations, but in specific ones, their social phobia kicks in, sending their brains into dystopia. A victim of the disorder may realize and completely acknowledge that their fear is irrational, but cannot control the urges that the disorder persists in them. Many times, even after the situation has long been dispersed, the person will still feel the feelings that it brought about in them, making them very paranoid of the situation to occur ever again. These people are also very aware that what they do while in this phobic mindset is very strange to an outsider. They also worry if they were judged during the incident, which makes them feel even more insecure about it. Fortunately, for these people, treatment is available.
Phobias are a very captivating, powerful thing, so naturally one of the most difficult facets of these mental conditions is getting rid of them. Some are so severe that they impede everyday living, while others only surface every now again. The first step in conquering a phobia is not denying that you have a problem; face it head-on to get over it. One of the next steps to take in the recovery of this fear is a support group. Finding others that deal with the same problems as you is essential to beating this issue. Having the support of others as they have the same struggles as you is very helpful to a successful recovery.
There are various theories and methods to controlling phobias ranging from hypnotherapy to energy psychology. Whichever way you choose to fight this personal challenge, it is a very hard thing to accomplish. It takes a lot of self control and determination, but most of all; you need to fully trust the people that are helping you through this healing process. There are several methods to curing phobias. There are certain ones that work in general for all of them, and others that work only in certain situations. The following methods, in general work for most phobias. One such approach is through exposure treatment. This can be carried out by exposing the patient to a non-frightening version of the cause of this phobia; such as repeatedly exposing a person who is afraid of poisonous snakes to bull snakes. After some time has passed, since no harm came to the patient from this stimulus, the fear would eventually cease to exist. One of the major problems with this method is that it will rarely occur naturally without assistance from other human beings. This approach must be conducted in a guarded and regulated environment, and should only be administered by trained professionals. Another method that can be used to conquer these fears is to use the counter-conditioning. In this pattern, the patient must learn how to replace the fear of their phobias with relaxing responses. Once this skill is mastered, the feelings of peace and calm will take place of the feelings of fear. This is completed by following three steps: (1) helping the patient find their "happy place" (2) making a list of the things that scare them and a list of the things that relax them (3) switching the feelings of fear and happiness. Being able to think of happiness when fear is ensuing, will help the person deal and control their fears. This method can be linked with "modeling." The patient can watch others complete this strategy, and attempt to copy them.
Phobias are very serious things to their victims. As silly as some of them might seem you and me, they are very real to the people they torture. I think one of the most important things I learned from writing this paper is that; though unrealistic, these people truly are controlled by these fears. We need to do our best to support them in their recovery time.
Google defines a phobia as an extreme or irrational fear of or aversion to something. The National Institute of Mental Health states that approximately 10% of adults suffer from a phobia. There are a plethora of explanations for why phobias develop and an even bigger list of phobias. Phobias are classified into three general groups: agoraphobia, social phobia, and specific phobia. Almost every human is afraid of something at one time or another, but when the sight or thought of the trigger causes instant anxiety or distress to an uncomfortable level, it is known as a phobia.
Phobias are classified into three classes. Agoraphobia refers to the fear of being in a situation where immediate escape is not possible or help wouldn’t be available if the person is overwhelmed with anxiety or a panic attack. This phobia is classified as the most disabling and most difficult to treat due to other associated fears. Specific phobia is defined as a “catchall category” for any other phobias other than agoraphobia and social phobias. Specific phobias are broken down into four subgroups. The groups include situational phobia, fear of natural environment, animal phobia, and blood-injection-injury phobia. The patients that suffer from social phobias have trouble communicating on a daily basis. Normal life and activity, as well as work and intimate relationships are affected varying in certain levels of severity. All in all, no matter what the phobia is, having the extreme fear has potential to disrupt daily normal life and activities.
Phobia awareness is very important to the treatment of the phobia. Exposure to the phobia is known as the best treatment. Overcoming phobias may be difficult, depending on severity. Although, recognizing different types of phobias is important as well. There are many different phobias. A few examples are mysophobia (fear of germs/dirt), trypanophobia (fear of injections), astrophobia (fear of thunder/lightning), cynophobia (fear of dogs), agoraphobia (fear of situations/social places), acrophobia (fear of heights), ophidiophobia (fear of snakes), and arachnophobia (fear of spiders). Irrational fears are affecting 10% of adults. Facing your fears is the best medicine for this diagnosis. Although everyone gets scared at times, it’s not healthy to let something cause you overwhelming stress and fear just thinking about.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision.
Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
By: Jessica Piper and Sarah Eisenbarth
Obsessive compulsive disorder is also known as OCD .Obsessive Compulsive disorder is a disorder that deals with anxiety. People with obsessive compulsive disorder have recurring endless cycles and unwanted thoughts, ideas, feelings, obsession; people with OCD also have behaviors that push them to do things compulsively. We are going to explain to you the causes and effects of OCD throughout this project.
Now a day’s OCD is the fourth most common mental disorder spread throughout human beings. One in 50 adults in the United States suffers from OCD. This disorder can be caused from injury to the brain or infections in the head but also have some biological and environmental factors causing this disorder. Environmental factors that may cause this are abuse, changes in living situation, illness, relationship concerns, or death of a loved one. Biologically OCD can be inherited. Obsessive compulsive disorder can also affect young children and teens, and adults. Most people that have OCD start showing symptoms by the age 30.
Children, teens, and adults that suffer from OCD have some of the same symptoms but some symptoms may vary depending on one’s self. These symptoms include fear of dirt or germs, fear of causing harm to others, fear or thinking evil or sinful thoughts, need for order, symmetry or exactness, and the fear of making a mistake. There are compulsive symptoms such as repeating specific word, or prayers, eating foods in a specific order, refusing to touch doorknobs or shake hands. This disorder can be treated, but one must be seeking medical therapy or physiological help.
The most effective way of treating people with OCD is cognitive behavioral therapy. Two components that involve cognitive behavioral are exposure and response prevention and cognitive therapy. Exposure and response prevention deal with your source of obsession. An example of this would be if your obsession is constantly showering, you would go outside and work in the dirt and once you got dirty you wanted to shower you would hold yourself from showering multiple times a day you would try to shower one time that day or slowly start decreasing one shower each day (if you take five showers a day the next day take 4 and then the next day take 3 until you gradually one take one shower per day). Cognitive therapy deals with you focusing on what your problem is specifically and fixing it after being helped out.
There are also multiple ways of treating OCD such as family therapy and group therapy. Family therapy can be beneficial also because very often OCD causes many problems throughout families. Family therapy helps with understanding that one has this disorder and may prevent family conflicts. It can help family members help out their loved one. Group therapy and help out one with OCD by making one feel like they’re not the only one that has OCD in that group and it’s also encouraging to them and also supportive. One must take into consideration that the person with OCD is trying to seek help but without their help it isn’t possible for them to get better.
The cause of obsessive compulsive disorder isn't fully understood. Main theories include: Biology. OCD may be a result of changes in your body's own natural chemistry or brain functions. OCD also may have a genetic component, but specific genes have yet to be identified. Environment. OCD may stem from behavior related habits that you learned over time. Insufficient serotonin. An insufficient level of serotonin, one of your brain's chemical messengers, may contribute to obsessive compulsive disorder. In addition, people with obsessive compulsive disorder who take medications that improve the action of serotonin often have fewer OCD symptoms.
One thing that can also tie into obsessive compulsive disorder is hoarding. Hoarding is also called compulsive hoarding and compulsive hoarding syndrome maybe a symptom of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). But people who hoard don’t have other (OCD) symptoms. Hoarding is the excessive collection of items, along with the inability to discard them. Hoarding often creates such cramped living conditions that homes may be filled to capacity, with only narrow pathways winding through stacks of clutter. Some people also collect animals, keeping dozens or hundreds of pets often in unsanitary conditions. People who hoard often don't see it as a problem, making treatment challenging. But intensive treatment can help people who hoard understand their compulsions and live safer, more enjoyable lives.
There are many causes to OCD; there is a lot of research carried out in the past few years regarding the causes of OCD. It has been speculated that there might be several kinds of OCD and that, in particular, OCD that starts in childhood may be different from that which begins in adulthood. One cause that is gaining ground concerns is the probability that there is a level of brain dysfunction in many OCD suffers. This does not mean that people with this problem have damaged brains or that their reasoning functions are inferior to those who do not have OCD.
