ATTENTION GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY CLASS - THIS IS THE PAGE FOR THE FALL 2010 CLASS. IF YOU ARE IN THE SPRING CLASS - PLEASE POST YOUR WIKI ON THE PAGE BELOW.
- History of Psychology
- Nature and Nurture
- The Brain
- Anxiety Disorders
- Dissociative and Personality Disorders
- Mood Disorders
- Other Psychological Disorders
By Lauren Abernathy & Jesse Rhea
Alfred Kinsey is best known for his work in human sexuality. He founded the Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction at Indiana University in 1947.
Early Life, Education & Beginning Career
-Kinsey was born in Hoboken, New Jersey on June 23rd, 1894. He was oldest of three children. His family struggled with poverty and often could not afford proper health care for their children, which caused Alfred to become exposed to several diseases including rickets.
-Kinsey’s parents were strict Conservative Christians and barred Kinsey and his siblings from having relationships with the opposite sex and prohibiting them knowing of anything sexual, which is ironic considering what Kinsey went on to do in his later life. Most of his friendships were from the Methodist church they went to and Sunday became their family’s day for prayer. When Kinsley got older he disowned the Methodist church and became an Atheist.
-Something Alfred’s parents allowed him to participate in was the Boy Scouts, which at the time was known for being faith based. Kinsey was able to earn his Eagle Scout rank in just two years, opposed to the five or six it would normally take.
-In high school, Kinsey was not involved in sports. Instead he devoted his time to academics and the piano. At one point he had wanted to become a concert pianist but chose to pursue science instead. Kinsey never really formed strong social relationships but was known and regarded for his academic achievements. Kinsey became interested in biology, botany and zoology. Kinsey later said that his high school biology teacher, Natalie Roeth, was the most important influence on his decision to become a scientist.
-After graduating high school, Kinsey told his father he wanted to study botany at college. His father was not happy and demanded me study engineering at a technology institute in Hoboken. Kinsey went, but later said he was very unhappy with the time he spent. At Stevens, he primarily took courses related to English and engineering, but wanted to satisfy his interest in biology. At the end of two years at Stevens, Kinsey gathered the courage to confront his father about his interest in biology and his intent to continue studying at Bowdoin College in Maine. His father vehemently opposed this, but finally relented. It was soon after this incident however that Kinsey and his father would grow apart and lose their relationship which deeply troubled Kinsey for years.
-Kinsey eventually obtained a doctorate and moved to Bloomington, Indiana, and began work as an assistant professor at Indiana University in 1920 in the zoology department. Kinsey worked for the next 16 years on research about gall wasps.
-As for Kinsey’s personal life, he married Clara Bracken McMillen in 1921. They had four children together.
-In 1938, Kinsey began studying human sexuality focusing on sex and marriage. During his research he was shocked over the inaccuracy and lack of scientific detail, and in his mind, the lack of honesty. He designed a course in which students were to take in-depth questionnaires. He felt the questionnaires soon became inappropriate and full of errors. Thus, he decided to ask students one-on-one. The class became such a hit that 400 students enrolled per semester.
-Kinsey became engrossed in his research and soon took his study to townspeople. In the beginning his trips were only on weekends, but they soon became more frequent and his time on campus decreased. Many of his colleagues and students who wanted to take the course became angered, causing Kinsey to have to stop his traveling. During this work he developed a scale measuring sexual orientation, now known as the Kinsey Scale which ranges from 0 to 6, where 0 is exclusively heterosexual and 6 is exclusively homosexual; a rating of X, for asexual, was added later by Kinsey's associates.
-During the 1940s, Kinsey embarked on a study of the sexual habitats of men and women. His resources were limited and he had to fund most of the study himself, but in 1943 he received a $23,000 grant to expand his efforts and hire staff. His first book, “Sexual Behavior in the Human Male” was published in 1948. The funding and huge success of the book help lead to the Institution for Sex Research at Indiana University. In 1953, his second book, “Sexual Behavior in the Human Female” was published. Both his books are also known as “The Kinsey Reports.” Kinsey’s fame grew largely after these publications, but with fame comes controversy. Many weren’t happy and felt the publications and research was driven by his own sexual needs. Kinsey was also said to have filmed his co-workers engaged in sex acts in his attic for research and spoke of pre-adolescent orgasms.
-Alfred Kinsey died on August 25th, 1956, at the age of 62. The cause of his death was a heart ailment and pneumonia.
By Torey Taylor
American Psychologist Burrhus Frederic Skinner (B.F. Skinner) was born March 20, 1994 in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. He attended Hamilton College in New York and also Harvard University. At a younger age, Skinner looked to become a writer and not until later decided to head his career in the psychology direction.
-Contributions to Psychology
Skinner was considered a behaviorist. Instead of studying the idea of inner thoughts and feelings, he studied how consequences shape behavior. He also had a wide variety of odd experiments. One of his most famous was teaching pigeons very uncharacteristic behavior. He taught them to walk in a figure eight, keeping a missile on course by pecking at a target screen, and playing ping-pong.
One of his most successful experiments was his study of operant conditioning and his operant chamber, also known as the Skinner box.
These boxes would typically have a sort of animal (more than likely a rat, but other animals have been used), a light, a bar for the animal to press, a food dispenser, water, and a speaker. The boxes were mainly only soundproof to avoid any distractions to the subject that was being tested.
During the test, the animal would use the lever or release for a reward consisting of water or food.
Skinner used these test to study operant conditioning, a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. Skinner also used these studies to discover the concept of a reinforcement, an event that strengthens a preceding response.
Shaping behavior was also a big part of Skinner’s discoveries. He insured that both positive and negative reinforcers strengthen the behavior. Positive reinforcers strengthens a response by presenting a positive stimulus after a response, negative remove something desired. Also, he helped lead to the idea of primary and conditioned reinforcers. Primary reinforcers are reinforced by obtaining a biological need. Conditioned gains its reinforcement by linking itself with a primary reinforcer.
Skinner also had many other interesting inventions. He invented the baby tender to help his wife with the raising of children. The air crib was considered very controversial because of the mistreatment it was considered by trying to make childcare much more simple by trying to reduce laundry and help develop the baby.
Another of Skinner’s most famous inventions was his creation of teaching machines. He thought of the idea of the teaching machine while attending a fourth grade class of one of his children. He believed the teachers were teaching wrongly, thus gave him the idea of his machine. The machine would give questions the student already knew, but would give feedback after answering each question, instead of a whole page like the teacher would give. Skinner’s idea of teaching machines are still used today, but have been developed drastically.
Skinner was considered to be one of the most influential psychologist of the 20th century. He was a professor at many universities and was married to Yvonne Blue in 1936. Skinner had two daughters with Blue and after a very successful life, died of leukemia on August 20, 1990. Many ideas and discoveries of Skinner influenced many theories and inventions today.
John B. Watson
Dr. John B. Watson, an American psychologist, developed the theory of behaviorism. John Watson was born on January 9, 1878. While Watson grew up in Travelers Rest, South Carolina until the age of 16 when he begin attending Furman University. After turning 21, Watson left Furman University with a masters degree. A couple of years went by and Watson decided to major in Philosophy at the University of Chicago. While attending the University of Chicago, he decided to work with a known psychologist James Roland Angell. Watson became influential with the idea and philosophy of behaviorism. Later in 1903 he received his doctorates in Psychology. Finally in 1907, Watson was offered a position as a professor in psychology at John Hopkins University. After, Watson started working he began laboratory research on rats, proving that behaviorism is a science and has something to do with heredity. Later in 1914 he began his first major work called “Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology,” in this book Watson argues “That animal subject in psychological study and describe instincts that reflex to heredity.”
By 1920 Watson and an assistant graduate student, Rosalie Rayner, began to conduct an experiment called “Little Albert” in which he chose an 11- month old baby boy and put white furry objects in front of Albert. The experiment consisted of conditioning Albert to be fearful of a white rat by making a sound. During this experiment Albert became not only fearful of white rats but also bunnies and a Santa Clause Beard, that Watson wore. During this experiment, he had an affair with Rayner; soon after the scandal he divorced his first wife Mary Ickes, and also resigned from John Hopkins University. After resignation, Dr. Watson began working in the field of business. On September 25, 1958 he passed away, but before he died he burned all of his papers and articles so no one else would steal his ideas. Dr. Watson left an enduring legacy that helped other psychologist with the study of Behaviorism.
In our Wiki presentation we will be discussing adoption while exploring the Nature VS Nurture debate. Currently in The United States alone there are 91,642 children in the foster care system waiting to be adopted, according to www.childwelfare.gov. More than half of these children are over the age of 13. When a child reaches this age their chances of being adopted are less than 50%. The main reason for this is that many people believe that once a child reaches this age that they cannot retrain them if you will. It is believed that once a child reaches this age their behavior cannot be modified or changed and that they have already experienced so much that there is no way to change them. We will use our own experiences, as we are adoptive parents to explain our feelings on this debate.
Some scientist believe people behave the way they do accourding to genetic predispositions. This is known as the nature theory of human behavior. Other scientists believe that people think and behave in certain ways because they are taught to do so. This is known as the nurture theory. For example a 10 year boy comes from a home where his parents are drug abusers, alcoholics and his father is psychically abusive to his mother. Does this mean that he will be an abuser, alcoholic or druggy. Some say that his genetics that he obtained from his parents would cause him to do so. On the other side of this, what would happen if that child was removed from his home and adopted by a family who are non drinkers, never used drugs and go to church every Sunday. Would the way they live there life rub off on him, and regardless of genes would he grow up to be a well adjusted adult.
