- The Brain
- Nature v. Nurture
- States of Consciousness
- Personality Disorders
- Anxiety Disorders
- Mood Disorders
- Dissociative Disorders
- Other Disorders
Fetal Development- From Embryo to Delivery
By: Bailey Pfortmiller
For nine months, a baby develops from being the size of a tip of a pen to weighing six to nine pounds. In my presentation I will briefly explain each week as the baby develops in its mother’s womb.
This is the week when the baby is actually starting to develop. And week five signifies as the beginning of the embryonic period. The embryo itself is made of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. The ectoderm is the outer layer which contains the skin, central and peripheral nervous systems, eyes, inner ear and many connective tissues. The mesoderm includes the heart, bones, muscles, kidneys and the reproductive system. And the inner layer, the endoderm, will be lined with mucous membranes and which will develop the lungs, intestines and bladder. In this week, the brain, spinal cord and heart will began to develop.
In this week, growth increases rapidly! The arms and legs look like small buds, facial features begin to develop, and the heart begins to beat at a regular rhythm. If one would look at a sonogram during this week, the baby’s body would like a C-shape.
The first trimester will begin after the 7th or 8th week of pregnancy.
Week 7 to Week 8
During these two weeks, the baby’s brain is swiftly growing. As in like week 6 of the pregnancy, the facial features, such as upper lip, nose, and eyes are starting to become more distinct. The arms are looking more like paddles and then the fingers start to form. Also in these two weeks, the baby’s body C-shape starts to straighten up.
Week 9 to Week 12
As the first trimester starts to end at week 12, the baby will develop to being about 2 ½ inches long and will weigh about ½ ounce. The eyelids will close so the eyes can develop, the arms and legs will grow and bend, and the red blood cells start to produce in the liver. The head is also becoming more round and is taking up half of the body’s length. By the end of the twelfth week, the facial features look human-like, fingernails start to grow, the baby can make a fist, and the teeth start to appear.
The second trimester begins!
Week 13 to Week 27
In the course of the next three and a half months, the baby will go through monumental changes. This is the time of period when the expecting parents get to find out the sex of their baby!! Other significant transformations include:
- The arms will reach potential length at birth.
- The baby’s bones will become clear on the ultrasound.
- The baby’s eyes will shift forward and begin to move.
- The baby will begin to make sucking motion with their mouth.
- By week 18, the baby can start to hear.
- The vernixcaseosa, which is a greasy, cheese-like coating, which covers the baby. It will protect the baby’s skin from abrasions and hardening from amniotic fluid.
- The mother begins to feel the baby move at week 20.
- The lanugo will fully cover the baby’s skin. Lanugo is a fine, down-like hair.
- The baby’s tongue will start to grow taste buds.
- By week 23, the baby will have fingerprints and footprints.
- Then the next week, actual hair begins to grow on the baby’s head. And the baby will regularly sleep and wake up.
- The baby can react to their mother’s voice by moving.
- The bone marrow starts to produce blood cells.
- In week 26, the baby’s lungs will produce surfactant, which will keep the air sacs from collapsing when the baby will breathe.
- At the end of week 27, the baby’s length will have tripled since week 12.
The third and final trimester begins!
Week 28 to Week 40
For the next 12 weeks, the baby will continue to grow and finish developing all of its’ major organs.
- In week 28, some babies are born. There is 90% chance that they won’t have physical or neurological impairment but as each week goes on the chances increase for having a healthy baby.
- The next week, the baby’s bones are completely done developing. Although the bones aren’t strong, they are soft and pliable.
- The baby’s eyes will eventually completely open and will be open for a good amount of time.
- The baby’s central nervous system will keep developing and can control body temperature by week 31.
- Week 32 is a big week. The baby starts to breath even if the lungs aren’t done developing. The baby’s body also starts to take in minerals as in iron and calcium. And the lanugo starts to fall off the baby’s body.
- The baby can begin to detect light.
- During week 35 and 36 of the pregnancy, the baby will grow an abundant amount of weight! The baby will grow about a ½ pound a week till delivery.
- In week 37, the baby will begin to shift downward since this is the time when the baby is considered full term. The baby’s organs start to operate on their own.
- Week 40! The baby is expected to come around this time! The final weight may range 6 to 9 pounds and the length will be about 18 to 20 inches long!
by: Abby Mrazek, Neely Edwards, and Emily Torson
Symptoms, Diagnoses, Causes, Signs, Tests and Different Types
Down syndrome is a very common disorder in the world, 5.8 million people have it and 1 out of 1000 babies is born with it. A lot of people know about Down syndrome, but most of them don’t understand it. Down syndrome is the most common birth defect on babies when they’re born. Down syndrome is a physical and mental disorder and you get it because you are born with an extra chromosome 21, which changes the brains and body from developing normally. Down syndrome is not something you get its something you’re born with.
There are a lot of signs and symptoms for Down syndrome. The first sign of Down syndrome would definitely the physical and mental features that they all have in common. Their physical development is just slower than people without Down syndrome that’s why they look so different then us but the same as any other Down syndrome person. They have IDDS, which means intellectual and developmental disabilities, it’s a disorder that makes them adapt slower than others; it makes their language delayed. The physical signs are a flat face with an upward slant to the eye, short neck and abnormally shaped ears, also deep crease in the palm of the hand, poor muscle tone and loose ligaments and last small hands and feet. They also have health problems that usually come with have down syndromes; heart disease, hearing problems, celiac disease, eye problems, thyroid problems, skeletal problems, and dementia. The signs of Down syndrome are pretty easy to see because they usually look the same and everyone knows what down syndrome is.
There are 3 different kinds of Down syndrome Full Trisomy 21, Mosaic DS and Translocation DS. Trisomy 21 is when the person has a 21st chromosome in them. Mosaic DS is when they have two cell lines, which means that they have some cells with the regular 46 chromosomes and then others with the 21st making them have 47 chromosomes. Translocation DS is when part of the 21st chromosome is in another chromosome, usually the 14th one, this type of Down syndrome only shows up in 3-5% of the Down syndrome population. I never knew that there were 3 different kinds of Down syndrome so this was very interesting to me. The diagnoses of Down syndrome is very simple, the doctor can either tell during the pregnancy or shortly after you give birth to your baby. The chromosomes 21 tell you a lot about if the kid has Down syndrome or not.
Having Down syndrome doesn’t mean that you can’t do anything and that you are totally retarded. People with Down syndrome can still function and understand certain things they’re just a little slower. They can have jobs, be in relationships, and travel around the world. Everyone is capable of things they just have to have a little bit of help and they can do everything.
Treatments, Expectations, and Complications
Down syndrome is not a curable condition, there are however ways to cope with it including treatments, expectation and being aware of the complications.
There are so many ways that down syndrome can be treated in ways such as medical treatments, specialists, therapy and even surgically. No true medicine exists to “medicate” down syndrome, but there are medicines available to help with conditions that occur in people who have down syndrome. An example of a condition would be one with a seizure disorder and an anti-seizure medication would be prescribed. Another approach to treat down syndrome is through therapy. Physical therapy focuses on motor development. Many kids with Down syndrome suffer low muscle tone and through therapy the goal is to teach them how to move their bodies appropriately and improve their muscle tone. The most important treatment for children with Down syndrome is speech therapy. Kids with this condition typically have slightly enlarged tongues and a smaller mouth causing articulation problems. In speech therapy they are taught how to speak as clear as possible and sometimes even sign language. Those patients who can’t quite talk clearly might learn sign language anyways to help assist them in communicating better.
Suppose your kid was diagnosed with Down syndrome, how would you raise this child? The biggest problem a parent can have might be where to draw the line on what is acceptable and what is not. Children with Down syndrome can go on to lead perfectly purposeful and full lives if supported in the right way. When the parents expect them to try and test their limits, that’s when the child will not use their condition as an excuse, but more as a challenge to try and beat. One thing parents should remember however that failure is obviously more apt to come from their attempts at challenges or tasks they face and the parents need to help ensure that the child also knows what success feels like. Positive support around a Down syndrome person is one of the most important expectations a family should have on themselves. Laughter is a medication in itself and keeping someone who has such a disease happy helps more than you would think. It’s easy to get frustrated with someone who struggles so much, but it also needs to be remembered that if they are trying to beat the struggle, that’s all you can ask of them. Someone who has this condition might teach you more about the true meaning of living life than any education you will ever receive.
Down syndrome comes with several complications in different areas. Health problems including heart defects, thyroid, muscle, joint, hearing and vision problems are all common. Mentally, problems such as depression and Alzheimer’s can develop usually during the later years of the victim’s life. The good thing about the health problems is that they are generally treatable. Early death isn’t a general complication of Down syndrome. The life expectancy has increased drastically from 25 in 1983 to 60 years of age today.
Down syndrome may be a disease that people are born with but no matter what they are people first. They have needs and wants that have to be met to live a happy life. Sure they may live a different lifestyle than the average healthy person, but with proper balance of self-determination and with the help of family people with Down syndrome are capable of doing anything they set their mind to.
The quality of health care, education and community support provided to children and adults with Down syndrome makes a real difference to their progress throughout life. Like normal people, a person with Down syndrome goes through stages of development. From ages 0-5 the child with Down syndrome will experience life of ups and down such as identifying strengths in social understanding, self-help skills and behavior, and weaknesses in motor development and speech and language skills. Visual processing and visual memory skills are strengths and can be used by parents and therapists to support children's learning in their beginning years until they reach the age of 5. By the time the child reaches the age of 5 they should be able to achieve the same developmental targets as other normal children of the same age. This is capable if parents hold the expectation for their children to achieve these goals. At 5 years old a child with Down syndrome should be walking, toilet trained and able to feed themselves and dress with minimal help. Most will be able to fit into the expectations of the regular classroom, regulate their own behavior and behave in a socially acceptable way. Most children will have a significant delay of spoken language. They will understand more than they can say. The things they say may be unclear but capable of making an assumption of what they are trying to say. Many will have some of the basic concepts and knowledge for learning number, math and reading.
Children with Down syndrome usually make significant progress during their primary school years ages 6-11. This time period is the ages where school becomes full time separation from parents come into place. The child is placed in for a majority of the day and being able to coincide with other children there age in a learning environment. In particular, children with downs show significant gains in spoken language, reading, writing and arithmetic. These improvements will enhance their adult lives and the ability to communicate more effectively. Education up to adulthood, like it is for every other human being, takes toll for the adult life of a person with Down syndrome. If opportunity is available in a working environment and the acceptance from the community one can maintain an appropriate job.
A normal lifestyle is manageable for a person with Down syndrome to achieve. With the help of parents and their determination and expectations, teachers with knowledge and patience, and a community with acceptance, one with downs is capable of living a happy and peaceful life. Down syndrome is a disease but a person with Down syndrome is still a person.
Dreams - Why We Dream and Characteristics of Dreams
Dreams have always been a puzzling idea to understand. But some scientists have tried to figure out these very puzzling things and have come up with their own theories for why we dream. We also have learned even from just our own experience some of the main characteristics of dreams. That is what will be discussed in this article is the characteristics of dreams but first Sigmund Freud’s theory and some other known theories of why we dream.
A dream is a mixture of emotions, images, or thoughts we experience during sleep whether they are vivid or very vague. Dreams can be filled with frightening imagery or very joyful as well as understandable or very confusing. The very definition of a dream is what draws us towards them wanting to understand them more; dreams have only recently become a concentrated scientific study. Why we dream however still is a baffling subject because the scientists haven’t found the purpose and function of sleep itself when we are found in our dreams.