There is a chemical messenger Seretonin seems to be involved. Seretonin is a chemical called a neurotransmitter that allows nerve cells to communicate with each other by working in the space between nerve cells, called the synaptic cleft. It involves mood, aggression, sleep, appetite and pain. It also seems that Seretonin is capable of connecting to nerve cells in the brain in many different ways and so can cause many different responses. In one or more of the receptors in the brain that Seretonin attaches to that causes the OCD problems.
Obsessive compulsive disorder is a disorder that a lot of people have. Not everyone has it but the ones that do it can come on at any time you could even be born with it. Some people you can tell that they have (OCD) and some you can’t. Not all people with (OCD) have the same symptoms and some can be treated but most are affected by the brain so it will stay with people throughout their lives. There are many things to (OCD) and just because you have it doesn’t make you different from other people.
There many people that have felt depressed or sad at times. Feeling this way can be a normal reaction to loss, life's conflicts, or an hurt self-esteem. But their can be feelings of extreme sadness — that includes feeling helpless, hopeless, and worthless — that can last for days and at times even weeks and can keep you from acting or functioning the way that you normally would, the depression may be something more than just sadness. It could very well be clinical depression — which is a treatable medical condition.
People think that depression is when someone is so sad that they feel worthless and that they think about committing suicide all the time. what they do not know is that its so much more than just that, the definition of depression is a (mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity) which shows a sad or irritable mood not just sadness and grief. There are many different types of depression.
Their are many different types of depression also. Their is Major Depressive Disorder (This illness affects the persons major motor functions such the ability to work and do things such as eating or sleeping), Dysthymic Disorder ( A milder version where the person may seem mildly depressed up to the point to which it becomes apart of their personality), Bipolar disorder ( also known as manic-depression, this depression is characterized between periods of depression and periods of elation and excitable behavior known as mania), and their are many more these are just some of the most common ones found in society today.
Signs and symptoms of depression
Depression varies from person to person, but there are some common signs and symptoms. It’s important to remember that these symptoms can be part of life’s normal lows. But the more symptoms you have, the stronger they are, and the longer they’ve lasted—the more likely it is that you’re dealing with depression. When these symptoms are overwhelming and disabling, that's when it's time to seek help.
Facts of depression
▪ Major depression is the leading cause of disability in the United States
▪ During their lifetime, 10%-25% of women and 5%-12% of men will become clinically depressed
▪ 80%-90% of those who seek treatment for depression can feel better within just a few weeks
▪ Women are affected by depression almost twice as often as men
▪ Research on twins suggests that there is a genetic component to the risk of developing depression
Ways you can treat depression
• Pyscho Therapy
• Herbal Supplements
• Yoga and Meditatioin
• Message Therapy
By Nelson Justiss Chris Theriot and Chaz Sharp
What is bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions called depressive disorders. Depressive disorders affect the way a person's brain functions. So you may recall from a friend who switches moods a lot or maybe looks depressed they may be suffering from Bipolar Disorders. Bipolar disorder affects both men and women. For many people, the first symptoms show up in their early twenties. Some research has shown that the first episode of bipolar disorder is easily distracted and very active. Some signs to know if someone has Bipolar look to make sure they are not using drugs, look at their eating habits, and find out if they are easily distracted. Being easily distracted might be one of the main symptoms of bipolar, one minute you’re talking next minuet you’re asking them to focus and listen to you. Having a bipolar friend you might be involved in many different activities. People with this disorder tend to find many things to do for activities, also very hyperactivity.
Episodes, many people have “high” and “lows” when being diagnose with bipolar. Episode high other term Mania is when a person feels great and happy. Episode low also another term Depression is where you don’t want the person, depression can lead to suicides and many other bad things. Highs and lows are not good even felling happy during the “High” stage can lead to alcoholic abuse. Once a person gets to the stage of using drugs to make them feel better, is where they need help. Substance abuse can actually make the symptoms worse, as well as making the condition hard for doctors to diagnose. If the doctor cannot treat you, how else is a person supposed to get medication to make the person better. Medication and alcohol together not a good sign for someone being diagnosed.