There are many cases where a child in foster care came from violent family went to a good home and was very violent as they grew up and never changed. In the summer of 1999 in Memphis TN, two teenagers were charged with gang rapping a toddler, stabbing her mother, and shooting a man while jacking his car. These two young men were brothers who had been removed from their home at the age of 4 and put in foster care because their father had beaten their mother nearly to death. 2 years later they were adopted by a family who could not have kids and raised in a Christian home. Their adoptive mother had problems with the boys their entire life and despite the effort of the new family could not change them. They are now spending the rest of their life in a maximum security prison.
There are also many cases were they grow up to be very well adjusted. Did you know that there are quite a few famous people who were adopted. Seal the r and b singer. Malcom X the civil rights leader. And even Marilyn Monroe the famous actress was adopted. As adoptive parents ourselves we have to children a boy and a girl that were adopted at the age of 5 and 6. They were pulled from a violent home. While we basically had to retrain them and had behavior issues problems in the beginning, after time they have adjusted to are way of life. Those old habits have disappeared, those old behaviors gone. They have been with us for 4 years and we believe we have changed them. In our personel experience we believe that Nuture trumps Nature. But only time will tell.
Chris and Sena Bailey
by Jordan Roane
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is suddenly interrupted or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts, spilling blood into the spaces surrounding brain cells. Brain cells die when they no longer receive oxygen and nutrients from the blood or there is sudden bleeding into or around the brain. The symptoms of a stroke include sudden numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body; sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech; sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes; sudden trouble with walking, dizziness, or loss of balance or coordination; or sudden severe headache with no known cause. There are two forms of stroke: ischemic - blockage of a blood vessel supplying the brain, and hemorrhagic - bleeding into or around the brain.
Although stroke is a disease of the brain, it can affect the entire body. A common disability that results from stroke is complete paralysis on one side of the body, called hemiplegia. A related disability that is not as debilitating as paralysis is one-sided weakness or hemiparesis. Stroke may cause problems with thinking, awareness, attention, learning, judgment, and memory. Stroke survivors often have problems understanding or forming speech. A stroke can lead to emotional problems. Stroke patients may have difficulty controlling their emotions or may express inappropriate emotions. Many stroke patients experience depression. Stroke survivors may also have numbness or strange sensations. The pain is often worse in the hands and feet and is made worse by movement and temperature changes, especially cold temperatures.
What is Parkinson’s disease? Parkinson's disease, which can also be called (PD), belongs to a group of conditions called motor system disorders. These disorders are caused be a loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. Historians have found evidence of the disease to as far back as 5000 B.C. The disease was first described as “the shaking palsy” in 1817 by British doctor James Parkinson. He was the first to notice the symptoms and that is where it got the name. The four main symptoms of PD are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face. Some other symptoms include, Akinesia, which is muscle rigidity, digestion problems, depression, low blood pressure temperature, leg discomfort, and balance.
As these symptoms become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. Usually Parkinson’s disease only affects people over the age of fifty. These symptoms don’t take awhile for them to progress. But for some people the disease progresses more quickly than in others. As the disease progresses, the shaking, or tremor, which affects the majority of PD patients may begin to interfere with normal rituals. Mood changes are also part of PD, which can include depression. There are currently no blood or laboratory tests that have been proven to help in diagnosing PD. Therefore the diagnosis is based on medical history and a neurological examination. The disease can be difficult to diagnose accurately.
Can this be treated? There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, but there are some medicines that can be taken to treat it. Doctors normally give patients levodopa combined with carbidopa. Carbidopa delays the conversion of levodopa into dopamine until it reaches the brain. Llevodopa helps at a lot of the parkinsonian cases, but not all respond the same. Bradykinesia and rigidity respond best, while tremor may be only marginally reduced. Other drugs, such as bromocriptine, pramipexole, and ropinirole, act as the role of dopamine in the brain, causing the neurons to react as they would to dopamine. There is also surgical treatment for severe cases. Pallidotomy, which is a procedure that involves destroying some of the cells in a particular part of the brain that controls movement. This procedure has been found to reduce dyskenasias (which are involuntary movements). Deep Brain Stimulation is also a treatment option. It involves implanting a small metal electrode into the brain. It helps in diminishing drug induced symptoms. Thalamic stimulation, Pallidal stimulation, and Subthalamic DBS are also surgical procedures used. Speech therapy has also been found helpful to patients that have difficulty swallowing or speaking.
How will this progress? Parkinson’s disease is chronic, and progressive. It can affect different people in different ways. Some will experience minor motor skill disruptions, while others will become severely disabled. The same goes for symptoms, some will experience different symptoms more than others.
Research? Research is being done to try to figure out the many affects of Parkinson’s disease. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts research along with many medical institutions across the country. Researchers are also using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans that allow you to see a 3D image of the brain. It has been used to study Parkinson’s disease and the use of dopamine in the brain. They are also using Stem cell research to study how to prevent or help cure PD. Current research programs are using animal models to study how the disease progresses and to develop new drug therapies. Scientists continue to look for things that might cause PD, such as toxins, and study genes to see how they play a role. They are also trying to create drugs that can prevent, or reverse the disease. Five genes have been found to be associated with Parkinson’s. They are alpha-synuclein, Parkin, Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, DJ-1 and SCA2. They have found that the mutations of these genes can cause some of the underlining causes of Parkinson’s disease.
Famous people with Parkinson’s disease. Johnny Cash, country singer was a victim to Parkinson’s disease. It took a toll on his singing career, because his disease quickly progressed.
Billy Graham, a famous preacher health collapsed in the 1990’s due to the effects of Parkinson’s. It changed him from being very active, to only being able to move in slow motion, but he was very optimistic about his condition, and relied on his faith to get him through.
Michael J. Fox a Canadian/American film and television actor was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 1991 and disclosed his condition to the public in 1998. He was first diagnosed when he noticed a twitch in his left finger while he was working on the set of the 1991 film Doc Hollywood. After the diagnosis and the disease progressed over the next few years it was affecting his entire left side with tremors and stiffness. As the symptoms worsened, he retired from a full-time acting in 2000.
Another person diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease was Muhammad Ali one of America’s best boxers of all times was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 1984 at the age of 42. His brain injury could have been caused from repeated hits to the head. Ali began showing symptoms of the disease soon after retiring from the boxing ring in 1981. But the condition was not diagnosed until three years later. By that time he had developed tremors, his speech was slurred, and his body movements had become slow.
Frederick Roach is an American boxer trainer and a former professional boxer suffers from Parkinson’s disease. He is able to actively control the disease through medication, injection and his training of boxers. His doctors feel that his active in-ring training routines with his fighters and tremendous hand-eye coordination that he had to exhibit has made it possible to slow the progress of the incurable disease. Roach blames boxing for his Parkinson’s disease but still steps into the ring to work with others because he loves the sport and believes it keeps his condition from getting worse.
Another person that suffered from Parkinson’s disease was Pope John Paul II. It not only caused him to shake uncontrollably, but it also caused him to come close to death more than once. John Paul II was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 1993 at the age of 73. He died 12 years later after using his suffering to try to bring world attention to the disease and to reinvigorate the search for a cure for the disease.
Reading at three
You may ask yourself, can a baby really read? There has been a verity of commercials stating if you buy this product your baby can read. Here is a program that even shows the babies reading.
Are these babies’ actually reading? According to the today’s show this media based program your baby can read gives the wrong impression that babies can actually read, and know what they read means.
This visual learning program helps develop, a way of reading, but doesn’t help in advancing your baby, and toddler comprehension level. The comprehension and understanding what something means does not develop until age——. This reading is considered to be sight reading, just looking at the picture to know what the word means, and does not teach the baby and toddler to sound out the words, also known as phonics.
However, there is electronic books, and games that help children sound out letters, and games with cartoon characters that teaches them how to spell the word. V-tech, V-smile, and leap frog reader. The Leap frog has different children’s books to that you put on the tablet, then the pen is like a mouse on a computer. When the child takes the pen and places the point on the letter it says the sound, if the child runs the pen point over the entire word, it says the word. According to David Reinking in the Cambridge handbook of Multimedia Learning, Chapter 23, Clemson University page 355, comprehending “ building capabilities and strategies to understand and think critically about the text.
International Reading Association 2001
International Society for Technology in Education 2002
There are over 70,000 deaf and blind people nationwide there are 104 in Kansas. The lowest state is Alaska with 21 an California is the largest with 920. The people that are deaf are able to see a couple inches in front of them but gradual lose their vision as they get older. All the deaf – blind people communicate by sign language, tactile sign language. When the deaf and hard of hearing people communicate they have to sign or use enlarged pictures, when they for others that have more problems seeing they would have to sign or fingerspell more slowly so the person with limited vision can see signs better if the other person wears a dark colored shirt if light colored skinned and it would be the opposite way if you are dark skinned. So just by that statement blind –deaf people learn just the same way as the ones that aren’t deaf or blind but with a problem of reading black and white we have to use colored paper to bring out the black lettering in order to see it.
Some deaf-blind people watch the interpreter about 5 feet from each other.
Some deaf-blind people with restricted peripheral may want to signer to sign in a very small space about chest level. The deaf-blind person will put his or her hands over the signers hand so they may feel the shape, movement and location of the signs. People can use one handed or two-handed tactile sign language. Some deaf-blind people with tunnel vision may follow signs by holding the signers forearm or wrist and using their eyes to follow the signs usually. Most blind or usually impaired people can hear and lose their hearing later, or if they have depended on their speech reading and so not know how to sign, prefer tactile finger spelling. Sign language can be difficult to learn.