Sigmund Freud definitely has his own view on dreams and our unconscious desires, his theory states that these unconscious desires of our personality are represented in our dreams. His psychoanalytic view of personality is that we as people are driven by sexual and aggressive instincts. These are not consciously expressed when we are awake but Freud suggests the find their way into our dreams. More to Freud’s theory is that he split dreams into two components, manifest and latent content. Manifest content is the content of the dreams made up of actual thoughts and images, while latent content is the hidden psychological meaning of what you see in the dream.
Dream interpretation is very popular today because of Freud’s theory and this has inspired others to come up with their own dream theories. A few of them are that our dreams only pull in what’s going on around us such as a radio in the room comes into our dreams, another theory states that dreams are like a computer. Meaning that dreams serve to ‘clean up’ clutter, refreshing our mind for the next day ahead.
As well as knowing the theories about why we dream we have to understand what happens in our dreams, the characteristics of them in general. Dreams have always been known to be very intense, this is one of the main characteristics is how intense the emotions are in them. The emotions that are most common are fear, surprise and anxiety and often enough are intense enough to wake the dreamer. Bizarre dreams are not uncommon, the inconsistency of them and how settings can change with a turn, how you can suddenly fly are all examples of this. According to Hobson, “illogical content and organization, in which the unities of time, place and person do not apply, and natural laws are disobeyed”. Though dreamers never question their bizarre dreams; they are just seen as odd or say “it was only a dream”. All the illogical events are always accepted but it’s the remembering that is the hard part.
Completely understanding dreams and why we dream is all from today’s research. It will take time and many trials to fully understand it all but for now there are many possible theories to be tested.
Cherry, Kendra. "Why Do We Dream - Theories of Why We Dream." Psychology - Complete Guide to Psychology for Students, Educators & Enthusiasts. About.com. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://psychology.about.com/od/statesofconsciousness/p/dream-theories.htm>.
Cherry, Kendra. "Dream Characteristics - Characteristics of Dreams." Psychology - Complete Guide to Psychology for Students, Educators & Enthusiasts. About.com. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://psychology.about.com/od/statesofconsciousness/tp/characteristics-of-dreams.htm>.
Sleep apnea is a very serious disorder and can affect the person with the disorder and possibly their loved ones if it does not get it taken care of. There are many symptoms that may be experienced by the one with the disorder such as: sleepiness during the day, waking up in the morning and not feeling refreshed, morning or night headaches, heartburn, sour taste in the mouth, swollen legs, and sweating or chest pain during the night. Then there are symptoms that may be noticed by others like: episodes of not breathing, loud snoring, restless tossing and turning during sleep, and night time choking. If these symptoms are experienced or noticed by others there is a good possibility of having sleep apnea.
If someone is experiencing symptoms listed above then it is time to go to the doctor and get it checked out. There are a few ways for the doctor to diagnose sleep apnea. One way for the doctor to get an idea is asking a series of medical history questions. Questions such as how you sleep and how you function during the day. Another way of testing is checking the persons mouth and throat for extra large tissues, such as the tonsils, uvula, and soft palate. Last test they do is observe you while you sleep. During these test they record brain activity, muscle activity, breathing and heart rate, how air is taken in and let out of lungs during sleep, and percent of oxygen in the blood. If the person is diagnosed with sleep apnea then the doctor will talk with them to go over the treatments that can be done.
Treatments that can be done to help with sleep apnea vary from stuff that can done by the patient all the way to surgery. Most doctors encourage the patient to try to do the things that they can do on their own before they do surgery. There are many things the patient can do such as losing weight, avoiding alcohol and sleeping pills, change sleeping positions to help with breathing, and stop smoking if the patient is a smoker. If those things do not work then the doctor will have the patient try a sleeping mask. The mask will help the patient to not snore, and it help with positive airway pressure. Once the doctor has tried those treatments and it does not help they will do surgery. Some surgeries they can do is nasal surgery, uvulopalatopharyngoplast which removes soft tissue on the back of the throat, and manipulate maxillary advancement surgery.
Human anatomy and physiology book pg 457
Sleep Disorder - Eating While Sleeping
What is Sleep Eating Disorder?
Sleep eating disorder is when people, most commonly women, get up and sleep walk around the house eating combinations of food such as salt and sugar sandwiches, raw meat, mayonnaise, or even nonfoods like soap, dog food, and hand cream. They have no conscious memory of the occasions, but they know they have the problem because of the evidence all over the floor, the bed and in the kitchen. Many people know they have the problem but cannot prevent themselves from doing it.
Problems with the Disorder
1. Weight gain- Because they are asleep they eat unhealthy foods such as cake, brownies, or even sticks of butter.
2. Limited weight loss- Its hard lose weight when you eat so much unhealthy stuff at night. At night your body slows down causing all the foods you eat in your sleep to turn to fat instead of energy.
3. Embarrassment- It may feel depressing when your roommate, sibling, relative, or spouse couldn’t sleep because your were banging around in the kitchen all night, just to wake up in the morning to find their frozen pizza with a bite taken out of it and the kitchen trashed.
4. Shame- You may feel bad because you can’t control yourself and people living with you are irritated because all the happenings in the night.
5. Exposure to food allergies- You don’t know what you are eating in your sleep so you could eat some that you have a highly reactive allergy to.
6. Risk of injury- Sleep-eaters could fall down the stairs, choke on food, or burn or cut themselves while cooking.
7. Dental complications. Because of all the crap foods they eat tooth decay and damage can occur.
8. Medication complications- People with diabetes or other medical conditions can put themselves in great danger when they eat the wrong foods.
9. Daytime fatigue- Because they bodies aren’t actually resting at night they get very tired during the daytime.
10. Little appetite during the daytime
Failures at Treating the Disorder
Some people have tried about everything like locking their fridges or rooms, but that just cause injuries from trying to break the locks. Others tried putting notes on things to wake themselves up such as “Wake up you pig!”, and others tried punishing themselves for eating in their sleep but all those were failed attempts.
Effective Treatments for Eating While Sleeping
The treatment of choice for this type of sleeping disorder, according to Dr. Schenck, is Topamax or topiramate. A new medication that has a reported success rate of about 66% for sleep-eaters after six months. His sleep-eaters reported more restful sleeps, weight loss, and less eating while sleeping.
Subliminal Messages and How they Effect the Brain
Vincent Dillard Jr.
Have you ever noticed when you are vacuuming and you hear the telephone ring? Then when you turn off the vacuum you actually hear the phone ringing. This action takes place because our consciousness takes out the noise of the telephone ringing because of the vacuum. Soon your unconsciousness picks up on the ringing and makes you take action. What have taken place are subliminal messages to the brain.
Subliminal messages are messages that go to the sub consciousness and below the perception of your consciousness. People believe that linking variables or outside factors such as our background, education or environment pertains to our success and accomplishments in life. However on the other hand it’s actually our thoughts, belief, and attitude of the sub consciousness and consciousness thoughts that control these events of our lives. If you put it in perspective your outside influences don’t influence you the most. However it’s the thinking of your own mindset to determine your outcome in life. We all make decisions that create habits where it’s deeper than the consciousness to make us think we fix things for the moment. When in reality takes a while for the habit to break because of the sub consciousness and our judgment has been constant for years. For example say you have been a smoker for years, now you are realizing the harm that smoking does to your body, and try to quit. This transition will be hard to quit because your brain will still be programmed as a smoker and until you change you sub consciousness quitting will be impossible. Another example is that say a person has been in poverty majority of their life and all of sudden wins the lottery and receives millions. This person will still have a mindset of living a poor lifestyle and will make decisions unlike a millionaire.
In our sub consciousness we store lifetime events. It doesn’t screen any moments as right or wrong. For example say you hear a song that you haven’t heard for years and suddenly you start to sing with the song or start to process the lyrics. This is because you brain storage bank pulls it from your sub consciousness because anything stored at one time or another will be brought back to the memory. This is the reason why subliminal messages enter the brain easily because it is at a high level to reach the sub consciousness but low enough where your consciousness doesn’t catch it and unaware of it. In addition this is how subliminal messages can determine our attitudes and decision-making.
Soon scientists figured out that humans could be somewhat control with our attitudes by subliminal messages. For example in the 1950s at movies, on the screen that said “drink Coke” would appear quick enough to go to the sub consciousness. People would soon for no reason become thirsty and sales at the concession stand would rise. On the other hand many believe that advertisers put “sex” or sexual images inside a brand, which is to subconsciously relate pleasurable moments with a certain brand. However the advertising industry has denied using these techniques. Researchers have found that fear related words flashed quickly have an effect on the brain area pertained to fear. These subliminal threatening words cause more electricity activity in the area of the amygdala than neutral words. However words that are slow enough to be detected by the consciousness had a stronger effect on the person’s emotion. These results show that the emotional words shown subliminally can affect the brain area of the consciousness area along with the sub consciousness.
In conclusion, to successfully send positive subliminal messages to your brain you must know what each hemisphere does. Right-handed people usually use the left hemisphere and it controls speech, handwriting, and thinking also analyzes situations. Since your left hemisphere is resistant to positive messages than you should use phrases like, “Its okay to succeed or its okay to be great”. If you try to use direct phrases your left hemisphere will react with a negative response like “you don’t ever succeed or you can’t be great. Now on the other hand your right hemisphere is usually left handed people. The left hemisphere controls your creativity, emotions and takes information without analyzing. The left hemisphere remembers every negative incident that happens in your past and never forgets. Now to talk against this negativity you say things like “I will be great at everything I do”.
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is a sleep disorder characterized by loss of normal voluntary muscle atonia (non-movement) during REM sleep associated with complex motor behavior while dreaming you appear to physically act out vivid, often unpleasant dreams with abnormal vocal sounds and movements during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. You normally don't move during REM sleep, a normal stage of sleep that occurs many times during the night. This condition is also known as RBD. This disorder is tricky to diagnose because you have to rule out every other potential cause of acting out your dreams. According to Medscape, you must have the following criteria before you can be diagnosed with REM sleep behavior disorder. At least one of the following conditions: Sleep-related, injurious, potentially injurious, or disruptive behaviors by history or abnormal REM sleep behavior documented by monitoring. Absence of EEG epileptiform activity during REM sleep (unless RBD can be clearly distinguished from any concurrent REM sleep-related seizure disorder). Sleep disorder not better explained by another sleep disorder, medical or neurological disorder, mental disorder, medication use, or substance use disorder (Medscape).
The complaint that is normally presented is violent dream-enacting behaviors during REM sleep, often causing self-injury or injury to the person they are sharing a bed with. The dream-enacting behaviors are usually not directed at anything in particular. These may include punching, kicking, leaping, crying out, or running from bed while still in REM sleep. Directed behavior, intentional actions, such as homicide, have not been reported. The person affected may be wakened or may wake spontaneously during the REM attack and recall the dream in great detail. They can generally explain what in their dream had corresponded to the physical action.
Normal sleep has 2 distinct states: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Sleep is divided into 4 stages. REM sleep occurs when you dream. (Webmd) Doctors at Mayo Clinic have experience in accurately diagnosing REM sleep behavior disorder and ruling out other conditions. REM sleep behavior disorder may have symptoms similar to other disorders, or it may be coupled with other sleep disorders, including sleep apnea, periodic limb movement disorder or narcolepsy. To make a clear analysis doctors may want the patient to spend the night at a sleep study clinic in order to monitor their sleep patterns. A sleep study (polysomnogram) is a painless test in which sensors are applied to your skin's surface to record brain wave activity, eye movements, breathing function, oxygen levels, heart rate and muscle activity during your sleep. From this study doctors can then start to determine if there are any underlying problems or other symptoms that need to also be addressed. (Mayo Clinic)
RBD is usually seen in middle-aged to elderly people (more often in men). The exact cause of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is unknown, although the disorder may occur with various degenerative neurological conditions. The good news is that REM sleep behavior disorder normally be controlled with the use of some medications and physical safeguards. The doctor may prescribe a tranquilizer to treat the condition. The medication often reduces or eliminates your REM sleep behavior disorder symptoms. There are steps that someone can take in order to correct the problem. Just a condition that sometimes is more difficult to deal with on a nightly basis.