Other types of the depressed phase with the bipolar disorder is, eating problem like a loss of appetite and weight loss. Or maybe over eating and weight gain. Lack of energy and feeling worthless, hopeless, or guilty can be other depression phases. If two or more phases overlap, Manic and depressive symptoms may occur together or quickly one after the other in what is called a mixed state. Trying to treat bi-polar disorder can be difficult at times if you don’t have the right guidance. You have to avoid moving from one phase to another , avoid the need for hospital stay and help the patient function as well as possible between episode. Most doctors would try to find out what triggered the mood episode. They use drugs called mood stabilizers like carbamazephine, lamotrigine or lithium. If that doesn’t work Electroconvulsive therapy may be used to treat the manic or depressive phase of bipolar disorder. It’s the most effective treatment for depressed people. If patients are in the middle of depressive episode they may need to stay in a hospital until their mood is stable and their behavior is under control.
The doctors are still trying to figure out how to treat children and adolescents with the disorder. They prefer family treatments that combine support and education about bipolar disorders maybe help families cope and reduce the odds or symptoms returning. Outreach and community can help people who do not have family and social support. Getting enough sleep is very important in bipolar disorder. If a patient is bipolar they can’t always recognize or state what’s exactly wrong with them. Because they probably don’t remember or not sure what it is. Changes in mood with bipolar disorder are not predictable. It’s hard to tell whether a patient is responding correctly to treatment or is naturally coming out of the phase.Bipolar I and Bipolar II are two different types of bipolar disorders. The people diagnosed with bipolar I disorder experience manic or mixed episodes and usually have more than one depressive episodes. They go through at least one manic episode throughout his or her lifetime. These patients with bipolar I go from mania one second to depression the next. It is an extreme mood swing and there is a cycling pattern from mania to depression. Most people diagnosed with bipolar I can live normal lives. Anyone can develop the bipolar I disorder. Almost 2.5% of the United States people have bipolar I disorder. A person experiencing bipolar I disorder go from one idea to the next idea very quickly. They also speak loud and very fast. They may experience hyperactivity with a lot of energy, which causes a decrease in the need for sleep. People with this disorder also tend to spend an excessive amount of money and may also become substance abusers. Untreated bipolar I can last from a few days to many years. Symptoms usually last for a few weeks or months. Depression sometime comes right after or may come months later.
Bipolar II disorder is when a person has major depressive episodes but with less mania. These people go through hypomania, which is a condition that is not as intense as mania and lasting less than a week. A person with bipolar II has at least one hypomanic episode during their lifetime. They experience manic-depression. Depression with bipolar II is almost like clinically diagnosed depression. They have a depressed mood, not a lot of energy or activity, they may feel guilty or worthless, and also may experience thoughts of suicide. These symptoms can last from a couple of weeks or months, but don’t usually last years.
Feeling down from time to time is a normal part of life. But when emptiness and despair take hold and won't go away, it may be depression. More than just the temporary "blues," the lows of depression make it tough to function and enjoy life like you once did. Hobbies and friends don’t interest you like they used to; you’re exhausted all the time; and just getting through the day can be overwhelming. When you’re depressed, things may feel hopeless, but with help and support you can get better. But first, you need to understand depression. Learning about depression—including its signs, symptoms, causes, and treatment—is the first step to overcoming the problem.
WHAT IS DEPRESSION?
We all go through ups and downs in our mood. Sadness is a normal reaction to life’s struggles, setbacks, and disappointments. Many people use the word “depression” to explain these kinds of feelings, but depression is much more than just sadness.
Some people describe depression as “living in a black hole” or having a feeling of impending doom. However, some depressed people don't feel sad at all—they may feel lifeless, empty, and apathetic, or men in particular may even feel angry, aggressive, and restless.
Whatever the symptoms, depression is different from normal sadness in that it engulfs your day-to-day life, interfering with your ability to work, study, eat, sleep, and have fun. The feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, and worthlessness are intense and unrelenting, with little, if any, relief.
THE FACES OF DEPRESSION :
Depression often looks different in men and women, and in young people and older adults. An awareness of these differences helps ensure that the problem is recognized and treated.