There are different ways the deaf-blind person may use finger spelling. They are putting their hand over the finger spelling hand, on the signer’s palm, or cups their hand around the signer’s hand; and one example you all might recognize is the move the miracle worker. A deaf-blind person can chat with the teacher; using Tadoma. This is the way for a deaf-blind person with little or mo visible vision to speech read by touch. This can be done by putting their thumb on the other person’s chin and finger on the check. This allows them to feel the vibrations of the person’s voice, and movement of lips.
Some deaf or hard hearing people with some usable vision use speech reading. Some may use hearing aids, cochlear implants to help them hear. There is a screen Braille communication that allows them to chat with each other this is a small, portable device that enables them to talk with sighted people. The deaf-blind person reads the text printed Braille text by putting his fingers on the Braille display. It lets a person who can also use this system as a face-to-face communication. Some with limited vision can use TTY with large displays or computers with large font to communicate with others. Some deaf-blind people use Cap Tel makes a telephone call. By using a special phone, they can dial into a service that types the other caller’s conversation on to a computer screen. The people that use these can also use Braille note takers to communicate with others.
Jean Piaget is one of the most influential developmental psychologists. During the 1970s and 1980s, Piaget’s work inspired the transformation of European and American education, leading to a more ‘child-centred’ approach.
A little bit about Jean Piaget he was born August 9, 1896 and died September 16, 1980. He was the oldest child of Arthur Piaget, professor of medieval literature at the Inversity, and of Rebecca Jackson. At age 11, while he was a pupil at Neuchatel Latin high school, he wrote a short notice on an albino sparrow. This short paper is generally considered as the start of a brilliant scientific career made of over sixty books and several hundred articles.
In 1923, Piaget married Valentine Chatenay. The married couple had three children by the name of Jacqueline, Lucienne, and Lauret in which Piaget study the development from infancy to language.
Piaget spent much of his professional time life listening to children, watching children, and doing reports on researches all around the world. He came up with the solution that most kids don’t think like gorwnups. After thousands of interactions with young people that can barely talk, Piaget began to realize that behind their cute and seemingly illogical utterances were thought processes that had their own kind of order and their own special logic.
Piaget’s insight opened a new window into the innner workings of the mind. By the end of his remarkable research career that lasted nearly 75 years from his first publication at age 10 to work still in progress when he died at age 84. Piaget developed new fields of science like developmental psycology, cognitive theory, and genetic epistemology. Although not educational, he made a way of thinking about children that provided the foundation for today’s education-reform movements. Piaget researches in developmental psychology and genetic epistemology had one goal and that was the question how does knowledge grow. Piaget’s answer is that the growth of knowledge is a progress of construction of logical structures exceedind one another by a process or of a lower less powerful logical means into higher and more powerful ones up to adulthood. Piagets works are known all over the world and is still an inspiration in the fields of psychology, sociology, education, epistemology, economics, and law.
The Four development stages of Piaget’s theory
Piaget then came up with four development stages which are described in his thoery as Sensorimotor Stage which is from birth to age 2 years, Preoperational Stage meaning from ages 2 to 7, Concrete operational stage meaning from ages 7 to11, and Formal Operational stage meaning after age 11. These stages occur at different ages depending upon the knowledge under consideration. The ages given for the stages then reflect when each stages predominate even though one might give examples of two, three, even all four stages of thinking at the same time from one individual depending on the domain of knowledge.
Piaget’s view of the child’s mind
Piaget’s research waas focused on the goal of discovering how knowledge develops. Piaget viewed children as little philosophers and scientist making their own theories of knowledge based on structures that develop overtie through experience. Although children of different ages view the world in entirely different ways from adults.
Kristie Lammers, Karen Jack, Chelsea Warta
Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that causes people to fall asleep involuntarily. When the urge to fall asleep is strong these periods can range anywhere from a couple seconds to a couple minutes and in some cases possibly even a couple hours. People with narcolepsy have to overcome the challenges this disorder comes with such as fighting the urge to sleep while at work, school, eating, or even driving.
The main symptom narcoleptics suffer from is Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS). Those who suffer from this feel an overwhelming urge to sleep or sense of tiredness throughout the day whether they had a full nights rest or not. EDS can interfere with many daily activities for the people who suffer from it. People with EDS say it’s like being in a mental cloudiness, a lack of energy, a depressed mood, or very exhausted. About 40 percent of people who suffer from narcolepsy are prone to having microsleeps. People who have microsleeps fall asleep for short periods of time lasting a few seconds. While having these microsleeps people could be working on something in their daily routine and the task would be carried out without signs of disruption. Even though they seem routine these microsleeps could be very dangerous to the person suffering from the disorder or people around them if an episode occurs while driving or other potentially dangerous tasks.
There are three other symptoms besides EDS that are also associated with narcolepsy; cataplexy, the sudden loss of voluntary muscle tone. Cataplexy is usually the first symptom to appear and is often misdiagnosed as a seizure disorder. Hallucinations can occur while people are falling asleep or waking up. When these hallucinations occur they can be very vivid and are usually frightening. Short episodes of absolute paralysis at the beginning or end of sleep can occur too. Those who suffer from sleep paralysis feel as though they are going through a cataplectic attack which affects the whole body. People with narcolepsy do not get more sleep during the night than regular people. Narcoleptics suffer from daytime drowsiness and involuntary sleep episodes, but also wake up during nighttime sleep.
People who suffer from narcolepsy often start showing symptoms between the ages of 10 and 25 but do not receive treatment until 10-15 years after symptoms start. Though narcolepsy is a life long condition, symptoms can be reduced by if changes to one’s life style are made and medical attention is found. By doing this things one’s life can be fuller and more active.
Narcolepsy is found all over the world. This chronic disorder affects about 1 out of every 2,000 Americans, 1 out of every 500,000 Israelis, and 1 in ever 600 Japanese. It seems that most cases of narcolepsy are random although research is being done and more and more researchers are starting to believe this disorder may be genetic. Genetic factors alone do not seem to be what causes narcolepsy. Other factors may include immune-system dysfunction, trauma, and hormonal changes.
Treatment for narcolepsy
There really isn't a treatment for narcolepsy. People who have it usually have to be medicated and work through it. Specialist say that scheduled naps throughout the day can help with the side effects. It is often said that it is best to take a fifteen minute nap before lunch and a fifteen minute nap before dinner. Specialists also say that it is best to avoid alcohol and heavy eating. It is said to avoid these two things because it may interfere with sleeping.
There are some people who have a mild case of narcolepsy and do not need to be medicated and can maintain their narcolepsy with the scheduled naps throughout the day. The benefits of scheduled naps, however, are not clear for patients whose condition responds to medication. In some studies, patients who took stimulants and were able to maintain alertness or were only moderately sleepy derived no additional benefit from the naps.
Medications for narcolepsy target the major symptoms of sleepiness. Stimulant drugs are used to manage excessive daytime sleepiness while antidepressants and other compounds address catalectic symptoms. The FDA has approved two drugs specifically for the treatment of narcolepsy. They are now the first-line treatments:
• Modafinil (Provigil): For excessive daytime sleepiness
• Sodium Oxybate (Xyrem)
Patients who switch to Modafinil from stimulants such as methylphenidate experience few problems if they gradually taper off the stimulant dose. Modafinil helps patients with narcolepsy stay awake during the day. In one study, patients who had not yet taken Modafinil were able to stay awake only an average of 6 out of 20 minutes. After taking the medication, the time one is awake increases to 12 - 14 of every 20 minutes, and some patients had normal wake times. In another study, Modafinil increased the ability to stay awake by 50% and reduced the number of involuntary sleep episodes by about 25%. Some of its additional benefits include what it does not do:
• Modafinil does not appear to affect natural hormones important in sleep, including cortisol (the major stress hormone), melatonin, and growth hormone. Therefore, studies suggest that it does not interfere with voluntary naps during the day or with the quantity or quality of nighttime sleep.
• It does not cause anxiety to the degree that the standard stimulants do.
• It does not cause a rebound effect as stimulants do. In other words, people who take Modafinil do not usually "crash" when the drug wears off.
• It has less potential for abuse than stimulant drugs. In one trial, no patients developed dependence on the drug after 9 weeks of daily use. However, Modafinil can still be habit-forming. Patients may need to gradually lower the dose before stopping treatment.
Methylphenidate and Dextroamphetamine last for 2 - 5 hours and are the standard drugs for excessive daytime sleepiness. These drugs are useful for people who can manage wakefulness with a night's sleep and scheduled naps. They can improve mood, mental acuity, and other aspects of mental functioning. An older drug, Pemoline (Cylert), is now prescribed less frequently due to its risks for liver damage.
Research being done on narcolepsy
There has been a lot of research that has been done on narcolepsy. Most successful research has been done at Stanford University. (Emmanuel Minot). Most of the research that he conducted was on dogs to see if there was a gene in common with humans since dogs were the only other animal at the time known to do this. It took thirty-six years of research to discover there is. The brain has a loss of a brain cell called Orexin. This brain cell was discovered in 1998 at a university in Texas. People who have narcolepsy can’t stay awake during the day even when they have had a full nights rest. They discovered Narcolepsy is a serious disease it can ruin lives. Scientists have discovered that it starts usually between ages 10 and 24. The cases may vary for some people it starts when they are excited or laughing really hard. In most cases thought they found it too dangerous because your muscles tense up and they become paralyzed for a couple seconds to a minuet. Scientist thought that if you use sleeping pills at night you will be more rested and resist the sudden faint but this still rarely works. One of the most scariest things about this is that you can’t really predict when it’s going to happen. Or the position you will fall in if they fall in a sofa cushion you can suffocate. You also can get hallucinations although this only happens to about fifty percent of people with narcolepsy. The hallucinations happen when you are in the sleep and they are very real dreams that occur while you are out. Sleep paralysis is another thing that may occur it’s when you have the in ability to talk or move while in the deep sleep this only lasts for a couple seconds to a minuet. Not everyone has this though only about fifty percent of people who have necropsy have this. Some additional symptoms with this is disturbed nocturnal sleep this has frequent awakenings in the night and more body movements than normal this will happen during your regular night time sleep. Automatic behavior will happen to sixty to eighty percent of people with narcolepsy what will happen with this is occurs is there body will do things without being conscious awareness like they will say different words. For doctors to treat people they have to be clinically diagnosed they give a sheet for patients to fill out and then they will do sleep logs or sleep diaries they will record how much sleep they get. Then they will do sleep laboratories where they measure how much sleep you get. Then there is rem sleep they test to see if you are getting all stages of it. There are many tests to discover if you have narcolepsy it’s a very interesting process. There has been lost of study and research on this very serious disease. Narcolepsy has ruined many lives.