Sara Eichman and Joshua Ritter
Drugs and alcohol abuse has always been interesting and something we have wanted to learn more about. There has always been the controversy if substance abuse was a disease of a choice. At the beginning stages of addiction it may be considered a choice, but after the addiction has set in, it no longer becomes a choice for the addict. Some people may disagree with this, but it’s a personal opinion.
When scientists first started to study drug addictions in the 1930s, they thought the people who were addicted to drugs or alcohol were “morally flawed and lacking and willpower.” So then they treated the health problem as a moral failing rather than a health and psychological problem. Now, thanks to the improvements in science, we now know to treat it as a health problem. Now that we can view the brain effectively, it can show the effects that drugs and alcohol have on the body. Addiction is described as a disease that affects not only the brain, but also the body and a person’s behavior.
Not very many people understand how and why people become addicted to drugs and alcohol. Becoming addicted to drugs occurs in 5 stages. The first stage is experimenting. This is mostly happening at a young age or if someone is having a personal problem whether it being in the family or possibly with a job. They may do it once to try to solve the problem, but then like the feeling it gives them and continue to do it, which leads to stage two. Stage two is considered regular use. The person doing the drugs is not considered “addicted”. At this stage they can stop themselves from using the drug. Stages three is risky use. Risky use is where they want to either try more of the substance or try something more harming to themselves. Also at this stage, the user may try driving while still under the influence. Stage four is dependence. This stage the user repeatedly uses the substance to fulfill their needs. At this stage the user will start to fail at taking care of responsibilities at work and at home. The final stage five is the addict. This is where the physical and psychological problems start to set in and heavy use of the substance is a daily occurrence. The user experiences uncontrollable cravings of a substance Addiction is a treatable illness as long as the user has the mindset of wanting to get better. Something has to make them want to get better, whether it be just wanting to make themselves better for themselves or wanting to get better for their family and friends.
Drugs and alcohol do a lot of health damaging things to your body. Alcohol and drugs make you have an uncomplete state of mind and causes you to do things you probably wouldnt do if you were completely sober. Many teens who drink at parties sometimes decide to drive home instead of stay at a house or have someone come pick them up and give them a ride. These teens have an extremely higher risk of being in a car accident or getting pulled over by cops. This can lead to death or getting charged with driving under the influence and if under 18 they could get charged for minor in consumption. These violations will be with you for the rest of your life. The charges can determine whether you get the job you want or go to the school you want to go to.
Nobody wants to be an addict. Everyone wants to be able to drink a couple of drinks with friends (when of age) without having to drink to the point of passing out every time they get a craving. Not very many addicts can do this without going overboard. The addicts are no long in control of themselves because the addict is in a compulsive behavior. If the addict has to steal money from someone to get the high they want, then you know they have a problem and need to find help.
Bruxism is the disorder in which a person grinds or clenches their jaw during sleep. It is one of the most common sleep disorders with up to forty million Americans suffering from it. Most people who have bruxism, only grind and clench their jaw at night, not realizing they do so. Usually, teeth grinding does not cause any damage, but, when it happens on a regular basis, serious damage can be done. This disorder can be caused by stress and anxiety, but most of the time it is caused by an abnormal bite or missing and crooked teeth. It can also be caused by a person’s posture, their sleeping habits, and their dieting habits. Severe bruxism can cause the teeth to become stumps. In such a case, bridges, crowns, root canals, implants, partial dentures, and complete dentures may be needed. It can lead to facial pain and headaches, and in severe, chronic cases, it can lead to arthritis of the temporomandibular joints. Bruxism can also cause loss of hearing and change the appearance of a person’s face. Other symptoms are depression, eating disorders, hot, cold and sweet sensitivity to teeth and also insomnia.
Only five to ten percent go on to develop symptoms such as jaw pain and headaches because they aren’t aware of having bruxism. While there is no cure for this disorder, doctors either recommend mouth guards or Botox injections. Doctors also recommend to a person, to avoid grinding their teeth, and to cut back on caffeine such as coffee, pop, and candy. Consumption of alcohol is also advised to not be consumed before bed because teeth grinding seems to intensify more when alcohol is consumed. Most people who are stressed, chew on pencils and pens, or even chew gum. Doctor’s advise a person to not chew on something that is not a food, because the person’s jaw is more likely to clench, causing that person to grind their teeth during sleep. Some people also catch themselves clenching and grinding their teeth during the day. If they can train their jaw not to clench so often, their chances of grinding their teeth at night decrease.
Most people are not aware of having bruxism, and do not usually realize it unless they are told by their sleeping partner or have certain symptoms. Bruxism can cause headaches, a sore jaw, eating disorders, depression, teeth sensitivity and insomnia. When teeth grinding happens on a regular basis, it causes serious to a person’s teeth. In such cases, the teeth turn into stumps, and bridges, crowns, root canals, implants and certain dentures might have to take place of the older teeth. Certain procedures can be met to help avoid grinding at night. Avoiding certain caffeine and alcohol can prohibit teeth grinding, as well as chewing on items that are not considered food. Bruxism can be set off by a number of things like stress, anxiety, crooked teeth, posture, dieting and different sleeping habits. If bruxism is not taking care of, than arthritis can take over.
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Histrionic personality disorder is characterized by unstable, dramatic emotions and a low self-worth feeling. It isn’t known what exactly causes this disorder but genes and environmental factors may play a part in influencing an individual. Once the disorder has been diagnosed it all depends on the person if he or she will receive treatment or not. Those with histrionic personality are very dramatic because of influences from childhood, which can be cured.
A person with histrionic personality is very sociable because she is craving for attention. Some of the symptoms include acting dramatically, dressing to impress, being emotionally unstable and being sensitive to criticisms. This type of people has very little self-esteem because they depend on other’s compliments to raise their esteem. These individuals will act in inappropriate ways with no sincerity just to gain attention. Sometimes they will display suicidal gestures and threats to get attention. They have trouble recognizing others’ feelings and don’t commit well. In a romantic relationship these individuals may either try controlling their partner or be somewhat dependent on him or her. Another symptom of histrionic disorder is that the person will start on a project with lots of energy, but because they get bored with routine, he or she will not usually complete it.
It is believed that histrionics are influenced by genes and nurture. Although inheriting a gene is possible, it mostly depends on the environmental factors to make the gene effective. What happens in childhood has a major role in what a person may be like later on in life. A child may either be repeating behavior that she or he learned or was confused by what type of behavior his or her parents approved of. When a child isn’t reinforced properly, such as not being punished for wrong behavior, or not being rewarded for the behavior, they get very confused.
Histrionic personality disorder usually shows up in early adulthood and progresses through a person’s life. Most people can function normally with this disorder unless they have a severe case which is treatable. Treatment is available but is only effective if the individual seeks help. Therapy may not be effective because histrionics overreact and don’t like routine. If a problem arises such as depression, they may go to get psychotherapy. Medication may be prescribed to help with depression or other distressing symptoms. The therapist tries to help the person uncover fears and motivations that may be causing his or her thoughts and behaviors. Once this has been accomplished, the therapist helps the individual learn to relate to others more positively.
In conclusion, those with histrionic personality are very dramatic because of influences from childhood, which can be cured. Those with this disorder are very sociable, have low self-esteem and have trouble with relationships. It is believed that as a child, a person wasn’t reinforced for certain behaviors and thus became confused on what was a good or bad behavior. Psychotherapy is an available option for treatment but is only effective if the individual seeks the help and continues with it.
Do Narcissists Know?
By Dennis O'Neil
"Do narcissists know what they're doing is wrong?"
"Do narcissists know they hurt you?"
"Do narcissists know they're doing bad things?"
"Do narcissists know what they do?"
This is the question I ask, if narcissists are aware of the pain they're causing, and whether or not they know their behavior is wrong.
People feel very differently about someone who chooses to do something hurtful that they know is wrong and someone who isn't aware that what they're doing is hurtful or wrong (or who doesn't do it on purpose).
Let's say you and a friend are jogging side by side when his foot catches yours and trips you up accidentally. He apologizes, asks if you're all right, helps you up and tells you he didn't mean it. You forgive him without a second thought, and you say it's okay.
But what if you were running alongside a competitor in a road race, and they tripped you to get ahead? You'd feel very differently about this person tripping you up than you felt about your clumsy friend, wouldn't you?
If a two year-old pushes another child down the stairs, we feel very differently about the toddler than we'd feel about a 12 year-old who did the same.
If a developmentally delayed person gets upset and yells at someone, we don't have the same reaction to that as we would to someone of average intelligence who does it.
We clearly have different expectations of - and responses to - people who do not truly know the pain they cause or at least do not cause it intentionally.
Narcissists do know wrong from right. If they didn't, they wouldn't hide their unfair actions like they frequently do. If you ask narcissists whether it's fair play to cut someone off in traffic or take credit for someone else's work, they'll easily be able to tell you it's not right. And if they do either of those things, they will attempt to hide the fact that they've done it. This is because they do know it's wrong, and they don't want to lose the admiration and respect of others who will think less of them for having done so.
However, the diagnosis of pathological narcissism involves the presence of insufficient empathy. Even though narcissists do know hurting someone's feelings is wrong, they still aren't capable of really empathizing very much with (and therefore, caring about) the person being hurt.
So when narcissists need an ego fix, they do what they know is wrong (like putting someone down), largely because they lack the empathy that should stop them. Then, because they are aware that what they did is wrong and that people will think less of them for it, they cover it up so they won't have to pay the consequences. (Narcissists don't like consequences. Those are for little people.)
So narcissists will do insensitive things to get their narcissistic supply, because they both want it so badly and because there's no empathy to make them feel for the people they're being unkind to. Then, because they are aware it's wrong and that it makes them wrong, they cover it up and (perhaps sometimes unconsciously) deny it, gaslighting and projecting their way out of responsibility so that nobody, including themselves, will see them as imperfect for having done it. (And if you see them as imperfect, then you're a serious problem, because as long as you're there to remind them they're not perfect, they'll have to think about the concept, and they just plain won't.)
Do narcissists know they hurt you?
They know you're hurt, but they don't feel your hurt.
Do narcissists know what they're doing is wrong?
They know what wrong is, and they may do it, but they cannot accept the concept of being a person who does anything wrong, because that means they're not superior and perfect. So narcissists vehemently push away the information that they've done something hurtful. They do know what a hurtful act is, and yet they have to deny that they did it.
Narcissists use a number of different ways to deny their hurtful actions (and to try making you deny it along with them so you'll stop complaining). Blaming others, gaslighting, labeling someone who complains about them cruel, lying, making excuses and playing the martyr are a narcissist's typical responses. Whatever it takes to stop all recognition (by them and you) of the fact that they were inconsiderate can be expected.
So yes, narcissists are aware that they've hurt your feelings and that it's wrong, but they just cannot accept that knowledge. They deny it to prevent narcissistic injury, and desperately want you to deny it as well. And usually, they deny it so quickly and so habitually that it doesn't even register in their consciousness before the excuses and protests are given out.
Typically, when told they've hurt your feelings, a narcissist's denial takes the forms of insisting you're not hurt, or that you shouldn't be hurt, that you're wrong to be hurt, that they didn't hurt you, that you're too easily hurt, and that you shouldn't complain because they're hurt worse.
The more time you spend around an emotionally abusive person like this, the more emotional abuse you will be exposed to. If you are dealing with a narcissist, you have to reduce the amount of time you spend with them as much as possible — especially time spent alone with them. Whenever a narcissist is displeased with you (this happens at the drop of a hat) everything you say and do will be distorted and used against you, so say and do as little as possible in the narcissist’s presence in order to reduce the odds of their attacks.