DEPRESSION IN MEN :
Depression is a loaded word in our culture. Many associate it, however wrongly, with a sign of weakness and excessive emotion. This is especially true with men. Depressed men are less likely than women to acknowledge feelings of self-loathing and hopelessness. Instead, they tend to complain about fatigue, irritability, sleep problems, and loss of interest in work and hobbies. Other signs and symptoms of depression in men include anger, aggression, violence, reckless behavior, and substance abuse.
Even though depression rates for women are twice as high as those in men, men are a higher suicide risk, especially older men.
DEPRESSION IN WOMEN :
Rates of depression in women are twice as high as they are in men. This is due in part to hormonal factors, particularly when it comes to premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), postpartum depression, and perimenopausal depression. As for signs and symptoms, women are more likely than men to experience pronounced feelings of guilt, sleep excessively, overeat, and gain weight. Women are also more likely to suffer from seasonal affective disorder.
DEPRESSION IN TEENS :
While some depressed teens appear sad, others do not. In fact, irritability—rather than depression—is frequently the predominant symptom in depressed adolescents and teens. A depressed teenager may be hostile, grumpy, or easily lose his or her temper. Unexplained aches and pains are also common symptoms of depression in young people.
Left untreated, teen depression can lead to problems at home and school, drug abuse, self-loathing—even irreversible tragedy such as homicidal violence or suicide. But with help, teenage depression is highly treatable.
DEPRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS :
The difficult changes that many older adults face—such as bereavement, loss of independence, and health problems—can lead to depression, especially in those without a strong support system. However, depression is not a normal part of aging. Older adults tend to complain more about the physical rather than the emotional signs and symptoms of depression, and so the problem often goes unrecognized. Depression in older adults is associated with poor health, a high mortality rate, and an increased risk of suicide, so diagnosis and treatment are extremely important.
Many new mothers suffer from some fleeting form of the “baby blues.” Postpartum depression, in contrast, is a longer lasting and more serious depression triggered, in part, by hormonal changes associated with having a baby. Postpartum depression usually develops soon after delivery, but any depression that occurs within six months of childbirth may be postpartum depression.
TYPES OF DEPRESSION :
Depression comes in many shapes and forms. The different types of depression have unique symptoms, causes, and effects. Knowing what type of depression you have can help you manage your symptoms and get the most effective treatment.
Major depression is characterized by the inability to enjoy life and experience pleasure. The symptoms are constant, ranging from moderate to severe. Left untreated, major depression typically lasts for about six months. Some people experience just a single depressive episode in their lifetime, but more commonly, major depression is a recurring disorder. However, there are many things you can do to support your mood and reduce the risk of recurrence.
DYSTHMIA : (recurrent, mild depression)
Dysthmia is a type of chronic “low-grade” depression. More days than not, you feel mildly or moderately depressed, although you may have brief periods of normal mood. The symptoms of dysthymia are not as strong as the symptoms of major depression, but they last a long time (at least two years). These chronic symptoms make it very difficult to live life to the fullest or to remember better times. Some people also experience major depressive episodes on top of dysthymia, a condition known as “double depression.” If you suffer from dysthymia, you may feel like you’ve always been depressed. Or you may think that your continuous low mood is “just the way you are.” However, dysthymia can be treated, even if your symptoms have gone unrecognized or untreated for years.
Seasonal affective disorder : (SAD)
There’s a reason why so many movies and books portray rainy days and stormy weather as gloomy. Some people get depressed in the fall or winter, when overcast days are frequent and sunlight is limited. This type of depression is called seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Seasonal affective disorder is more common in northern climates and in younger people. Like depression, seasonal affective disorder is treatable. Light therapy, a treatment that involves exposure to bright artificial light, often helps relieve symptoms.
BIPOLAR DIPRESSION: When Depression is Just One Side of the Coin
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is characterized by cycling mood changes. Episodes of depression alternate with manic episodes, which can include impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, rapid speech, and little to no sleep. Typically, the switch from one mood extreme to the other is gradual, with each manic or depressive episode lasting for at least several weeks. When depressed, a person with bipolar disorder exhibits the usual symptoms of major depression. However, the treatments for bipolar depression are very different. In fact, antidepressants can make bipolar depression worse.