ANXIETY DISORDER – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
By Emily Harre
In the Civil War era PTSD was called “soldier’s heart” and after WW1 it was called “combat fatigue”, but it wasn’t until 1980 that is was formally diagnosed as PTSD. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder characterized as an emotional stress disorder that shows up after experiencing a traumatic event or situation where physical harm was involved. Events usually harm the physical and mental well being of the individual. It is believed that people who suffer from this disease have a smaller hippocampus, the area of the brain involved in making new thoughts about life events. Sufferers who re-experience these events in some way usually tend to avoid places, people, or events that trigger a reaction and are usually sensitive to normal life experiences (hyperarousal). Certain events often include being involved in a severe accident or physical injury, being kidnapped or tortured, war combat or a natural disaster, exposure to other disaster (plane crash or terrorist attack), being raped, mugged, assaulted, or enduring physical, sexual, emotional, or other forms of abuse. Women who were raped or tortured at an earlier age are more likely to develop Complex posttraumatic stress disorder and if they are pregnant while they have PTSD it is likely that they will pass this onto their babies or they will have problems with their chemical balance in their body and are more likely to have PTSD later in life. Symptoms for every sufferer includes nightmares, phobias, sleep disorders, poor concentration, difficulty remembering, being easily startled, and excessive watchfulness. They are also more likely to develop mental and social challenges and have a harder ability to learn.
Seven to eight percent of people in the United States will develop PTSD in one year, and at least forty percent of teens have experienced one or more traumatic situations resulting in fifteen percent of girls and six percent of boys to obtain PTSD. Women, children and minorities are more probable to get PTSD rather than men and Caucasians. After 20005, more than 200,000 soldiers were being treated for this disorder raising the number by eighty percent, costing the country over 4.3 million dollars in treatment.
We can help suffers cope with their disorder by educating them on the disorder, helping them talk to friends and family about what they are feeling. There are support groups they can go to, and it is important to have a healthy lifestyle by helping them eat healthy and exercising daily to relieve stress. Treatment for PTSD includes psychological and medical interventions and therapy and educating sufferers and their family about their disorder. Doctors try to help patients recognize the relationships between their thoughts and feelings, explore common negative thoughts held by traumatized individuals, develop alternative interpretations, and develop new ways of looking at their fears. Some mood stabilizing drugs are prescribed. Family and individual counseling is also needed in most situations.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Post-traumatic stress disorder is a anxiety disorder that may occur after a major traumatic event involving the threat of injury and death. During a traumatic event, you feel that your life or others’ lives are in danger and are afraid or feel that you have no control over the event. Anyone of any age that has gone through a life threatening event can develop post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder can occur soon after major trauma or may be delayed for more than six months.
Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people that have felt strong emotions caused by a traumatic event, following a natural disaster or events such as war, prison sentence, assault, domestic abuse, or rap. Changing the body’s response to stress. Affecting the stress hormones and chemicals that carry information between the nerves. In most cases post-traumatic stress disorder gets better after three months. However, in some cases people have a longer-term form of Post-traumatic stress disorder, which may last for many years.
It is not clear why some people develop post-traumatic stress disorder and others do not. Most people have symptoms at the beginning, yet only some develop Post-traumatic stress disorder. Many things affect how likely you are to get post-traumatic stress disorder. Such as, the intensity of the trauma, how long it lasted, your proximity to the event, how strong your reaction was and the amount of support you got after the event. Studies of Vietnam veterans show that those with strong social support were less likely to get post-traumatic stress disorder then veterans with out social support.
Post-traumatic stress disorder can not be diagnosed by tests. Diagnosis is based on a set of certain symptoms that continue after extreme trauma, psychiatric and physical exams can be done to rule out any other illnesses. The treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder aims to reduce symptoms by encouraging the recall of the event and expressing your feeling to gain a sense of control over the experience. In some cases people must treat depression, alcohol or substance abuse, or related medical conditions before they can address the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In other cases the use of medicines such as antidepressants witch act on the nervous system are used to help reduce anxiety and other symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.
Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder usually show up soon after the traumatic event, but may not show up for months or years later. Re-experiencing symptoms, feeling the same fear and horror you did when the event took place, you may have nightmares or feel like you are going through the event again, called a flashback. Some people will avoid situations that remind them of the event, avoiding situations or people that trigger memories of the traumatic event. People may feel numb finding it hard to feel or express feelings. People feel jittery or always alert and on the lookout for danger, known as hyper arousal. Some people feel a sense of guilt about the event, feeling guilty that they survived, known as survivor guilt.
"What Is PTSD? - National Center for PTSD." National Center for PTSD Home. 1 Jan. 2007.
Web. 03 Dec. 2010. <http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/what-is-ptsd.asp>.
"NIMH • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)." NIMH • Home. 3 Nov. 2010. Web. 03 Dec. 2010. <http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/index.shtml>
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder in which you have unreasonable thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead you to engage in repetitive behaviors (compulsions). With obsessive-compulsive disorder, you may realize that your obsessions aren't reasonable, and you may try to ignore them or stop them. But that only increases your distress and anxiety. Ultimately, you feel driven to perform compulsive acts in an effort to ease your distress.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder often centers around themes, such as a fear of getting contaminated by germs. To ease your contamination fears, you may compulsively wash your hands until they're sore and chapped. Despite your efforts, the distressing thoughts of obsessive-compulsive disorder keep coming back. This leads to more ritualistic behavior — and a vicious cycle that's characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Obsessions often have themes to them, such as:
Fear of contamination or dirt
Having things orderly and symmetrical
Aggressive or horrific impulses
Sexual images or thoughts
OCD symptoms involving obsessions may include:
Fear of being contaminated by shaking hands or by touching objects others have touched
Doubts that you've locked the door or turned off the stove
Thoughts that you've hurt someone in a traffic accident
Intense distress when objects aren't orderly or facing the right way
Images of hurting your child
Impulses to shout obscenities in inappropriate situations
Avoidance of situations that can trigger obsessions, such as shaking hands
Replaying pornographic images in your mind
Dermatitis because of frequent hand washing
Skin lesions because of picking at your skin
Hair loss or bald spots because of hair pulling
As with OCD obsessions, compulsions typically have themes, such as:
Washing and cleaning
Performing the same action repeatedly
OCD symptoms involving compulsions may include:
Hand washing until your skin becomes raw
Checking doors repeatedly to make sure they're locked
Checking the stove repeatedly to make sure it's off
Counting in certain patterns
Making sure all your canned goods face the same way
"Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD): Symptoms - MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic Medical Information and Tools for Healthy Living - MayoClinic.com. Web. 09 Dec. 2010. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obsessive-compulsive-disorder/DS00189/DSECTION=symptoms>.
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)
(or Social phobia)
Most people occasionally feel nervous meeting a new person or speaking in front of a group. People with social anxiety disorder (SAD), however, become overwhelmingly anxious and self-conscious even in everyday social situations. Theirs is an intense and persistent fear of being scrutinized by others or of doing something embarrassing. Even though they may find their own anxiety unreasonable, they can't overcome it by themselves.
What Causes Social Anxiety Disorder?
Social anxiety disorder typically begins during the teenage years and continues into adulthood. People may develop the disorder after a childhood history of social inhibition or shyness. Others experience an abrupt onset after a very stressful or humiliating experience. Like many anxiety disorders, your genes may play a role. There is no single known cause of social anxiety disorder, but research suggests that biological, psychological, and environmental factors may play a role in its development.
Biological: Social anxiety disorder may be related to an imbalance of the neurotransmitter serotonin. If the neurotransmitters are out of balance, messages cannot get through the brain properly. This can alter the way the brain reacts to stressful situations, leading to anxiety. In addition, social anxiety disorder appears to run in families. This means that the disorder may be passed on in families through genes.
Psychological: The development of social anxiety disorder may stem from an embarrassing or humiliating experience at a social event in the past.
Environmental: People with social anxiety disorder may develop their fear from observing the behavior of others or seeing what happened to someone else as the result of their behavior. Also children who are sheltered or overprotected by their parents may not learn good social skills as part of their normal development.
Treatments and drugs
Social anxiety disorders typically persist for life, often coming and going. Treatment can help control symptoms and make the person confident and relaxed in social situations. The two most effective types of treatment are medications and a form of psychotherapy called cognitive behavioral therapy. These two approaches are often used in combination.
Psychotherapy - Cognitive behavioral therapy improves symptoms in up to 75 percent of people with social anxiety disorder. This type of therapy is based on the idea that a persons own thoughts, not other people or situations, determine how they behave or react. In therapy, people learn how to recognize and change negative thoughts about themselves. Cognitive behavioral therapy may also include exposure therapy. In this type of therapy, you gradually work up to facing the situations you fear most.