Enough About You, Let's Talk About Me: How To Recognize and Manage the Narcissists in Your Life, pgs.16-23.
Perlmutter, Alvin H. and Toby Levine Communications [electronic resource], Personality Disorders.
Twenge, Jean M. and Campbell, Keith
The Narcissism Epidemic: Living in the Age of Entitlement. pgs. 48-67.
Behary, Wendy T.
Disarming the narcissist : surviving & thriving with the self-absorbed. Pgs, 34-38.
Courtney Siruta & Erin Koops
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive compulsive disorder, also called OCD, is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by recurrent unwanted thoughts and repetitive behaviors or compulsions. Some of these repetitive behaviors include hand washing, counting, checking, and cleaning. These behaviors are performed for temporary relief, but when not performed it will increase anxiety for people with this disorder. Most of the time these behaviors will end up controlling their lives. Obsessions are involuntary and uncontrollable thoughts, images, or impulses that occur over and over again in one’s mind. Compulsions are behaviors or rituals that you feel driven to act out again and again. Usually, compulsions are performed in an attempt to make obsessions go away. There are many examples of the rituals controlling people’s lives. For example, people that are obsessed with germs or dirt will continuously wash their hands. Others may have a fear of intruders so they will lock and relock the doors. Some people have a fear of social embarrassment so their way to deal with this fear is to comb their hair in front of a mirror compulsively. More examples of compulsive behaviors include: having frequent thoughts of violence and harming loved ones, or having thoughts that are forbidden by religious beliefs. Many times people with this disorder can be obsessed with order and symmetry, and keep items that are unnecessary. People with OCD tend to feel helpless and isolated, no matter what they do they can’t seem to shake it off. Healthy people also have these behaviors, but the difference is that with OCD it interferes with their daily life and can cause anxiety. Most children do not realize that this behavior is out of the ordinary. Obsessive compulsive disorder is more common than once thought.
Approximately 2.3% of the population, between the ages of 18-54, suffer from obsessive compulsive disorder. Between 2-3 million people in the United States have this disorder. About 1/3-1/2 of the OCD sufferers find that the disorder started in their childhood. This disorder affects men and women equally and it also tends to run in families. OCD is diagnosed mainly when the activities or behaviors consume at least an hour a day, are very distressing, and interfere with daily life. OCD cost the U.S. $8.4 billion in 1990 in social and economic losses, nearly 6% of the total mental health bill of $148 billion.
The cause of OCD is not fully understood. Some theories for the causes of OCD include biology, environment, and insufficient serotonin. The biology theory says that OCD may be a result of changes in the body’s chemistry or brain functions. Also, OCD can be a genetic disorder, but is not yet identified. The environment theory states that OCD can come about from behavior related habits over time. Lastly, having an insufficient level of serotonin, which is one of the brains chemical messengers, can cause OCD. Complications with OCD can include: suicidal thoughts and behaviors, alcohol or substance abuse, depression, eating disorders, inability to attend work or school, and troubled relationships.
The treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder can be difficult and may not result in a cure. People with OCD may need treatment for the rest of their lives. With OCD treatment it can bring the symptoms under control. The two main ways to help treat OCD are psychotherapy and medications. Most often treatment is more effective with a combination of psychotherapy and medication. Psychotherapy involves retraining the thought patterns and routines so that the behaviors or rituals are no longer needed. This therapy exposes one to a feared object or obsession to help cope with their anxiety. Psychotherapy can be used for reducing stress, reduce anxiety, and resolve inner conflicts. The next treatment for OCD is medications. The most common medication used is antidepressants. These are used because they help increase levels of serotonin and are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Some common antidepressants are: paroxetine, fluoxetine, clomipramine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline. If these SSRIs do not work the doctor may prescribe an older kind of antidepressant called a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). One of the oldest medications for OCD is called clomipramine, which is a TCA. This usually works better than SSRIs but can have unpleasant side effects including difficulty starting urination, drop in blood pressure when rising from a seated position, dry mouth, and sleepiness. In some cases the doctor will prescribe both the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and the tricyclic antidepressant to treat the patient. There are more antidepressants and medications on the market for sale. Some ways to help cope with OCD on your own can be taking your medication as directed, paying attention to warning signs, avoiding drugs and alcohol, exercise regularly, get a good amount of sleep, and check medications with a doctor before using. Treatment for OCD will be determined by their doctor based on their age, overall health, medical history, extent of the disorder, tolerance for medications, procedures, or therapies, expectations for the course of the disorder, and the person’s opinion or preference. Less than 10 percent are currently getting treatment for OCD.
In choosing a medication to treat OCD depends on one’s own individual situation. It can take several weeks to months after starting medication to see improvement in the symptoms. It may take many medications before finding the right one that works. Some doctors recommend combining medications. Medications for OCD can have side effects. Such effects are upset stomach, sleep disturbance, and sweating. Sometimes medication and psychotherapy are not enough for controlling OCD symptoms. Other treatment options can include psychiatric hospitalization, residential treatment, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and deep brain stimulation.
Coping with obsessive compulsive disorder is a challenging task for many people. Medications can have unwanted side effects that can require long term treatment. Some ways to help cope with OCD are: learn about OCD, join a support group, stay focused on their goals, find healthy outlets, learn relaxation and stress management, and structure their time. There is no way to prevent OCD except for getting treatment as soon as possible to keep it from worsening.
The abnormal fear of clowns.
By Matt Lambert.
Coulrophobia is a debilitating fear of clowns that is a very common phobia among adults and especially children. Some people are uncomfortable or just slightly annoyed by clowns, but to count as a phobia, like any phobia, the fearful reaction must be irrational and come with avoidance behavior.
Why the fear?
There are a few different theories on why or how this specific phobia is brought about. One theory is simply someone having a negative experience with a clown, while another theory is that it is a learned behavior. Most fears in life, rational or irrational are learned from others. Both Bruce Johnson of charliethejugglingclown.com and J. Durin, author of Coulrophobia and the Trickster, cite modern media portrayals of clowns as the main culprit. In recent decades clowns have been shown as negative or completely sinister characters. Johnson explains that children have a natural fear of unknown objects or people until they are comfortable with them; negative media portrayals of clowns reinforces this fear which builds into a phobia. Durin tells the story of a real life serial killer who spent time as a volunteer clown, but the connection is vague. J Durin goes on to explain, “The highly publicized murders committed by John Wayne Gacy also took place in the 1970s. From 1975 to 1978, Gacy sodomized and killed at least 33 boys and young men in the Chicago area. Although Gacy never worked as a professional clown, he did perform on a volunteer basis. This connection has been played up over the years in movies and films about the crimes.” A little hearsay is enough to learn some phobias.
Like most phobias, Coulrophobia induces strong physical reactions such as panic attacks, crying, running away and feinting. Patients suffering from Coulrophobia avoid places where clowns might be, especially circuses. Although some have reported this fear can also include people dressed as Santa Claus, which limits holiday season outings. The defining issue with clowns is usually the facial makeup which can almost be ghostly.
Some patients have success with different techniques such as repeated exposure to the source of their phobia; this can include pictures of clowns, clown dolls, and actual clowns. Treatment usually starts with small doses such as a simple picture. Once a patient is able to tolerate a picture they might be in a room with a clown. Johnson mentions that some patients have great success with watching a person in street clothes make the transformation into a clown and then remove the outfit once again. Some people, however, simply avoid any situations involving clowns and never seek treatment.
No Matter How Skinny You Become, It’s Never Enough
By Kashayla Reiter & Kara James
Anorexia nervosa, also referred to as Ana, is a serious eating disorder. When someone sufferers from anorexia, the desire to lose weight is the most important thing in their life. They have an intense fear of gaining weight, a distorted body image, and refuse to maintain a healthy body weight. Not only does anorexia affect one's physical appearance, it also affects their mental well being. Gaining just a pound or two could really set an anorexic person into a severe depressed state. People who are sufferers of anorexia often are irritable and easily become upset. Also, their attention and concentration greatly decrease. Men and women who are dealing with anorexia usually can not stay focused on one subject for too long.
Anorexia usually begins during one's younger years, typically as a teenager or young adult. So much social pressure is put on teenagers and college aged students to look and act a certain way. They try to be skinny, beautiful, and perfect to impress everyone else, but anorexia is anything but beautiful and perfect. Anorexia is a terrible condition that diminishes the body of vitamins and minerals necessary for every day life. No matter how skinny and anorexic person becomes, they still don't feel skinny enough. They just keep telling themselves that they are “fat” and “overweight”.
There are several health risks related to people who have the anorexia disorder. Most of the health problems arise from starvation which can cause the progressive deterioration of several vital organs in the body. Commonly people who suffer from anorexia have an abnormally slow heart rate (bradycardia) and low blood pressure (hypotension) caused from starvation and malnutrition. Due to severe weight loss and starvation can also cause disturbances in the heart rhythm (arrhythmia), which is caused from the reduction of the hearts work capacity. Also greatly associated with anorexia is stomach and abdominal problems such as constipation and abdominal pain. Starvation and over using laxatives disrupts the digestive tract by slowing down the rate at which food is absorbed into the body. Liver function is commonly normal in some people who suffer from anorexia but some evidence has shown some people develop changes in enzyme levels and overall function of the liver.
Extremely affected by anorexia is the glandular (endocrine) system because it disrupts the complex physical and chemical processes that are vital to maintenance of life. Hormone imbalances are affected in both men and women. In 90% of women who suffer with anorexia secondary amenorrhea (absence of menstrual periods) occurs and in the other 10% of women their menstrual flow is greatly disrupted. Most of the time upon weight gain and successful treatment their menstrual period returns. Not only does it cause the loss of menstrual periods it also makes it more difficult for the woman to get pregnant. If she does get pregnant there is a higher chance she will have a miscarriage, have to have a c-section, a baby with a low birth weight, and suffer from post partum depression. Constant restrictive eating can also have an effect on the thyroid causing it to slow down in an attempt to preserve calories because it is tricked into thinking the body is starving. Also the risk of death is greater in people who suffer from anorexia along with diabetes mellitus (tendency to have very high blood sugar levels) than people who have either anorexia or diabetes mellitus alone.
Although renal (kidney) function may appear normal in people who suffer with anorexia that is not always the case. Increases or decreases in urination has been seen in some people along with fatal potassium deficiency. Diabetes insipidus (excessive urination and extreme thirst) has also been related to this disorder. Anorexia can also cause the person to develop kidney stones and its possible that their kidneys will fail completely.
Since women develop 40-60% of their bone mass during adolescence, bone density loss is quite frequent in women who suffer with anorexia. Three studies have shown that bone loss may occur quickly in girls with anorexia, bone density may be restored if this disorder is properly/successfully treated and the person's overall health is improved, and the risk for bone related fractures may persist later in that person's life.
A suppressed immune system and a greater risk of infection in anorexia patients is suspected but has not been clinically proven due to the fact that anemia is common. The people tend to have a higher red blood cell count along with a lower white blood cell count. As we all know white blood cells help protect the body from infections by fighting off bacteria and viruses. Despite what people might think overall high cholesterol levels is also greatly associated with anorexia.
Along with those health related physical symptoms there are other physical signs that are apparent to friends, family, and other people who know the person that suffers from anorexia. The most apparent sign is of course the severe weight loss. Other signs are dry flaky skin that has yellow tint, brittle nails, hair loss from the head, tooth decay and/or gum damage from frequent vomiting, fine hair growth on face, arms, legs, and back, and they also have trouble maintaining a consistent body temperature.