Depression causes and risk factors
Some illnesses have a specific medical cause, making treatment straightforward. If you have diabetes, you take insulin. If you have appendicitis, you have surgery. But depression is more complicated. Depression is not just the result of a chemical imbalance in the brain, and is not simply cured with medication. Experts believe that depression is caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors. In other words, your lifestyle choices, relationships, and coping skills matter just as much—if not more so—than genetics. However, certain risk factors make you more vulnerable to depression.
Causes and risk factors for depression
• Lack of social support
• Recent stressful life experiences
• Family history of depression
• Marital or relationship problems
Sleep is important to the body, and the body has a natural sleep cycle where it has its times for rest and its times for activities. There are disorders that can affect the natural sleep cycle your body has. Some people decide to mess it up on their own by staying out late, or jet lag and shift work can also alter their sleep cycle. Sleep apnea is the main disorder while sleeping, Symptoms include waking up in the night, snoring regularly, or just feeling unrested you may have sleep apnea. Another disorder in sleeping are night terrors, these are like nightmares on steroids. Sleep studies have showed that night Terrors occur due to increased brain activity, caused by stress and other various medical ailments. The brain activity causes a chemical trigger to misfire increasing your brain activity. Symptoms of night terrors are sudden awakening, persistent fear or terror, screaming, sweating, confusion, rapid heart rate, inability to explain what happened, and no recall of the dream. When someone has a night terror it occurs in the fourth sleep stage about an hour in and right before REM sleep. Night terrors may last anywhere from 5 minutes to 20 minutes, and during them the person is still asleep. The sleeper may open their eyes but they are not awake and it is hard to wake them up. When they finally do wake they may have no recollection of the terror they just went through. People are also able to remember the terrors though, parts of it or the whole thing depending on the person. Narcolepsy is the final disorder I am going to talk about. It is the disorder of the central nervous system characterized by the brains inability to control sleep and wake cycles. With this disorder people can feel the sudden urge to fall asleep. They may fall asleep unwillingly throughout the day with little to no warning. People who suffer from narcolepsy also may experience waking up in the night, so they fall asleep at random, but also cannot sleep when they want. This is why narcolepsy is the loss of control between the sleeping and waking states. People who have narcolepsy often enter the state of REM within a few minutes of falling asleep unlike the normal person who enters it after 110 minutes. This disorder may be caused by the lack of hypocretin a chemical in the brain.
Suicidal Anorexics: Determined To Die
Anorexia is one of the most serious psychiatric diseases our society faces. It has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder. Some believe that anorexics are genuinely determined to die when they attempt to kill themselves. Patients tend to isolate themselves before their suicide attempt, likely in order to reduce the possibility they would receive life-saving help. According to a 2011 Harvard University study, anorexic woman are self-destructive, leading them to have a likelier tendency toward suicide. Thomas Joiner, a psychologist from Florida State University, suggests anorexics alter to pain to make them fearless of death and more likely choose a more lethal means to end their lives.
As many as 10 million woman and one million men in the United States suffer from an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia. The National Eating Disorder Association reports that females between the ages of 15-24 are 12 times more likely to die from anorexia than all other causes of death. Suicide is the primary cause of death for anorexics, even greater than starvation. Anorexia is a very serious disease and the cost for treatment can range from $25,000 to $30,000 a month.
Anorexia is a very serious situation in every aspect you look at it. Almost everyone who has this disease is vulnerable to anything, including suicide. Some people feel that anorexia is a choice and that the reason that individuals become anorexic is because they are crying out for help or an act of depression. Maybe they just need more love in their lives? Every person needs to find the beauty in themselves. Is it because every woman’s inspiration is the beautiful size zero girls in the magazine wearing your favorite outfit? Perhaps a size two model wearing your favorite jeans? The worst part of reality with anorexics is when they look at themselves in the mirror, even though they are sickly skinny, they view themselves as overweight. The saddest part is that those who have it don’t see or realize it.
According to dictionary.com, the definition of anorexia is an eating disorder primarily affecting adolescent girls and young women, characterized by pathological fear of becoming fat, distorted body image, and excessive dieting. Is our society so obsessed with how we view ourselves because of the peer pressure of being thin?
With all the affects of anorexia its hard to imagine people would still do these things to their body. When a person is anorexic they can’t think right, possibly faint, hair falls out, have low blood sugar and can cause serious heart problems. Many things can influence individuals to become anorexic including: depression, peer pressure, culture, or even life changes.