Several types of medications are used to treat social anxiety disorder. However, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are generally considered the safest and most effective treatment for persistent symptoms of social anxiety. SSRIs your doctor may prescribe include:
- Paroxetine (Paxil)
- Sertraline (Zoloft)
- Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
- Fluoxetine (Prozac)
Other medication options
Your doctor or mental health provider may also prescribe other medications for symptoms of social anxiety, including:
- Other antidepressants. You may have to try several different antidepressants to find which one is the most effective and has the fewest unpleasant side effects.
- Anti-anxiety medications. A type of anti-anxiety medication called benzodiazepines (ben-zo-di-AZ-uh-penes) may reduce your level of anxiety. Although they often work quickly, they can be habit-forming. Because of that, they're often prescribed for only short-term use. They may also be sedating.
- Beta blockers. These medications work by blocking the stimulating effect of epinephrine (adrenaline). They may reduce heart rate, blood pressure, pounding of the heart, and shaking voice and limbs. Because of that, they may work best when used infrequently to control symptoms for a particular situation, such as giving a speech. They're not recommended for general treatment of social anxiety disorder.
"Social Anxiety Disorder ." Web MD. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May 2011. <http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/mental-health-social-anxiety-disorder>.
Wikipedia contributors. "Social anxiety disorder." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 1 May. 2011. Web. 3 May. 2011. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Social_anxiety_disorder&oldid=426836957>
Asperger syndrome is a milder version of Autistic Disorder. In Asperger's Disorder, affected individuals are characterized by social isolation and eccentric behavior in childhood. The name "Asperger" comes from Hans Asperger, an Austrian physician who first described the syndrome in 1944. Aspergers was described in children who were in his practice who lacked nonverbal communication skills, demonstrated limited empathy with their peers, and were physically clumsy.
Individuals with AS experience difficulties in basic elements of social interaction, which may include a failure to develop friendships or seek shared enjoyments or achievements with others (for example, showing others objects of interest), a lack of social or emotional reciprocity, and impaired nonverbal behaviors in areas such as eye contact, facial expression, posture, and gestures. Some don’t even realize that others have emotions or even realize their own emotions.
Some of the symptoms include-
• Engaging in one-sided, long-winded conversations, without noticing if the listener is listening or trying to change the subject
• Displaying unusual nonverbal communication, such as lack of eye contact, few facial expressions, or awkward body postures and gestures
• Showing an intense obsession with one or two specific, narrow subjects, such as baseball statistics, train schedules, weather or snakes
• Appearing not to understand, empathize with or be sensitive to others' feelings
• Having a hard time "reading" other people or understanding humor
• Speaking in a voice that is monotonous, rigid or unusually fast
• Moving clumsily, with poor coordination
• Having an odd posture or a rigid gait
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Dissociative Identity Disorder (also known as Multiple Personality Disorder or DID) is a condition in which a person will display more than one distinct identities. The disorder is accompanied by periods of amnesia which must go beyond normal forgetfulness. There is a lot of controversy surrounding DID, in whether or not it is a real diagnosis or a result of iatrogenic therapy.
Signs and Symptoms
-Fluctuating symptom pictures
-Fluctuating levels of function; from highly effective to disabled
-Severe headaches or other pains
-Time distortions, time lapses, and amnesia
-Depersonalization and derealization
-Sleep disorders (insomnia, night terrors, and sleep walking)
-Anxiety, panic attacks, and phobias (flashbacks, reactions to stimuli or "triggers")
-Alcohol and drug abuse
-Compulsions and rituals
-Psychotic-like symptoms (hearing voices of other alters inside of their head and visual flashbacks)
-Amnesic episodes and time loss
-Trances and "out of body experiences”
-Tendency toward self-persecution, self-sabotage, and sometimes self or other directed violence
Those who suffer from DID often have other psychological and personality disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, obsessive-compulsive disorder. The fact that DID is not as common and that the patient may exhibit more prominent symptoms of different disorders causes many to be miss diagnosed at first.
Many psychiatrists believe that DID is linked to overwhelming stress, traumatic events in the pasts, insufficient nurturing as a child, and the lack of ability to dissociate memories from consciousness. A high number of patients diagnosed with DID have reported some form of physical or sexual abuse as children. It has been theorized that severe sexual, physical, or psychological trauma in childhood predisposes an individual to the development of DID. The steps in the development of a dissociative identity are theorized to be as follows:
1. The child is harmed by a trusted caregiver (often a parent or guardian) and splits off the awareness and memory of the traumatic event to survive in the relationship.
2. The memories and feelings go into the subconscious and are experienced later in the form of a separate personality.
3. The process happens repeatedly at different times so that different personalities develop, containing different memories and performing different functions that are helpful or destructive.
4. Dissociation becomes a coping mechanism for the individual when faced with further stressful situations.
There is a great deal of controversy surrounding DID. Skeptics of DID insist that the disorder is caused from suggestions from a therapist to suggestive patients and that many patients do not actually show alters until after treatment begins. Also, many are curious as to the fact that DID is many prominent in North America and seems to be a phenomenon occurring only on that continent. In addition, the contentious nature of this diagnosis is characterized by lack of stability in categorizing this disorder in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).The second edition labeled the disorder as multiple personality disorder. While the third, grouped DID in with four other dissociative disorders. The DSM-IV-TR categorizes the disorder as dissociative identity disorder, and the ICD-10 continues to list it as multiple personality disorder.
Amanda Shearmire & Jordan Korf
Many people suffer from different types of depression in fact it is estimated that 33 to 35 million U.S. adults are likely to experience depression at some point during their lifetime. The disease affects men and women of all ages, races, and economic levels. However, women are at a significantly greater risk than men to develop major depression. Studies show that episodes of depression occur twice as frequently in women as in men.
You may suffer from depression if:
• you can’t sleep or you sleep too much
• you can’t concentrate or find that previously easy tasks are now difficult
• you feel hopeless and helpless
• you can’t control your negative thoughts, no matter how much you try
• you have lost your appetite or you can’t stop eating
• you are much more irritable and short-tempered than usual
• you have thoughts that life is not worth living
There are many different types of depression that you can suffer from, they include: Catatonic Depression, Melancholic Depression, Psychotic Depression, Agitated Depression, Situational Depression or Reactive Depression, Endogenous Depression, Double Depression, Chronic Depression, Atypical Depression, Anxiety Depression, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Post Partum Depression, Manic Depression, Dysthymic Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder.
Some of the main symptoms of depression are:
• Depressed mood most of the day; feeling sad or empty, tearful
• Significant loss of interest or pleasure in activities that used to be enjoyable
• Significant weight loss (when not dieting) or weight gain; decrease or increase in appetite
• Difficulty sleeping or sleeping too much
• Agitation; or slowing down of thoughts and reduction of physical movements
• Fatigue or loss of energy
• Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt
• Poor concentration or having difficulty making decisions
• Thinking about death or suicide
Depression is a major risk factor for suicide. The deep despair and hopelessness that goes along with depression can make suicide feel like the only way to escape the pain. Thoughts of death or suicide are a serious symptom of depression, so take any suicidal talk or behavior seriously. It's not just a warning sign that the person is thinking about suicide: it's a cry for help.
Signs of suicide:
• Talking about killing or harming one’s self
• Expressing strong feelings of hopelessness or being trapped
• An unusual preoccupation with death or dying
• Acting recklessly, as if they have a death wish
• Calling or visiting people to say goodbye
• Getting affairs in order (giving away prized possessions, tying up loose ends)
• Saying things like “Everyone would be better off without me” or “I want out.”
• A sudden switch from being extremely depressed to acting calm and happy.
Simple ways to treat depression:
• Take an antidepressant
• Try a natural supplement
• Increase your daily exercise
• Go to a psychotherapist
• Try light Therapy
• Social Support
• Talk about it
• Do nice things for yourself
• Learn to relax or meditate
• Understand your symptoms
Depression is a psychological condition that affects the mind. It changes the way you feel and think. But just feeling a little sad or upset isn’t depression. It is much more serious that that. These lingering feelings, intensify, and interfere with your life including school, work or even your home life. Depression is considered one of the most common psychological problems. About 17 million American’s go through a period of clinical depression each year. Depression can cause many problems. Some of the problems that depression causes are emotional and physical pain, reduces work productivity, and it negatively impacts the economy (costing an estimated $44 billion a year.) Depression affects many people, not just the person living with it. It affects many family and friends, while disrupting the lives of many people around the world. Many scientists believe that depression is caused from a chemical imbalance in the brain. It can be caused by experiences a person goes through. Some types of depression seem to run in families, but depression can also occur in people who have no family history of the illness. But most often people get depression because of their family history with depression and also with the experiences they have gone through in their life.
Recognizing the problem is always the first step in any situation. The same goes for depression. Once depression is diagnosed most people are often treated successfully. But the key is to get help. Nearly two-thirds of depressed people do not get proper treatment. Depression is not always diagnosed because some of the symptoms are physical. For example appetite and sleep disturbances. The most important thing is to get help. Anybody with depression can call 911, or call a suicide hotline. It is important to call your doctor if you hear voices that are not there, if you have frequent crying episodes for no reason. Also call your doctor if are feeling like your medications may be making you feel depressed.
Depression can be treated in many ways. But the two main ways are counseling and medications. Most everybody will benefit from a combination of both medication and counseling. Some medications used to treat depression are tricyclic anitdperessants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs). But not all medication work for everybody. The FDA proposed that all antidepressant medicines should warn of the risk of suicidal behavior in young adults ages 18 - 24 years.
Of course their may be some ways to avoid having episodes of depression. Several ways to avoid depression include avoid drinking alcohol, taking drugs, and drinking caffeine. It is also key to exercise regularly. And it is also helpful to learn how to manage stress and relax. And the last important thing to remember to help prevention is to maintain good sleep habits.