There are also a few symptoms that deal with the person's mental state. They tend to get easily depressed and suffer from severe mood swings. From lack of nutrition and energy from food they have trouble remembering things, whether simple or difficult, and they also think slower than properly nourished people. Also due to the lack of energy they suffer from frequent headaches, dizziness, fainting, lack of energy, and weakness.
So, you may be wondering how exactly one can treat anorexia, and if there is any way to turn back from this horrible condition. Yes and no. Anorexia can be treated, but one will most likely still suffer mentally from their experience with it. To treat anorexia one will most likely need to be hospitalized. While hospitalized their weight will be monitored and they will be allowed to gain an average of one to three pounds a day. This rate of gain is considered the safest for someone who is extremely malnourished. If organ function has been impaired, a feeding tube may be required. If an individual has suffered from anorexia for many years, treatment will need to be taken slower so they don't become to overwhelmed and relapse. Not only is weight gain an important factor during the treatment of an anorexia patient, but so is decreased physical activity and increased social activity. In order to nurse a person who suffers from anorexia back to a normal, stable level of health, a treatment team is necessary. This treatment team should consist of a medical-care provider, a nutritionist, and a mental health care provider. The mental health care provider can help the anorexic patient by providing, individual therapy, group therapy, or in some cases, family therapy.
Now that you know all the horrific facts of anorexia, I hope you can see that is not a topic to be joked about. An eating disorder is no easy thing to overcome. Knowing the facts, signs, and symptoms can be beneficial to not only your health but to the health of other people around you.
Androphobia is a type of phobia that is the fear of men. Women can get this if they have seen their mother physically or verbally abuse by a male, if they are a victim of rape or they are just scared, but they do not have to be a victim. That is not the only way of getting androphobia, it can come from other anxiety disorders, cultural factors that increase stress, mental disorder, and genetics. This may be due to social phobia or a different disorder when a male is the perpetrator. Sometimes the deep voice in men scares girls and also the size that the male is. Some of the symptoms are breathlessness, dizziness, excessive sweating, and nausea, dry mouth, anxiety attacks, cannot articulate words or sentences when there is a male around. This is usually accepted that androphobia can come from a combination of external events and internal predispositions. This phobia can be crippling, but there are different ways to help.
One form of treatment for this is Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP). That is based around the behaviors that are structured. Another type of treatment is called Hypnotherapy which is putting the patient in a trance-like state by relaxing them and the therapists tries to reprogram the brain. Either way to help get over the phobia a therapists is involved which they can usually help the phobia a little. Every person acts differently with how bad the phobia is. This phobia is one of the most difficult to cure and to be able to keep away. Some medicine can be prescribed to help, but there are also side effects or withdrawal to the drugs. The medicine does not cure any type of phobia, it only temporarily suppresses the system. There are a number of methods that can try to help and in almost every case the phobia can be helped, people just need to ask for the help.
Androphobia can have an effect on your personal and professional life. When having this, most women live by themselves most of their lives and do not ask for treatment. Most of the time this phobia can be traces back to how the person got it, it usually starts in a very young age. Which causes these women never to know what marriage is like. Sometimes this causes the women to be sad because they want to be married, but then other women the fact of being single makes them happy and they do not want a guy.
This affects your personal life because most workplaces are made of men. Since there are more males then females this can prevent you from getting a promotion or a raise. Since the females are scared to socialize with the males. Guys are sometimes scary and with them being your boss and dealing with the phobia would be very hard to even go into your bosses or even a co-workers office. Even though males really do not threat females in any way and they realize they have to face it even though there is no problem.
The word andro comes from Greek meaning man, men, or male. Then the word phobia also comes from Greek that means fear of. This fear is not limited to women men can also suffer from it. People with androphobia will go to extreme measures to try and avoid men. If there in a store and there is a man down one row they will wait till they leave. Or if there is a man in the elevator they will take the stairs just to avoid them. Another word for Androphobia is known as Androphobia. It’s an exaggerated or irrational fear man. Most women know that there isn’t a reason to be afraid of men but when every it are around them they have severe and repeating anxiety which messes with and interfere with activates in their everyday life. The symptoms vary depending on the person. Some of the most common symptoms are dizziness, excessive sweating, dry mouth, nausea, inability to form words or sentences shortness of breath, and anxiety attacks. Androphobia usually develops for a traumatic experience from their childhood. It could also have been developed from watching a male physically or verbally abuse their mothers or being themselves physically, verbally or sexual abused. It also can be closely related to the fear of rape. Just because you suffer from androphobia doesn’t mean you have been raped, but they still have the fear of it as if they had been a victim.
Androphobia can be helped treated by going to behavior therapy were they can see why they are afraid of men. Anti-anxiety medication can help with it as well so when your around a man. Exposure therapy is another way to help treat androphobia. It could help by showing the person that there isn’t a reason to be afraid of man. Androphobia also affects your personal and professional life. In your personal life androphobia makes it extremely hard to go out on dates or going out to a club with a lot of guys. In the work place it makes it hard because you wouldn’t be able to work with any males. Many people suffer from androphobia and never get help with it. One reason they don’t get help with it is because they are unaware that the fear of men is recognized condition and affects many other people. There is no treatment there’s not an average length of treatment.
Medical field phobias
Phobia: a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid it. (as stated by dictionary.com) Many people feel that sense they have fears of things such as, heights, the dark, blood, snakes, water, dogs, rats, people, small spaces, etc.. that they have a phobia. But a phobia is a far more extensive fear. Only between 5.1 – 21.5 percent of Americans that say they suffer from a phobia, actually suffer from one.
Iatrophobia can be caused by bad experiences, afraid of catching some sort of disease or sickness, the gross smell of medicine in the doctor’s office, and other things. Such as maybe you have heart surgery and it goes wrong but you still make it through. Another example is if someone close to you has a traumatic experience with doctors such as, surgeries that result in death, flu shots or other vaccines that affect your life when you’re a child.
There are many things a patient can do to combat the fear of doctor’s offices or doctor’s offices. Some of the ways to control it are to have a positive mindset. In having a positive mindset think about how they are going to help you and not kill you instantly. Think about the years upon years of schooling they have taken not to kill you dead. Another way to combat it is to ignore it. While this may be hard to do, try no tot think about all the possible negative outcomes that could occur upon your arrival at the doctor’s office. Next, is trying learning more about the doctor’s field. Such as biology, anatomy, physiology, psychology, chemistry, and all applicable fields.
While less than one percent of Americans suffer from Iatrophobia, it is still a prevalent phobia in the United States today. There are several medical treatments for this phobia. Such as, hypnoanalysis. Hypnoanalysis (hypnotherapy) is analysis by a trained professional, and this professional opens up the mind to suggestions in order to beat this phobia. Also, another form of treatment is Neuro-Linguistic-Programming (NLP) which is basically using words to reinforce your subconscious mind and makes you overcome Iatrophobia. And finally, there is Energy Psychology. This is using the common methods such as yoga, tai chi, and other known forms of treatment. (As stated in iatrophobia.com) with these forms of treatments and techniques hopefully the patient can overcome this phobia and fear.
Dentophobia, the fear of dentists, is another phobia of the medical field. Although most doctors don’t consider dentists a part of their field… This phobia is actually common among all age groups and does not seem to fit one group of people over another. Also, it has many different reasons to be a dentophobiac.
These reasons include; The Dentist, pain, gagging, numbness, smell and taste. People may fear the actually dentist because the view him as cold or emotionless. Sometimes even going as far as to say he is sadistic in his work thus making him very frightening. The pain of the operations can also cause many to acquire a phobia. Some people have extreme sensitivity to pain in their mouths. This severity of pain can cause people to be terrified of going to the dentist. With technology advancing, this has become less common because we now use numbing gels and anesthetics in shots. Although this has caused other people to have a phobia because they have a phobia of being numb. Furthermore, many people have extreme gag reflexes so when they have molds, x-rays, and other various things they do in your mouth… This causes people to be extremely afraid when they are operating on you. Lastly, the smells and tastes of many of the dentistry equipment can make you extremely nautious. All these different elements combined are different ways one can form dentophobia.
Dentophobia can lead to some extreme problems. Without proper care of your teeth and regular visits to your dentist you teeth can soon start to rot and decay. If you have dentophobia this can lead to infrequent visits to your dentist causing oral issues. Some ways to cope with this is to seek professional help. A pshyciatrist can help immensely with many different phobias, including this particular phobia. After seeking professional help there are a few tips to keeping your fear under control. Always remember that you are in control of your fear, keep your dentist aware of how you are feeling and how your appointments are going. Bring a music device to keep your mind off the work being done on you. There is one final thing you can do now with modern day sedatives, be put to sleep for the whole operation! This will be more costly but it may get you through your procedure.
In the end if you believe you have such a fear of your family dentist that you cannot pick up the phone to schedule an appointment, you might want to think about if you have dentophobia. If you don’t think you have this condition then get an appointment and see if you can make it through without having a panic attack. If you can’t accomplish this than seek some professional help so that this phobia will not have detramental effects on your teeth and overall physical well-being.
There are nearly ten percent of Americans that walk into a medical facility and have no problems. They sit down and tell the doctors what is going and why they are there. As it turns out nearly half of the medical diseases are cured by some form of shot. Little does the patient know that upon entering their appointment, they will be receiving a shot of some sort of antibiotic or some form of drug. When they see the needle a large group of people freak out. Get extremely anxious and may even pass out. This is known as Trypanophobia, or needle phobia.
There are many symptoms of this needle phobia. For example, You are likely to experience an increase in blood pressure at the sight of needles, light headedness, sweating, shortness of breath, trembling, and anger towards the doctor for forcing them into this situation, and of course the most common symptom is fainting.
This phobia can be dangerous for both the doctor and the patient. The dramatic increase in heart rate is extremely unhealthy for any normal persons body. Also the extensive decrease in blood flow that causes fainting can cause memory loss and may cause numbness of many parts of the body. The fainting may also cause temporary paralysis or temporary blindness. The dangers for the doctors start with, most commonly hostility of the patient. Not only do patients get nervous on the inside but they can get extremely scared on the outside. They may end up hitting the doctor or trying to run away. This may also lead to the doctor misplacing the needle in the patient, causing the patient injury.
Treatment for this is basic and should start at an early age for inevitably the patient will need a shot for some reason. Therapy is a good start, slowly introduce the subject to lesser forms of needles and explain how the doctor has an extensive amount of training behind the use of needles and will generally not have to do it more than once. Explain how being afraid and twitching may cause more harm than would have if they remain calm. If possible introduce the patient to others who had suffered from “needle phobia” and have them explain the ways that they themselves conquered their phobia.
They patient needs to understand the severity of his situation so they can take in their need for needles and weigh the pros compared to the cons. With the help of friends, family, and doctors they may be able to resist the urge to twitch, get angry, or even conquer their phobia completely.
When someone first thinks of a person having a panic disorder or a panic attack you might think about someone that worries about anything and everything. From the stress of taking a test to the fear of having enough money to pay the bills; sets a picture of someone pulling out their hair because they do not know what they are going to do. However a panic attack is more serious than worrying about a grade and not easy to identify as the cause of the attack.
Panic attacks are serious health problems that affect about 60 million people in the United States. Panic attacks are classified as an anxiety disorder but do not yet have a specific cause. Some scientists link the disorder to social stressors and the way people think. Starting at 15-19 years old and having twice amount of risk for women compared to men. Panic attacks are sudden attacks that can happen at any time during the day, even during sleep; Panic attacks tend to last around more than ten minutes and have many of the same symptoms as a heart attack.
People suffering from a panic attack have symptoms of difficulty breathing, chest pains, shaking, and dizziness. They also feel the need to escape, the fear of something bad will happen, and the fear of death. Also like a heart attack, when a person has a panic attack, that person has more risk of having another and another panic attack. Panic attacks also cause depression, substance abuse, and suicidal thoughts. Although it’s hard to know when a panic attack will strike or the cause of an attack; there are many different types of ways to protect people from suffering from panic attacks.