In my opinion, its not always about what’s on the outside or who looks the best; its about health and being comfortable with yourself no matter what. It’s about loving yourself and looking out for those closest to you because it can happen to any young woman or man.
"Disordered Eating." The Media and Eating Disorders. N.p., 2011. Web. 1 May 2012. http://www.disordered- eating.co.uk/causes-of-eating-disorders/media-and-eating- disorders.html Jaslow,Ryan.
"Anorexia Suffers Five Times More Likely to Die Sooner." CBS News. Health Pop, 11 July 2011. Web. 1 May 2012. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-20078386-10391704.html Kathleen, Kingsbury.
"Suicidal Anorexics: Determined to Die." Time Magazine. N.p., 28 Feb. Web. 1 May 2012. http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1718069,00.html
Cocaine (C17H21NO4) cames from the leaf of an Erythroxylon coca plant, which grows in Bolivia, Peru and Columbia. In all cases cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant which affects the brain’s processing of dopamine. Cocaine is attractive to users because it triggers dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is present in many regions of the brain. It regulates movement, emotion, motivation, and the feeling of pleasure. When cocaine enters the area at the brain where the dopamine is located, it blocks the reuptake pumps that remove the dopamine from the synapse of the nerve cell.Cocaine is very expensive to make and usually is mixed with other chemicals before being sold on the streets. It have many kind of names like white powder, crack, coke, snow, dust, flake, blow, foot, line, nose candy…
Cocaine is highly addictive drug. People who use it can form a strong addiction. They may have to use more and more of drug to get high. Those who smoke cocaine appear to develop an addiction to the drug more rapidly that those who snort it. However, even those who snort cocaine can find themselves addicted.
Experiment: One of the seven men who get a placebo instead of cocaine also showed brain vessel constrictions. This experiment clearly demonstrated that expecting, or even thinking about taking cocaine affects blood flow in the brain.
A Big Problem?
A cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Approximately 10% of people over age of 12 have tried cocaine at least once in their lifetime, and nearly 1% are currently using cocaine. Cocaine is also the second most commonly used illegal drug in Europe. Among young people (15 to 34 years), an estimated 7.5 million have used cocaine at last once in their life, 3.5 million in the last year and 1.5 million in the past month. In the United States, 35.3 million Americans aged 12 and older having used cocaine. Also that 8.6 million Americans aged 12 and older reported having crack. Among those 18 to 25, 6.9% of those surveyed said they had used cocaine (including crack) within the last year. Among high-school students, 8.5% of 12th grades had used cocaine of some point in their young lives. There were 448,481 emergency department visits involving cocaine reported in 2005.
Cocaine can be snorted, injected and even smoked in some forms of the drug. Cocaine use can lead to death from respiratory (breathing) failure, stroke, cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain) or heart attack.
Short-Term Effects: Shortly after cocaine is ingested the user may experience the following symptoms: constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, increased body temperature, increased heart rate, higher blood pressure.
Long-Term Effects: Repeated cocaine use can cause the following consequences: irregular heart beat, heart attack, chest pain, respiratory failure, stroke, seizures and headaches. Cronic users of cocaine can become malnourishes due to the drug’s ability to decrease appetite. Each method of taking cocaine can produce specific healt effects, including: snorting, ingesting, injesting, irregular heart beat or heart failure, high blood pressure resulting in brain hemorrhage.
“Drugs are a waste of time. They destroy your memory and your self-respect, and everything that goes along with your selfesteem.”
Anthropomorphic is any attribution of human (or characteristics assumed to belong to humans) to other animals, non-living things, phenomena, material states, objects or abstract concepts. Today’s society has classified animals as being more of a companion or a friend then just a pet. They tend to treat there pets better than they treat themselves. Along with the rise of people (falling in love with pets) it also interests more people in the animal rights programs.
People have changed the way society looks at pets. They believe that dogs have the same personality as their caregivers. Such as: if a couple has a dog and the couple fights and yells at one another all the time then the dog is going to act the same like barking, digging in the dirt and pooping in the house. I on the other hand don’t believe in this. Ok, so people do train dogs how they want them but just because a couple fights I don’t think that is why the dog acts out the way it does. All of those mentioned are a natural behavior of that animal.