“Depression Symptoms”. AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP. November 2010. http://www.seroqu
elxr.com/major -depressive-disorder/depression-symptoms.aspx?ux=l. 26 Oct. 2010.
Melinda Smith, M.A., and Joanna Saisan, MSW. “Understanding Depression”. November 2010.
"Depression Information and Treatment." Psychology Information Online. Web. 02 Dec. 2010. http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/.
"Major Depression." Google Health. Web. 02 Dec. 2010. https://health.google.com/health/ref/Major+depression.
Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression) causes serious shifts in mood, energy, thinking, and behavior-from the highs of mania on one extreme, to the lows of depression on the other. Depressive disorders affect the way the person’s brain functions. Bipolar is generally a chronic and life-long condition. This disorder often begins in adolescence or early adult hood, and sometimes even in children. Other medical terms for bipolar disorder are: manic depression, manic-depressive disorder, manic-depressive, bipolar mood disorder, and bipolar affective disorder. In the United States alone, it’s estimated that over 17 million adults have a depressive disorder, which means 1 out of every 7 people have this disorder. This illness affects men and women equally.
In the upcoming video it displays two people’s experiences with bipolar disorder.
There are four types of mood episodes in bipolar disorder which are mania, hypomania, depression, and mixed episodes. During a manic episode, a person might impulsively quit a job, charge up the huge amounts on the credit cards, or feel rested after sleeping two hours. During hypomania people feel euphoric, energetic, and productive, but they are able to carry on with their day-to-day lives. During a depressive episode, the same person might be too tired to get out of bed and full of self-loathing hopelessness over being unemployed and in debt. During the mixed episode symptoms of both mania and depression are experienced. This combination of high energy and low mood makes for a particularly high risk of suicide.
Bipolar disorder usually last a lifetime, and between episodes many people with bipolar disorder are free of symptoms. Bipolar disorder is classified into four different types: Bipolar I Disorder- is mainly defined by manic or mixed episodes that last at least seven days, or by manic symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care. Usually, the person also has depressive episodes, typically lasting at least two weeks. The symptoms of mania or depression must be a major change from the person’s normal behavior. Bipolar II Disorder- is defined by a pattern of depressive episodes shifting back and forth with hypomanic episodes, but no full-blown manic or mixed episodes. Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified- is diagnosed when a person has symptoms of the illness that do not meet diagnostic criteria for either bipolar I or II. The symptoms may not last long enough, or the person may have too few symptoms, to be diagnosed with bipolar I or II. However, the symptoms are clearly out of the person’s normal range of behavior. Cyclothymic Disorder, or Cyclothmia- is a mild form of bipolar disorder. People who have cyclothmia have episodes of hypomania that shift back and forth with mild depression for at least two years. However, the symptoms do not meet the diagnostic requirements for any other type of bipolar disorder. Some people may also be diagnosed with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder which is when a person has four or more episodes of major depression, mania, hypomania, or mixed symptoms within a year.
Although the exact cause of bipolar disorder is not known, most scientists believe that bipolar disorder is likely caused by multiple factors that interact with each other to produce a chemical imbalance affecting certain parts of the brain. This disorder often runs in families, and studies suggest a genetic component to the illness. The famous actor Ben Stiller suffers with this illness and his parents medical history show the bipolar illness as well. Also, the famous rock star Ozzy Osbourne, deals with a bipolar disorder.
There are many similar sings and symptoms that correspond with a bipolar disprder, but at the same time mania has several different complications than depression.
Signs and symptoms of mania include:
- Feeling unusually “high” and optimistic or extremely irritable
- Unrealistic, grandiose beliefs about one’s abilities or powers
- Sleeping very little, but feeling extremely energetic
- Talking so rapidly that others can’t keep up
- Racing thoughts; jumping quickly from one idea to the next
- Highly distractible, unable to concentrate
- Impaired judgment and impulsiveness
- Acting recklessly without thinking about the consequences
- Delusions and hallucinations (in severe cases)
Signs and symptoms of depression include:
- Feeling hopeless, sad, or empty.
- Inability to experience pleasure
- Fatigue or loss of energy
- Appetite or weight changes
- Sleep problems
- Concentration and memory problems
- Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
- Physical and mental sluggishness
- Thoughts of death or suicide
If you spot the symptoms of bipolar depression in yourself or someone else, don’t wait to get help.
Ignoring the problem will only increase the risk of further complications. Since bipolar disorder is a chronic, relapsing illness, it’s important to continue treatment even when you’re feeling better. Medication alone is not enough to fully control the symptoms of bipolar disorder. For the most effective treatment strategy combined medication, therapy, lifestyle changes, and social support. Make sure when taking medication it should be closely monitored. The main goal of treatment is recovery, getting to the point where bipolar no longer disrupts your life.
It is important to learn as much as you can about bipolar disorder if you suffer from the illness. The following are causes and triggers for bipolar disorder.
- Stress- Stressful life events can trigger bipolar disorder in someone with a genetic vulnerability. These events tend to involve drastic or sudden changes-either good or bad-such as getting married, going away to college, losing a loved one, getting fired, or moving.
- Substance Abuse-While substance abuse doesn’t cause bipolar disorder, it can bring on an episode and worsen the course of the disease.
- Medication- Most notably antidepressant drugs, can trigger mania, Other drugs that can cause mania include over-the-counter cold medicine, appetite suppressants, caffeine, corticosteroids, and thyroid medication.
- Seasonal Changes- Episodes of mania and depression often follow a seasonal pattern Manic episodes are more common during the summer, and depressive episodes more common during the fall, winter, and spring.
- Sleep Deprivation- Loss of sleep – even as little as skipping a few hours of rest – can trigger an episode of mania.
Major Depressive Disorder
Damion Walls: Major Depressive Disorder
In this Wiki Prestentation i will be shining the light on major depressive disorder or unipolar disorder. Unipolar disorder is a mental disorder characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem, and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. The term "major depressive disorder" was selected by the American Psychiatric Association to designate this symptom cluster as a mood disorder in the 1980 version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), and has become widely used since. The general term depression is often used to denote the disorder; but as it can also be used in reference to other types of psychological depression, it is avoided in favor of more precise terminology for the disorder in clinical and research use. Major depression is a disabling condition which adversely affects a person's family, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. In the United States, around 3.4% of people with major depression commit suicide, and up to 60% of people who commit suicide had depression or another mood disorder.
The diagnosis of major depressive disorder is based on the patient's self-reported experiences, behavior reported by relatives or friends, and a mental status examination. There is no laboratory test for major depression, although physicians generally request tests for physical conditions that may cause similar symptoms. Gelder, Mayou and Geddes (2005) state if depressive disorder is not detected in the early stages it may result in a slow recovery and affect or worsen the persons physical health. The most common time of onset is between the ages of 20 and 30 years, with a later peak between 30 and 40 years.
Symptoms maybe as followed
3. poor concentration and memory
4. withdrawal from social situations and activities
5. reduced sex drive
6. thoughts of death or suicide
Insomnia is common among the depressed. In the typical pattern, a person wakes very early and cannot get back to sleep, but insomnia can also include difficulty falling asleep. Insomnia affects at least 80% of depressed people. Hypersomnia, or oversleeping, can also happen, affecting 15% of the depressed people. Some antidepressants may also cause insomnia due to their stimulating effect.
A depressed person may report multiple physical symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, or digestive problems; physical complaints are the most common presenting problem in developing countries, according to the World Health Organization's criteria for depression. Appetite often decreases, with resulting weight loss, although increased appetite and weight gain occasionally occur. Family and friends may notice that the person's behavior is either agitated or lethargic.
The Cause for this depression is widely spread. The biopsychosocial model proposes that biological, psychological, and social factors all play a role in causing depression. The diathesis–stress model specifies that depression results when a preexisting vulnerability, or diathesis, is activated by stressful life events. The preexisting vulnerability can be either genetic, implying an interaction between nature and nurture, or schematic, resulting from views of the world learned in childhood.
Depression is a potentially life-threatening mood disorder that affects 1 in 6, or approximately 17.6 million Americans each year. Depressed patients are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.1 Not counting the effect of secondary disease states, over the next 20 years, unipolar depression is projected to be the second leading cause of disability worldwide and the leading cause of disability in high-income nations, including the United States.2 The current economic cost of depressive illness is estimated at $30-44 billion a year in the United States alone. In addition to considerable pain and suffering that interfere with individual functioning, depression affects those who care about the ill person, sometimes destroying family relationships or work dynamics between the patient and others. Therefore, the human cost in suffering cannot be overestimated. this isnt also just targeting Unipolar Disorder. This also talkin about the other major depressions there are.
Sources Used: www.wikipedia.com, www.google.com/health, www.mentalhealth.com, emedicine.medscape.com
SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is only one of many types of depression that have been diagnosed. It occurs during different seasons. However, the majority of people are depressed only during the late fall and winter (sometimes called the “winter blues”) and can affect men or women of any age in North America, although it is most common in young adult women. This type of depression may affect up to 6 out of every 100 people. This is more prevalent in the Northern portions of the country than in the South. Another 10-20% can be affected by a milder form of seasonal mood changes. SAD is more likely to affect people who live in geographical locations that are dark or cloudy during wintertime
There are many different symptoms of SAD and a person might exhibit some or all of these symptoms:
• Depressed mood,
• loss of interest in usually enjoyable activities,
• fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness,
• poor concentration, indecisiveness,
• and/or recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
Winter SAD indications are
• craving for sugar, starchy foods, or alcohol.
• Significant weight gain, irritability, and conflicts with other people.
• sleeping more than usual.