Research has come up with ways to protect people from suffering from panic attacks with both medicine and therapy. Many different types of medicine have been created to help take care of a panic disorder in different ways. Xanax is used to treat panic attacks; propranolol treats physical symptoms of panic attacks, and neurotin help people from having panic attacks. Psychotherapy is also used to help people with a panic disorder. Having the victims talk about their attacks and giving the confidence they can live a worry free life. The psychotherapy helps victims more to get over there panic disorder but with the medicine the people suffering a panic attack can get help fast.
Millions of people in the United States alone suffer from a panic disorder. Panic attacks strike fear from their cause of chest pains, difficulty breathing, and the fear of death. These attacks can happen at any time during the day and last over ten minutes long. The cause of a panic disorder is not yet discover but research has found many different ways using both drugs and therapy to help people live with their panic disorder. Using drugs to stop their panic attacks and having psychotherapy to beat their panic disorder. Now when someone thinks of a panic disorder, they will not think of someone pulling their hair out over something causing stress but will think of someone with a serious health risk that have sudden attacks and need help.
"Panic Attacks (Panic Disorder) Causes, Symptoms, Signs, Medication, Treatment and Types by MedicineNet.com." Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <http://www.medicinenet.com/panic_disorder/article.htm>.
"Panic Attacks Symptoms, Causes, Treatment - Are Panic Attacks Serious on MedicineNet." Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <http://www.medicinenet.com/panic_disorder/page2.htm>.
"Panic Attacks Symptoms, Causes, Treatment - What Is the Treatment for Panic Attacks What Medications Treat Panic Attacks on MedicineNet." Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <http://www.medicinenet.com/panic_disorder/page3.htm>.
by Angela Redmon
Everyone experiences fear at one time or another. For some people the sight of a needle sends their heart racing, and others become nervous when giving a presentation in front of a large crowd. These kinds of fears are normal. Although they may make a person uncomfortable, they do not interfere with that person’s life so much that they cannot go about their daily activities. However, for some people the fear of an object or situation is so great that they rearrange their whole life to avoid it. These types of fears are called phobias, and although most present little if any danger they can produce immense anxiety and are often extremely disabling.
Phobias are anxiety disorders that can affect anyone. In fact, 7-13% of people have some kind of phobia. One type that people sometimes suffer from is agoraphobia. Agoraphobia is usually coupled with some other kind of anxiety disorder including panic disorder or a specific phobia. Agoraphobics fear any place or situation in which they may have a panic attack and escape would not be possible or would be difficult or embarrassing. They typically avoid crowded spaces, vehicles, elevators, bridges, and any other enclosed area. People with agoraphobia usually have a “safe zone” in which they stay confined. This zone can be their neighborhood, their house, or even a specific room within the house. Any deviation from this “safe zone” causes tremendous anxiety that may lead to a panic attack. Even within the zone in which agoraphobics feel secure, panic attacks can occur a couple times a month.
There is no known cause of agoraphobia. Experts expect that this phobia stems from the underlying panic disorder. People who have a panic disorder experience frequent panic attacks that can cause them to feel dizzy, have a shortness of breath, and even feel as though they’re going to die. These attacks can be terrifying because the person having them feels as though they have no control over the situation. In an attempt to gain control, some people begin associating the attacks with the particular places in which they have them. Thus in avoiding the situation, they hope to elude an attack. Most often, the places that are avoided the most are those in which other people have witnessed them having a panic attack.
Although the exact cause is not known, numerous behaviors enable doctors to diagnose a person with agoraphobia. For instance, agoraphobics generally avoid certain places and situations. Avoidance can range in severity, from not wanting to enter a crowded shopping mall to not even wanting to leave the house. People with agoraphobia also need constant reassurance. Venturing out to places like the grocery store or the doctor’s office might only be possible if accompanied by a friend. Agoraphobics also sometimes form a dependence on alcohol or medicine. They may be unable to go to a restaurant or even outside without first having a drink or carrying their pills on them. Lastly, people with this type of phobia try to escape an uncomfortable situation as soon as possible. For example, on the way to the grocery store they may get only a block from the house before they decide to turn around and go home.
Agoraphobics can be extremely disabled by their disorder. In many cases, the fear is so great that the person is not capable of working. They are lots of times dependent on family or friends for their groceries and other items that require going outside their area of security. Because this disorder sometimes compels agoraphobics to remain housebound for years, relationships generally deteriorate. As a result, people with agoraphobia often live an isolated and dependent life.
“Agoraphobia.” www.psychologytoday.com/conditions/agoraphobia. Psychology Today, 4 December 2007. Web. 12 November 2011.
“Phobias.” www.medicinenet.com/phobias/article.htm. Web. 13 November 2011.
“What is Agoraphobia? What Causes Agoraphobia?” www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/162169.php. Medical News Today, 28 August 2009. Web. 13 November 2011.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
By: Kayti Davis
OCD or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, is a common disorder found in children as well as adults. Obsessive compulsive disorder or OCD is an anxiety disorder that causes unwanted thoughts or behaviors that make them driven to do something (pubmed). Having OCD means you cannot help but have a continuous thought that does not stop until you check it out or take care of whatever it is you are thinking about.
There are many signs of obsession and many signs of compulsion, in most cases people with OCD with experience both obsession and compulsion but sometimes it may be just one or the other. Some obsessions may include fear of germs, causing harm to others or yourself, violent thoughts, losing or not having what you need, or that things need to be lined up just perfect, and superstations (helpguide). Common compulsions that are associated with OCD are double checking things such as is the stove off or if your family and friends are safe, constantly cleaning or putting things in order, and accumulating junk because you are afraid to throw it away (helpguide).
How does a person know if they have OCD? This question is common when people feel they do not have control of situations. Common tests such as a psychiatric evaluation or a physical exam can help rule out if the problem is medical or psychiatric. A person who develops OCD may have difficulty dealing with the disorder. There are treatments that may help to sort out the issues OCD may cause. The first step would be medication that could assist in the problems. Drugs such as Celexa, Prozac, Luvox, Paxil and Zoloft are antidepressants that may help with particular Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (pubmed). Although these drugs are most common treatments, they may or may not help. There are other types of treatment available as well, such as psychotherapy which may help the individual to decrease or deal with stress. Psychotherapy can also teach the individual to learn how to cope with the disorder by resolving inner complexes, or reduce the anxiety that may result in the OCD problems. Although utilizing a psychologist to help heal or fix the disorder, there are self help solutions as well. Trying to refocus the person’s attention to a different subject, for instance, walk, knit, or jog. Basically, directing the individual’s attention to something else that interests them for at least fifteen minutes (helpguide). Another option may be to write down the obsession to try to move past it creating something different to focus on. Anticipating the OCD urges may also be an option to self help the disorder. Try locking the door, turning off an appliance, or closing the window with more attention as it is done, with the idea of knowing the item has been taken care of without obsessing over it. There are many ways of focusing to attempt to not obsess over situations, but a healthy lifestyle would also be a valuable treatment. Healthy eating habits, regular exercise, little alcohol usage and little to no nicotine will also help with treatment and healing of OCD (helpguide). Although Obsessive Compulsive Disorder may be an issue if a person’s life, it may be able to be controlled by medication, professional help or personal discipline making the disorder easier to cope with.
"Obsessive-compulsive Disorder - PubMed Health." Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001926/>.
"Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): Symptoms, Behavior, and Treatment."Helpguide.org. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <http://helpguide.org/mental/obsessive_compulsive_disorder_ocd.htm>.
Fear of developing a phobia
By Danielle Schaffer
Phobophobia is the paralyzing fear of phobias. This is a fairly common phobia in today’s society. People with phobophobia will have had no phobia until they start to believe that they have one. Like most phobic patients they suffer from overwhelming paranoia associated with whatever they believe they are afraid of.
There are several theories on the causes of phobophobia. It’s been suggested that there could be chemical imbalances or brain irregularities. The more traditional view is that there is a hereditary factor involved. Environmental factors could also come into effect in those that are diagnosed. There are even those that suggest that the person affected may have disillusioned thoughts about phobias and the reactions that it may cause. It may even be that they had heard others talking about their phobias and ended up thinking that they themselves have a phobia.
The symptoms are like that of any other phobia. The severity of the reactions depends on the level of fear. The most common reactions include nausea, excessive sweating, shaking, and a fast heart rate. The more severe reactions are the fear of dying, panic attacks, and detachment from reality. The symptoms will appear in a person when they have to talk about phobias. The media occasionally portrays a character with a phobia and this will also make symptoms appear in a phobophobic individual.
The recommended treatment for phobophobia is therapy. The number of times that someone will have to go to therapy depends on the person. Hypnotherapy has been a popular choice for many patients. Hypnotherapy works by reprogramming the subconscious which will overtime, get rid of the phobia. Another widely used form of therapy is Neuro- Linguistic Programming (NLP). According to NLP therapy a phobia is the result of a “program” that you have unknowingly created and NLP simply reveals the “program” and re-programs them. Medicine is another form of treatment. In order for medicine to be the most effective it needs to be used along with therapy.
Phobophobia is often confused with panphobia, which is the fear of everything. To tell the two apart you must look at the symptoms. Panphobic individuals are always living in fear and feel an evil presence at all times, while phobophobic sufferers are generally only in fear when a phobia is presented to them.
Anorexia Nervosa is a eating and physiological disorder. It involves the concern with being obese. A person with Anorexia usually begins to diet and starts to loose weight and begins think that eating less helps their dieting. This dieting usually involves dieting pills for loss of appetite or extreme exercising and in some cases a person will do both. A person with Anorexia is known to use laxatives to reduce body weight as well. The feeling of starvation makes the person feel in control of their body weight and also makes them feel better about their body image. With the cycle of taking pills, exercising, and/or taking laxatives and not eating becomes an obsession and at some point an addiction.
Anorexia is often seen in young girls because of the effect the media has on them. But it is also seen in all ages of women. Men are also known to have Anorexia as well, but aren’t as prone to it as young women. Women who are Caucasian are also more prone to developing Anorexia than other racial backgrounds. People with jobs that require them to be thinner such as; dancers, actors, and athletes are more prone to developing Anorexia as well.
There is not a known cause for Anorexia just yet. Researchers are starting to relate it to being inherited in genes from the parents, but haven’t yet concluded the idea. Another thought is the thought of perfectionism and having a “perfect” body. Or even being underfed as an infant also may play a role in Anorexia. Researchers have also linked a dysfunctions in the hypothalamus and neurotransmitters in the brain. There are many different reasons that could cause Anorexia.
Symptoms of Anorexia include: severe weight loss. When someone looses an excessive amount of weight within an unrealistic time limit. Or when a person expresses fear of becoming obese when they are actually underweight. Social withdrawl is also another indicator of Anorexia. A person tries to avoid others in case they take notice in what is happening. They become obsessed with the thought of food, body shape, or exercise. They may cut their food into small pieces or have other strange food rituals. A person with Anorexia may develop an anxiety disorder. A person with Anorexia try to have as much control and perfection as possible, but may experience not being in control of other things in their life such as; exercise, alcohol abuse, or drugs. There are many symptoms to a person with Anorexia and it can be hard to pinpoint which symptoms relate to this disorder.
There are a few different treatment for this disorder. A person who has suffered from this disorder for a few years is encouraged to start a slow process of eating a regular meal daily and less exercise to avoid getting overwhelmed and relapsing. If a person is so malnourished where there organs have started to be affected then medical help is strongly encouraged at that point. Weight gain of about 1-4 pounds a week back up to a normal, or healthy weight is emphasized. And less physical activity and more social interaction is always encouraged. This can be a rather slow process depending on the person, but it is reversible.