Another major problem to me in anthropomorphizing animals is the money spent each year on pets. On average every year since 2007 Americans spend $2 billion more every year on pets. In 2010 Americans spent approximately $47.7 billion dollars on pets. This number will continue to rise. Many people are becoming more attached to their pets so they are starting to take their pets along on trips with them therefore, the cost of their trips will go up for hotel rooms and plane tickets. People think that their pets should be treated as humans. They feed them organic foods, send them to groomers, pay for a dog sitter, give them special food that has medicine in it to keep there teeth clean of bacteria and germs. People are taking care of their pets health more than they are taking care of there own.
Estimated 2012 Sales within the U.S. Market
For 2012, it estimated that $52.87 billion will be spent on our pets in the U.S.
|Supplies/OTC Medicine||$12.56 billion|
|Vet Care||$13.59 billion|
|Live animal purchases||$2.15 billion|
|Pet Services: grooming & boarding||$4.11 billion|
Actual Sales within the U.S. Market in 2011
In 2011, $50.96 billion was spent on our pets in the U.S.
|Supplies/OTC Medicine||$11.77 billion|
|Vet Care||$13.41 billion|
|Live animal purchases||$2.14 billion|
|Pet Services: grooming & boarding||$3.79 billion|
I think that pets have an affect on couples relationships. They are spending more time on their pets than they are trying to make their own relationships work. There are even television shows like “its me or the dog” that prove to me that pets are more of a relationship status than just a pet. That people are willing to get divorced or break up with their loved ones because they spend more time with their pets than they do on there relationships. With this people go to marriage councilors to help them with their marriage. Also, the have pet councilors that evaluate the pet and quote tell the owners how their pets feel about the situation, whether the pet is sad, mad, upset or happy with the situation.
With all of this it just show me that people are trying to make their pets as human as possible. They take them on family trips because it is part of the family. They treat their animals better than they treat themselves as far as health. People have better relationships with their pets than they do with their spouses. I believe that a pet is a pet. Yes, I think you need to take care of your pets but the world don’t revolve around your pets. They are pets let them be a pet not your relationship.
Psychology MWF 12:20
Tobacco is the second leading killer in the world. Nicotine is a substance in the tobacco plant. The plant uses it to keep insects from eating the plant. It is different than most drugs because it is a stimulant and a depressant making it twice as dangerous and it is every bit as addictive as heroine. It is a highly addictive drug and hooks people that use tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. When you smoke a cigarette the nicotine goes into your lungs and gets into your bloodstream and goes to your brain and activates your dopamine in your brain. Cigars and smokeless tobacco take more time for the nicotine to activate the dopamine because they don’t reach your lungs and take longer to get into your bloodstream. Nicotine is a very addictive and powerful drug. The way it makes your dopamine kick in in your brain is similar to eating. For example when you are hungry your brain uses dopamine to give you the signal or craving to eat the same way that it tells you that you need a dip or smoke. One drop of nicotine is more lethal than a diamondback rattlesnake’s poison. When you go an extended period without a dip or smoke it can cause anxiousness, jitters, and shortened temper.
Most people start more for social acceptance than any other reason. They will have friends that smoke or chew and they do it to be like them. It doesn’t take long and then you are hooked. After you start it is very difficult to quit. I know from personal experience that when I have tried to quit chewing that I felt like I was on edge every minute I didn’t have it. It is very addictive and you feel like you can’t go without it. Most nicotine addicts like other addicts are not willing to admit they have a problem they use the same excuses as other addicts saying that they don’t need it they just like how it makes them feel and they can quit any time. It is a mental illness to be so addicted you cannot quit and can’t admit you have a problem. Most users want to quit but don’t have the will power to commit to it.
You can quit chewing or smoking and get over the addiction but there are many symptoms associated with quitting. Such as anger, anxiety, panic, and sleep disturbances. The symptoms can last up to weeks or months after quitting. Relapses are common among people who quit because the dopamine in your brain still tells you that you need it and if you do it again it tends to get you addicted again after just one cigarette or dip because the dopamine high that you used to get is kicked back in and you feel like you need it again and its hard to stop after one. Many people do quit and have successful recoveries and no longer have nicotine addictions.