• Heaviness of arms and legs and behavior disturbances (in children) are also signs of depression
There is a small number of people that are depressed only during the late spring and summer which is called reverse seasonal affective disorder. For some of these people, this can bring on symptoms of mania or hypomania (which is a less intense form of mania). Reverse seasonal affective disorder is a form of bipolar disorder.
Signs and symptoms of reverse seasonal affective disorder include:
• Persistently elevated mood
• Increased social activity
• Unbridled enthusiasm out of proportion to the situation
If you were to track the symptoms, it would show that they come and go about the same time each year. If a person has winter SAD they may search for places with lots of sunlight or be in rooms with lots of artificial lights on.
IF a person’s symptoms become severe enough or the following occur they should find medical assistance.
• Extreme sadness, hopelessness or emptiness,
• not wanting to get out of bed or participate in normal daily activities
• a persistent loss of energy or wanting to sleep all the time.
• Changes in appetite that can’t be explained.
• changes in attitude that are causing problems with work or family and friends,
• thoughts of suicide or hurting themselves?
The exact cause of seasonal affective disorder is unknown, although they have discovered there is a tendency for SAD to run in some families. It is believed there are chemical changes in the brain caused by changes in the amount of sunlight.
A diagnosis of seasonal affective disorder cannot be made with a lab test. It made by your symptoms, medical interview and examination. SAD can be very devastating to a person’s life. However, there are therapies available to help with SAD. Unfortunately, some cannot be helped.
There are self care treatments you can do at home to help improve symptoms.
• Try to spend at least 30 minutes every day outside.
• Create a more naturalistic artificial dawn by using a dawn simulator.
• Add lamps and fixtures to increase indoor lighting.
• There is also bright light therapy that can be used with a few minor side effects such as eyestrain, headaches fatigue, irritability, and sensitivity to light. If medication is being used that causes sensitivity to light, bright light therapy cannot be used.
Improvements in symptoms may be noticed within a few days or as long as 3-4 wks after beginning therapy.
• Saeed SA, et al. Seasonal affective disorder. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Aug. 28, 2009.
• Seasonal pattern specifier. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2000. http://www.psychiatryonline.com. Accessed Oct. 31, 2009.
• Ravindran AV, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine treatments. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder in adults. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2009;117:S54.
• Sarris J, et al. Kava and St. John's wort: Current evidence for use in mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2009;15:827.
• Hall-Flavin DK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester Minn. Oct. 31, 2009.
Elina Gutmane and Shantydra Arnold
Eating disorders are devastating behavioral maladies brought on by a complex interplay of factors, which may include emotional and personality disorder, family pressure, a possible genetic or biological susceptibility and a culture in which there is an overabundance of food and an obsession with thinness. One of these disorders is anorexia nervosa.
Anorexia is a mental problem manifested in a physical form. It is an eating disorder that causes people to intentionally starve themselves or severely restrict their food intake. Anorexia usually occurs at the time of puberty and involves extreme weight loss. People who have this disorder have a fear of becoming overweight even though they are 15% below the average weight. Many causes of anorexia show that they adhere to strict exercise routines to keep off weight, 90% of all anorexics are women.
Anorexia Nervosa means “nervous loss of appetite”. This meaning is not on the whole right, since it is based on misunderstanding. The people who bear from Anorexia Nervosa do not at all have lack of need to eat; they are only afraid of putting on weight. Therefore, the term “self starving” would be more appropriate, or even better expressed “weightfobia”.
The cause of anorexia is unknown, but people with this disorder believe that they will be happier and more excepted thin. These people tend to be perfectionist and have to have everything in their lives perfect. Many cases occur in good students that are involved in student activities and sports. Anorexics incorrectly believe that they need to lose weight to be happy. Body image distortions are common. Some cases of Anorexia occur from difficulties in relationships and unresolved conflicts or painful experiences from childhood.
Some of the symptoms:
• Deliberate self-starvation with weight loss
• intense fear of gaining weight
• refusal to eat
• denial of hunger
• constant exercising
• greater amounts of hair on the body or face
• sensitivity to cold
• absent or irregular periods
• loss of scalp hair
• a self-perception of being fat.
Health Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa: In anorexia nervosa’s cycle of self-starvation, the body is denied the essential nutrients it needs to function normally. Thus, the body is forced to slow down all of its processes to conserve energy, resulting in serious medical consequences:
• Abnormally slow heart rate and low blood pressure, which mean that the heart muscle is changing. The risk for heart failure rises as the heart rate and blood pressure levels sink lower and lower.
• Reduction of bone density (osteoporosis), which results in dry, brittle bones.
• Muscle loss and weakness.
• Severe dehydration, which can result in kidney failure.
• Fainting, fatigue, and overall weakness.
• Dry hair and skin; hair loss is common.
• Growth of a downy layer of hair called lanugo all over the body, including the face, in an effort to keep the body warm.
Inflicted damage and possible effects that anorexia may cause:
• Cardiac disease –The most common cause of death in individuals who are suffering from severe cases of anorexia.
• Bradycardia – A dangerous slowing of the heart rate that results from self-starvation.
• Brain Damage – Brain scans of anorexic patients have noted changes in brain structure as well as abnormal activity in parts of the brain. Some of this damage is reversible once an individual resumes a healthy diet, but certain impairments appear to be permanent.
• Dehydration – Can lead to kidney failure, heart failure, seizure, brain damage and death.
• Depression – Physical weakening can exacerbate the body dissatisfaction and self-loathing that are often at the core of anorexia cases. Suicide is believed to be responsible for as many as 50 percent of all anorexia-related deaths.
• Hyponatremia – The opposite of dehydration, drinking too much water can cause fluid in the lungs, brain swelling, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and death.
• Muscle Atrophy – A body that is deprived of essential nutrients will begin feeding on itself, depleting muscle mass (including heart tissue) in the process.
Treatment: Though anorexia nervosa can cause severe – even deadly – damage to a person’s physical, mental, and emotional well-being, the good news about this disease is that, with proper treatment, recovery is possible. If you suspect that someone you know is struggling with anorexia, do not hesitate to help them get the treatment that they so desperately need.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness. It most commonly manifests as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking, and it is accompanied by significant social or occupational dysfunction. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in young adulthood, with a global lifetime prevalence of about 0.3–0.7%. The data shows that based on observed behavior and the patient's reported experiences.
Genetics, early environment, neurobiology, and psychological and social processes appear to be important contributory factors. There are medications that can help control who are schizophrenia, but some of the prescription drugs appear to cause or worsen symptoms. Current research is focused on the role of neurobiology, although no single isolated organic cause has been found. The many possible combinations of symptoms have triggered debate about whether the diagnosis represents a single disorder or a number of discrete syndromes. Schizophrenia does not imply a "split mind" and it is not the same as dissociative identity disorder—also known as "multiple personality disorder" or "split personality"—a condition with which it is often confused in public perception.
The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication, which primarily suppresses dopamine, and sometimes serotonin, receptor activity. Psychotherapy and vocational and social rehabilitation are also important in treatment. In more serious cases—where there is risk to self and others—involuntary hospitalization may be necessary, although hospital stays are now shorter and less frequent than they were.
The disorder is thought mainly to affect cognition, but it also usually contributes to chronic problems with behavior and emotion. People with schizophrenia are likely to have additional (comorbid) conditions, including major depression and anxiety disorders; the lifetime occurrence of substance abuse is almost 50%. Social problems, such as long-term unemployment, poverty and homelessness, are common. The average life expectancy of people with the disorder is 12 to 15 years less than those without; the result of increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate are low like 5%.
Schizophrenia and MPD in Film
Recently, there has been a rise in the popularity of movies with characters that show signs of schizophrenia. The same can be stated about multiple personality disorder (MPD). The most recognizable film where schizophrenia can be seen is “Donnie Darko”. A couple examples of MPD in a movie would be “Fight Club” and “Me, Myself and Irene”, starring Jim Carrey and Renée Zellweger. There are many more Hollywood titles with examples of personality disorders such as “Sybil”, “A Beautiful Mind” and even “The Dark Knight”
“Fight Club” is a perfect example of an individual with multiple personality disorder, granted the narrators’ case is an extreme one. In the movie, the narrator, whose true identity is never revealed, is telling the viewer his story. It starts with him telling the viewer about how he deals with his everyday life, having insomnia. Eventually, soap salesman Tyler Durden appears and they become friends, Tyler telling the narrator his stories and various theories. The narrator and Tyler start a “Fight Club” where any man can join to escape the monotony and frustrations of everyday life. This “Fight Club” gathers more and more members and eventually fight clubs develop in several surrounding cities, which in turn become a networking system for Tyler Durdens’ “Project Mayhem”. As the story comes to an end, the viewer realizes that the narrator and Tyler Durden are on in the same person. Tyler is an alter ego created by the narrator to express his true feelings about the life he is living.
In the Batman movies, Bruce Wayne and Batman are two completely different people. Bruce Wayne is the CEO of Wayne Enterprises and leads a normal billionaire life. When he is not living the dream, Bruce becomes the anti-crime vigilante known as Batman. Wayne is very successful at hiding his true identity. When he becomes batman, there is no trace of Bruce Wayne; his character changes completely. He becomes mysterious, more courageous, and intolerant of wrong-doers when he puts on the suit and mask.
Donnie Darko is a troubled teen who has a history of violence and does not get along with many people, save a girl named Gretchen and his psychiatrist. In the “Donnie Darko” movie, Donnie escapes a bizarre accident involving a jet engine landing on his bedroom. He was not in his room due to following a man in an evil looking bunny suit outside. The rabbit, named frank, can only be seen by Donnie and is essentially an imaginary friend with an extremely distorted voice. The difference is; Frank tells Donnie that the world is going to end in 28 days and gets him into various odd and demented kinds of trouble throughout the remaining days. Donnie’s psychiatrist writes off Frank as an imaginary friend and later discovers that Donnie is in fact a schizophrenic. In the end, Donnie is seeing all of the events that have occurred as if travelling time. On the final day, Donnie is sleeping in his bed and gets killed when a jet engine crushes his bedroom.