Anorexia can be very dangerous depending on the extremes a person decides to take it. Organ failure, and mental disorders are linked to Anorexia over a certain amount of time. The symptoms may be hard to link to the disorder, and it may be difficult to help someone with the disorder because of the sense of denial the person has. But the fortunate part is that this disorder can be turned around, but an unfortunate part is that if it is noticed to late, a person could die due to malnutrition and organ failure.
Bulimia is a serious eating disorder that can effect all ranges of people. Bulimia nervosa is when somebody over eats or binge eats and feels bad about themselves afterward or feels a loss of control, so they turn to throwing up after they eat for relief or take laxatives to not gain the weight.
Bulimia is normally caused by more than one factor in a persons life like culture, stress, family, etc. About 80- 95 percent of the people that have bulimia are women, but men can also have this disorder. It also targets a lot of adolescent girls and young women.
There are a few symptoms of bulimia that family or friends may be able identify. It may be hard to tell if someone has bulimia because in contrast to anorexia people that have bulimia seem to have an appropriate weight for their age. If somebody goes to the bathroom after eating a big meal on a normal basis. Packages of laxatives, diet pills, emetics, or water pills are being thrown away is also an indicator that someone may have bulimia. Along with if someone were to buy a lot of food at one time and it were gone really quickly.
Bulimia has a lot of harmful effects to the body as well. Although most people that have bulimia don’t go to the hospital it could cause heart problems or even heart failure. Also from throwing up bulimia could tear and irritate their esophagus. Going to the bathroom could be a problem if laxatives are being taken on a regular basis because the bowel muscles aren’t as strong. Out of the whole body it seems like the mouth gets the most damage because the acid from the throw up erodes the enamel from teeth making them see through, causes cavities, pits in the teeth, and causes infections in the gums. Straining from throwing up can also burst blood vessels in the eyes. The sides of the mouth may be odd looking or swollen because the salivary glands might be enlarged. Also the skin on the fingertips and knuckles may be scratched or cut from trying to throw up. If a woman is pregnant and bulimic she could get diabetes while pregnant, have a miscarriage, mental retardation, and other harmful factors to the babies and mothers health.
Bulimia can be cured although it can be a lengthy and difficult process. People that are bulimic can see therapists and go to support groups. If people want help to stop they are more likely to not have a relapse or drop out of therapy. They can also be prescribed medicine to help them not throw up or antidepressants. Bulimia can also be lead to anorexia and to depression.
Bulimia is a serious disease that is very hard to overcome and takes awhile to overcome. It can do damage to the mouth, heart, skin, and to a baby if pregnant. There are signs to tell if someone may be bulimic and there are different reasons for why people are bulimic. It’s a hard disease to watch people go through but all they need is some support and a push to do better and they could overcome it.
"Bulimia Nervosa Fact Sheet." Womenshealth.gov. 15 June 2009. Web. 14 Nov. 2011. <http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/bulimia-nervosa.cfm>.
"Bulimia - PubMed Health." PubMed Health. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
Definition: “Post Traumatic Stress Disorder”, is an anxiety disorder that may or may not affect a person after a major traumatic event or experience. It’s a more severe trauma then what they are already dealing with.
It is unpredictable as to who can end up with PSTD, but the extremities of the past event completely depends on whether or not the victim will suffer from PSTD. Physical, genetic, and some social factors are also involved. PSTD affects the stress hormones and the chemicals that carry the information between nerves (neurotransmitters). Traumas that have occurred in the past month up to past years build up extreme emotions in a person and increases their risks of getting PSTD. Certain traumatic events definitely cause trauma but it depends on the persons response to stress, which will determine whether they end up with PSTD or not.
Different traumatic events that tend to trigger and cause PTSD include War, Vehicular accident, terrorists, rapists etc…
There are normal responses to these traumatic events which anyone can suffer from after experiencing such an event. But that particular trauma is short lived, where as a PSTD victims are “caught” or “stuck” in a major depressing traumatic situation.
Symptoms of those who suffer from normal Anxiety problems feel disconnected sometimes crazy, experience bad dreams, become fearful, and might find it extremely difficult to stop the reoccurring thoughts about the traumatic event, while PSTD victims have these to an extreme.
The most severe PTSD symptoms of a PSTD patient include Re-experiencing the traumatic event through “flash backs”, reoccurring nightmares, physical reminders, and upsetting memories of the past event. Avoidance and numbing, which consists of avoiding people, places, activities, thoughts and feelings that might trigger a memory and remind the person of the past trauma they had experienced. Some even reach the point of no longer having the interest in normal healthy activities, or sometimes even life.
Victims also suffer from felling depressed, hopeless, guilty, alone, suicidal, and untrusting. Many of the actions, emotions, and thoughts of a PTSD victim can cause severe problems and issues in their personal and social lives. Those who suffer from PSTD re-experience the traumatic event again and again in several ways. Feeling as though they are reliving the event continuously, Tending to invent an “emotional numbing” which enables them to think they are under control of the situation when they really just need to face the past trauma.
If a person has experienced a tragic event it is best to jump right on top of the situation and treats the trauma to prevent all risks of getting PSTD. If a person shows Post Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms it is best to take care of this with treatments as soon as possible.
The best treatments for a PSTD victim include therapies and medications. Victims are encouraged to face any reminders and (or) memories that connect with the event. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is used to gradually and carefully get the victim to expose their fears, and pains. Family Therapy is best used in families with a member dealing with the disorder. So this Therapy is used for family members to help them learn what the victim is going through and help work through relationship issues. Medication is only sometimes prescribed to relieve secondary symptoms of anxiety and depression. But doesn’t relieve the causes of PSTD.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
By: Scott Vinduska
Generalized Anxiety Disorder, also know as GAD, is an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic anxiety, exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke the onset of the anxiety. Generalized anxiety disorder has symptoms similar to obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and other anxiety disorders, but the conditions are much different. GAD affects about 6.8 million Americans. Two times as many women are affected than are men.
It is not fully understood what causes generalized anxiety disorder , but the causes are thought to include genetics, life experience, and stress. It could also be caused by naturally occurring brain chemicals. Some diseases associated with generalized anxiety disorder include hypothyroidism, heart disease, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Other symptoms include headaches, fatigue, muscle tension, trembling, twitching, irritability, sweating, and difficulty swallowing. Some are at higher risk to develop generalized anxiety disorder than others. These risk factors include substance abuse, family genetics, childhood trauma, illness, and certain personality types.
It is possible to develop generalized anxiety disorder as a child or an adult. To determine if you suffer from generalized anxiety disorder, a health care provider will ask detailed questions about about symptoms and medical history. The health care provider may also perform a physical examination along with a psychological questionnaire. To be diagnosed with this condition, the following criteria must be met:
- Excessive anxiety about events or activities on most days, for 6 months
- Difficulty controlling feelings of worry
- Anxiety that causes significant distress and interferes with daily life
- Anxiety that is not related to any other mental health condition
- At least three of the following symptoms in adults and one in children: restlessness, fatigue, trouble concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, sleep problems
There are two main avenues of treatment for generalized anxiety disorder. One treatment option is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is a way in which life stresses and concerns can be worked out along with behavioral changes. Cognitive psychotherapy is the most common type of psychotherapy. This therapy teaches you to identify negative thoughts and behaviors so they can be replaced with positive ones. This changes the way you respond to stressful, undesirable situations, reducing stress and tension in your life. The second treatment option, which could accompany the first, is medication. Types of medications used could include the following:
- Antidepressants: influence the activity of naturally occurring brain chemicals
- Buspirone: anti-anxiety medication used on an ongoing basis
- Benzodiazepines: sedatives for short-term relief of anxiety
Sometimes a simple lifestyle change is all a person needs to overcome anxiety. These changes can include daily exercise, a healthy diet, avoidance of alcohol and other sedatives, relaxation techniques, and an efficient amount of sleep. Vitamin B and folic acid have also been found to relive anxiety by affecting the production of chemicals in the brain.
There are steps that can be taken to help prevent the development of generalized anxiety disorder and other anxiety disorders. Avoiding substance abuse is one way of helping prevent the onset of an anxiety disorder. Getting help early is also key. The more time you have the disorder, the harder it can be to treat. Something as simple as prioritizing your life can also help to avoid adding stress and anxiety to your everyday life.
The Bipolar disorder is an alternate between mania and depression. The bipolar disorder is formerly called manic-depressive disorder.
This is when people get really hyper and excited. People tend to get very talkative, overactive, their mind’s race with what they think are brilliant ideas, they may go on shopping sprees and spend money that is not needed to spend; they may also have very little need for sleep. During this period of mania they may need protection from their own judgment because at this time they can be very reckless.
The depression stage of the bipolar disorder is the low of it. This is when it seems that nothing is going right or can go right for the person.
The Bipolar disorder is very strange because of the way a person mood goes up and down. One day the person can be over excited and the other at a new low and ready to leave the world. The Bipolar disorder is very dysfunctional so if we know someone with this disorder we most remember what goes up must come down.
The cause of bipolar disorder is not entirely known. Genetic, neurochemical and environmental factors probably interact at many levels to play a role in the onset and progression of bipolar disorder. The current thinking is that this is a predominantly biological disorder that occurs in a specific part of the brain and is due to a malfunction of the neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain). As a biological disorder, it may lie dormant and be activated spontaneously or it may be triggered by stressors in life.
Neurochemical Factors in Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is primarily a biological disorder that occurs in a specific area of the brain and is due to the dysfunction of certain neurotransmitters, or chemical messengers, in the brain. These chemicals may involve neurotransmitters like norepinephrine, serotonin and probably many others. As a biological disorder, it may lie dormant and be activated on its own or it may be triggered by external factors such as psychological stress and social circumstances.
Bipolar disorder affects about 2 million people in the United States in any given year. Both men and women are affected at the same rate. There are few risk factors that reliably predict a significant increased likelihood of being diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
Genetics and one’s family history appear to both have some influence over the likelihood of being diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is more common in those who have a sibling or parent with the illness and in families having several generations affected with mood disorders.
In everyday life, people have a variety of moods and feelings. These feelings include frustration, joy and anger. Usually these moods last one day rather than several days. For people with bipolar disorder, however, moods usually swing from weeks of feeling overly “high” and irritable to weeks of feeling sad and hopeless with normal periods in between.
An important distinction between bipolar disorder and the normal emotions of life is that bipolar disorder results in an inability to handle daily activities. The person cannot work or communicate effectively and may have a distorted sense of reality (for example, unrealistically high or low opinion of one’s skills).
Bipolar disorder often is not recognized by the patient, relatives, friends or even physicians. However, recognizing the mood states that occur is essential. Treatment can help a person with bipolar disorder avoid harmful consequences such as destruction of personal relationships, job loss and suicide.
During a manic phase, symptoms include:
• heightened sense of self-importance
• exaggerated positive outlook
• significantly decreased need for sleep
• poor appetite and weight loss
• racing speech, flight of ideas, impulsiveness
• ideas that move quickly from one subject to the next
• poor concentration, easy distractibility
• increased activity level
• excessive involvement in pleasurable activities
• poor financial choices, rash spending sprees
• excessive irritability, aggressive behavior
During a depressed phase, symptoms include:
• feelings of sadness or hopelessness
• loss of interest in pleasurable or usual activities
• difficulty sleeping; early-morning awakening
• loss of energy and constant lethargy
• sense of guilt or low self-esteem
• difficulty concentrating
• negative thoughts about the future
• weight gain or weight loss
• talk of suicide or death
The main method used to diagnose bipolar disorder is a thorough interview with a psychiatrist, psychologist or other mental health professional. Although there are written methods for documenting the severity and number of symptoms, those tests only complement a complete interview. They do not substitute for a face-to-face evaluation by a professional. There are not yet any blood tests or other biological tests that can be used to diagnose bipolar disorder.