Ever since I was diagnosed with my seizure disorder, the normal response I get when people learn of this is “oh, so you like, collapse on the floor and go crazy.” I smile, sometimes laugh and say “No, there are different types of seizures. Mine is like Déjà vu. They’re also called Petite Mal.” About the time that I begin explaining what a Petite Mal seizure is I lose them. Most people only know of the Grand Mal seizure or “the collapse on the floor and go crazy” seizure.
As I had mentioned before, there is a big difference in a Petite Mal and Grand Mal seizure. A petite mal seizure, which is also known as “Complex Partial” seizure start in the frontal lobe of the brain and quickly affect alertness and awareness. When a person with complex partial seizures is seizing, they will often give a warning and say they “feel it” but when you call their name, they will not answer. They will stare out into space and make odd mouth movements, sometimes grab the closest thing to them and squeeze really hard or other purposeless movements. These movements are also called automatisms; less often people will repeat phrases, laugh, cry or scream really loud. These seizures will last anywhere from 30 seconds to two minutes. When they come out of the seizure, they forget they had given a warning, ask a lot of questions and feel really tired. If more than one seizure happens, they will often sleep for several hours after.
The next most common seizure is called the “Tonic-Clonic Seizure.” This is what most people think when they hear the word “seizure” An older term for them is "grand mal." As implied by the name, they combine the characteristics of tonic seizures and clonic seizures. The tonic phase comes first: All the muscles stiffen. Air being forced past the vocal cords causes a cry or groan. The person loses consciousness and falls to the floor. The tongue or cheek may be bitten, so bloody saliva may come from the mouth. The person may turn a bit blue in the face. After the tonic phase comes the clonic phase: The arms and usually the legs begin to jerk rapidly and rhythmically, bending and relaxing at the elbows, hips, and knees. After a few minutes, the jerking slows and stops. Bladder or bowel control sometimes is lost as the body relaxes. Consciousness returns slowly, and the person may be drowsy, confused, agitated, or depressed. These seizures generally last 1 to 3 minutes.
As I had said before, there are different types of seizure disorders. I was diagnosed with “complex partial” seizures 5 years ago. My mom was diagnosed with “Tonic-Clonic” seizures when she was my age. We are both medicated and controlled, but that still doesn’t stop any of our family members from taking many precautions to prevent injury if we have a seizure at any given time. Both my mother and I will have a seizure disorder for the rest of our lives, and can affect us in different ways, both good and bad.
• What is silent seizures?
Seizures are the periodically results of a Epilepsy. There are many different types of seizures but silent seizures are not as known. Silent seizures or better know as absence seizures or petit mal seizures, lack what other seizures are known for. When thinking about seizures we think about the muscle jerking or the spasms all the scary parts of some seizures. What about the one you can't see. Silent seizures are the seizures were there is no movements, sounds less scary right, some times the worst part about some we love having a seizure is not knowing there having one. How can we help if we can't see the signs.
• Identifying the seizure.
Silent seizures only last like 15 sec. But from my experience with my cousin who is believed to have silent seizures some time can last more or less than this. We have also noticed that it happens more when she is hungry or tired. We fear that she may have one while she is in the pool, driving or even crossing the street. She is ten now, silent seizure are said to affect children between ages six and twelve. She first started having them at a couple years ago. That's one was they identified that it was silent seizures.
• Symptoms of silent seizures.
◦ When having silent seizures the patient will have ceased movements and look to be staring into space. Hand shaking and lip smacking are some symptoms that happen when the seizure is longer. My cousin, when having a seizure continues to do some actions and movements like eating or walking but she will stop playing with a toy. But can not speak or even look at me. When I touch her arm she does react but when she comes out of it she can't seem to remember anything and goes on playing like nothing has happened. She says she can't see anything when it happens, its like it never did. She doesn't remember anything like my touch or what I had said to her. But she knows she has had a seizure. One time I remember pinching her when she had one and she moved away from my hand but never remembered me doing it.
• What causes the seizure?
◦ “silent seizures are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Neurons normally use chemical and electrical signals to communicate with one another. However, in the case of seizures, these signals get altered and begin to repeat themselves in a three second pattern. What causes this to happen is unknown, although there appears to be a genetic component. Absence seizures are more common in children because the brain of a child has more synapses(connections between neurons), making it easier for this sort of abnormal activity to occur.”
• Silent seizures.
◦ Although there is no cure for silent seizures, children will simply just grow out of them. This is also what the doctors told my aunt when my cousin was diagnosis with silent seizures. Its just a waiting game for those who have the seizures. Never once has anyone said to my aunt that my cousin will have it in the future.
Medical term for anorexia is Anorexia nervosa. It is when a human can’t stay at the minimum body weight for a healthy human at that age and height. Signs that you may have this disorder are if you are having extraordinary large amounts of fear about your weight and becoming fat when you are already underweight. If you haven’t had your period for three cycles or more. Most people with Anorexia nervosa refuse to admit seriousness of there weight loss. Because of the excessive weight loss there are many negative affects to Anorexia nervosa. These negative affects cause complications within the body. Some examples of this complication can be bloating, bone weakening, electrolyte imbalance, dangerous heart rhythms, decrease in white blood cells which leads to increased risk to infection, severe dehydration, severe malnutrition, seizures due to fluid loss from excessive diarrhea or vomiting, Thyroid gland problems which can lead to cold intolerance and constipation, hair falling out, and Tooth erosion and decay.
There is a similar disease called Bulimia nervosa. Bulimia nervosa and Anorexia nervosa are similar in that the subjects find themselves as being to “fat” even if they are underweight. People who suffer from Bulimia nervosa find themselves to still being over weight even if they eat just a small snack. Most start this mental disorder after they have been dieting and want to lose more weight then is needed. Bulimia nervosa is where instead of starving themselves they vomit the food, or take laxatives to get rid of the food from there bodies. They don’t lose there menstrual cycle as often as those who suffer from Anorexia nervosa. Because of the acid that is in the vomit, they tend to have higher rate of tooth decaying, and also have digestive mess ups from taking to many laxatives.
Some symptoms of Anorexia nervosa are Blotchy yellow skin that is dry and covered with fine hair, brittle nails, depression, dry mouth, extreme sensitivity to cold, loss of bone strength, and wasting away of muscle and loss of body fat. Things others can watch out for are if someone is obsess about food, weight and dieting, they are overly strict about eating to few of calories then needed, exercise a lot even when they are sick or they are hurt, if they develop odd habits with food such as cutting it up into extremely small bite size pieces, or if someone become pulled away from there family and friends. They tend to fade from friends and family to hide there problem and keep it in secretly. They will also feel weak tired or faint often.
The term anorexia nervosa was established in 1873 by Sir William Gull which was one of the Queens personal physicians. It is a greek word, an- means denoting negation and orexis means appetite, put together they mean a lack of desire to eat. People who have Anorexia nervosa limit there amount of food to become dangerously thin. Less then 1% of the population are affected from this disease. Many people who suffer from anorexia are white and come from a wealthy family. However, it can happen to anyone.
The Cause of Anorexia Nervosa
Although anorexia nervosa mostly affects women, some men also suffer from this disorder and there are several reasons why. First, the push to be thin is seen everywhere. Television and magazines portray models and other celebrities as beautiful because they are so thin, therefore creating a trend that others want to follow. Second, traumatic events such as divorce, abuse, or death shatter people’s worlds and cause people to turn to anorexia. They feel like if they can’t control anything else in their world at least they can control their eating habits. The third reason people may become anorexic is because of a self esteem issue. Many people are teased about their weight during their school days and become anorexic to feel better about how they look. Last, many athletes are pushed into having perfectly lean, fit bodies causing them to turn to anorexia nervosa. It is important to remember that anorexia nervosa stems from deeper problems such as depression, loneliness, insecurity, pressure to be perfect, or feeling out of control.
Treatments for Anorexia Nervosa
Many people suffering from anorexia nervosa remain quite and don’t let others know, not wanting to admit that they have a problem, so it is up to friends and family to help them. If you see signs of anorexia in a friend or family member you can call the National Eating Disorders Association at 1-800-931-2237 for referrals, information, and advice on what to do. It is important to not make accusations or throw scare tactics in a person with anorexia nervosa face because it will only cause them to further deny it, or cause more stress and emotions that trigger it in the first place. Treatment of anorexia comes in three steps beginning with changing how one feels about themselves and food by admitting they have a problem. The next step involves getting the person to eat more food, which will lead to the last step of getting to, and maintaining, a healthy weight. Unfortunately, for some suffering from anorexia nervosa, admitting they have a problem doesn’t come until they have been hospitalized because they are at a critically low weight and their body is wearing down because of malnutrition. Getting to the next step can be helped by getting a nutritionist or dietician that can teach healthy eating patterns as-well-as proper nutrition. A nutritionist can even make a meal plan so the person with anorexia can easily follow a planned calorie intake to get to a healthy weight. The hardest part is maintaining that healthy weight when you get there, which usually takes counseling to achieve. A counselor or therapist can help determine the inner problems or emotions which cause the diseased to turn to anorexia. It is hard for anorexic’s to change their view on themselves and many will still not think themselves skinny enough or will try to find flaws in their appearance. Many times when suffering individual’s look in the mirror they actually don’t see themselves as they are, but rather a person with fat or really any undesirable quality. It is important to be patient and most of all give support and be there for anyone you know who may have anorexia nervosa or any eating disorder for that matter.
Karen M. Unruh