By: James Carey (JAY)
& Edward Limo (ED)
Definition: depression with melancholic features' is a subtype of major depression characterized by major depressive disorder with the following specific features: anhedonia (the inability to find pleasure in positive things), severe weight loss, psychomotor agitation or retardation, insomnia with early morning awakenings, guilt. Another feature is diurnal variation, typically with worse symptoms in the morning and improvement at night. Melancholic depression is a particularly severe form of depression. Depression is twice as common in women as it is in men. Major depression is most often genetic. Treatment involves: antidepressants, electroconvulsive therapy, and supportive psychotherapy, as deeper psychotherapy can not be tolerated. The incidence of melancholic depression has been found to increase when the temperature and/or sunlight are low. Roughly 10% of people with depression suffer from melancholic depression. According to DSM-IV the Melancholic features specifier may be applied to the following only:
1. Major depressive episode, single episode
2. Major depressive episode, recurrent episode
3. Bipolar I disorder, most recent episode depressed
4. Bipolar II disorder, most recent episode depressed
Biological factors are believed to be the causes of melancholic type major depression meaning that some may have inherited this disorder from their parents. One trigger cause of melancholic type major depression episodes can be a stressful situation. There are people who are affected by bipolar I and bipolar II disorders that melancholic type major depression is very common in. People with psychotic symptoms are also thought to be more susceptible to this disorder. It is frequent in old age and often unnoticed by some physicians who perceive the symptoms to be a part of dementia. Major Depressive Disorder, melancholic or otherwise, is a separate condition that can be co morbid with dementia in the elderly.
Symptoms Of Depression
Loss of Pleasure
A person must report or exhibit a loss of interest or pleasure in almost all activities. For example, a person may have loved to go camping, but he no longer experiences interest or enjoyment in camping since becoming depressed.
Lack of Reactivity to Pleasant Events
A person with melancholic depression may have difficulty reacting positively to a pleasant event or situation. Their mood may slightly improve in response to something positive, but will likely revert back to her previously depressed mood.
Distinctly Depressed Mood
A person may report or exhibit a depressed mood that is obviously different from his mood when he is not depressed, or when he is sad in response to a situation or event.
A.M. DepressionSymptoms of melancholic depression are typically worse in the morning than at other times of the day. This can be based on self report or observation.
Early Morning Awakening
Early morning awakening is defined as waking up at least two hours before the usual wake-up time. This early awakening is not a result of being awakened by an outside influence (e.g., alarm clock, loud noise, etc.).
Psychomotor Retardation or Agitation
Psychomotor retardation is significantly decreased activity or movements that are much slower than usual. Psychomotor agitation is the opposite—-increased activity or movements that are much faster than usual. These changes can often be observed by other people.
People with melancholic depression may experience significant weight loss that may reach the point of anorexia.
Excessive guilt is characterized by feeling guilt that is an inappropriate response to a situation or event. For example, a person may accidentally dial a wrong number, and feel excessive guilt about doing so that would be more intense or last longer than what is usual in such a situation.
Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression)
Bipolar Disorder, also known as manic depression, is a mood disorder characterized by mood swings, depression, racing thoughts, pressured speech, the need for less speech, along with poor judgement. The disease is diagnosed when a person visits a doctor. The doctor will scan the brain and take blood tests to help rule out other options, and then proceed to do a complete diagnostic evaluation, which include questioning of family history and events that may better help diagnose the patient. Other questions will involve a complete history of symptoms and relatives symptoms and diseases. Bipolar disorder goes hand in hand with other disorders as well. One type is anxiety disorders. It often also coincides with substance abuse and ADHD.
There isn’t just one known cause for bipolar disorder, though scientists do believe it is a combination of several different factors. One factor known to be involved in the development of bipolar disorder is genetics. The disease often is seen running in families. Children with parents or siblings with bipolar disorder are four to six times more likely to also have the disease than those whose family does not have a history of the illness. Though the numbers show the children to be more likely to develop it, this does not guarantee the child will develop it, as most children whose family has a history of the disorder won’t ever develop it. Scientists continue to research genes in order to find genetic evidence of the disorder. Another risk to developing bipolar disorder is the brain structure. Scientists use brain imaging to decipher what occurs in the brain of a person with bipolar disorder. The researchers use new technology to find if there are differences in a person with the illness, and that of a healthy person.
Although there is no cure for bipolar disorders, there are several medications prescribed by psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and other people with an M.D. One type of medication prescribed to help treat the symptoms of bipolar disorders is mood stabilizing medications. These are usually the first choice, as most people react to the medication. They are anticonvulsants, used to treat seizures and act as mood stabilizers. Lithium was the first to be approved by the FDA, and is often effective. Another type of medication used for treating the system of manic depression is anti-depressants, which help with the depression symptoms that come with bipolar disorders. When a person is on an antidepressant, they often use the mood stabilizing medications as well. Along with medication, sometimes psychotherapy is often used. The medications do not reach the social and psychological issues involved in bipolar disorders, while talk therapy has a better chance of assisting in this. The professionals work hand in hand with the psychiatrist working with the patient.
Bipolar disorder is a mental disease that affects moods, depression, and has manic. Although there is no known way to prevent or cure it, scientists have discovered medications that can be taken to help control the symptoms.
Paranoid schizophrenia is one of several types of schizophrenia, it is a chronic mental illness where a person loses touch with reality. The classic features of paranoid schizophrenia are having delusions and hearing things that aren't real.Paranoid schizophrenia sufferers may believe that others can hear their thoughts or control their actions.An individual with paranoid schizophrenia has constant feelings of being watched or persecuted.With paranoid schizophrenia, your ability to think and function in daily life are better than you would with other types of schizophrenia. You may not have as many problems with memory, concentration or dulled emotions. But paranoid schizophrenia is still a serious, lifelong condition that can and most likely will lead to many complications, including suicidal behavior. You can manage your symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia with an effective treatment. And work toward living a happy and healthier life.
The course of paranoid schizophrenia may be episodic, with partial, complete, or chronic remissions. In chronic cases, the symptoms persist over years and it is difficult to distinguish discrete episodes. The onset tends to be later than in the hebephrenic and catatonic forms.Paranoid schizophrenia is not a multiple personality disorder.
People with paranoid schizophrenia are rarely violent, and they can usually function and make life decisions without the help of a guardian. Paranoid schizophrenia can be controlled, but requires ongoing medication, like many other diseases.Paranoid schizophrenia only affects a very small percentage of the population. It usually appears in adolescents and young adults, rarely in childhood.
The cause of paranoid schizophrenia remains unknown, researchers believe that several factors contribute to causing paranoid schizophrenia. Because twins have a high probability of both developing paranoid schizophrenia if one were to have it. Researchers believe there is a genetic cause. Chemical changes in a person's body during puberty are also believed to have an impact, since paranoid schizophrenia most often begins at that point in life. Also severe stress, viral infections and other external factors can also be contributors to having paranoid schizophrenia.
Paranoid schizophrenia is usually treated with a combination of therapies, tailored to the individual's symptoms and needs. Anti-psychotic medications can help reduce hallucinations and disordered thinking, but do not affect the social withdrawal that is common among those with paranoid schizophrenia. People who do not to take their medication even during remission periods can result in a relapse. Another treatment used is psychotherapy, it is used to address the emotional and social issues that result from paranoid schizophrenia. Group therapy can be especially helpful, because it creates opportunities for socialization for individuals with paranoid schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is a disorder that has been medically recognized for about 100 years now, but it has been known about since before Christ. According to Schizophrenia.com, written documents that identify to schizophrenia were traced back to the Pharaonic Egypt and as far back as the second millennium before Christ. Back then, they had exceptionally unorthodox methods for ridding the patient of the symptoms. They did everything from exposing the patient to certain types of music to drilling holes in their skulls to release the evil spirits. Since then though, schizophrenia has become medically recognized, treatment options have changed, and medical professionals are continually gaining a better understanding of the disorder.
Thanks to Dr. Emile Kraepelin, in 1887 schizophrenia was first identified as a discrete mental illness (schizophrenia.com). According to the same source, it’s believed that the illness has accompanied mankind through its history. Schizophrenia is defined in Greek terms as “schizo” meaning split and “phrene” meaning mind. Another major person that helped medical professionals recognize the illness was Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist who actually coined the term schizophrenia in 1911. Among the two men, they subdivided the illness into 5 types: disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, residual, and undifferentiated. Since then, the medical world has identified causes, symptoms, and treatment options for schizophrenia.
According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) there are positive and negative symptoms for schizophrenia. Positive symptoms include: Hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and movement disorders. Hallucinations include the person hearing voices nobody else hears telling them of danger or other things, seeing people or things nobody else sees, or feel fingers on their skin that truly don’t exist. Delusions are defined as false beliefs that are not part of the person’s culture and do not change (NIMH). The person believes delusions even after other people prove that the beliefs are not true or logical. They also have thought disorders which are unusual or dysfunctional ways of thinking. Now this isn’t like your mom being crazy or anything and grounding her kid for no reason. This is where a person can’t organize his/her thoughts and/or can’t connect them logically. The final positive symptom is movement disorders where the person may exhibit agitated body movements or repeat their movements over and over again. The negative symptoms include: lack of pleasure in everyday life, lack of ability to make and maintain plans, and they speak very little if at all. What makes schizophrenia difficult is that these last few symptoms listed can be categorized as depression, so that’s when they take all of the other symptoms into account.
When mental professionals diagnose someone with schizophrenia, they automatically begin treatment. The treatments are referred to as antipsychotic drugs such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and several other drugs. They are intended to treat the symptoms instead of the actual disease, because the actual causes of schizophrenia are still unknown. NIMH claims that most people respond exceptionally well to the treatments as soon as the patient minds the right one. This is a huge leap in the medical field from 30 to 40 years ago where people with mental illnesses were treated horribly. They were thrown into mental hospitals where electroshock therapy was commonly used as well as lobotomies; a lobotomy is a procedure where a doctor would shove a sharp object up through a person’s eye and swirl around their frontal cortex which would immobilize them mentally and physically.
Doctors, psychiatrists, and psychologists now understand that people aren’t just crazy. They realize those people need help both mentally as well as physically and emotionally. Instead of performing experiments on them or ignoring them, medications in pill, liquid, and shot form have been developed to contain the symptoms of schizophrenia.
Types of Schizophrenia
The kinds of symptoms that are utilized to make a diagnosis of schizophrenia differ between affected people and may change from one year to the next within the same person as the disease progresses. Different subtypes of schizophrenia are defined according to the most significant and predominant characteristics present in each person at each point in time. The result is that one person may be diagnosed with different subtypes over the course of his illness.
Schizophrenia: Paranoid Subtype
The defining feature of the paranoid subtype (also known as paranoid schizophrenia) is the presence of auditory hallucinations or prominent delusional thoughts about persecution or conspiracy. However, people with this subtype may be more functional in their ability to work and engage in relationships than people with other subtypes of schizophrenia. The reasons are not entirely clear, but may partly reflect that people suffering from this subtype often do not exhibit symptoms until later in life and have achieved a higher level of functioning before the onset of their illness. People with the paranoid subtype may appear to lead fairly normal lives by successful management of their disorder.
Paranoid schizophrenia is the most common subtype.
People diagnosed with the paranoid subtype may not appear odd or unusual and may not readily discuss the symptoms of their illness. Typically, the hallucinations and delusions revolve around some characteristic theme, and this theme often remains fairly consistent over time. A person’s temperaments and general behaviors often are related to the content of the disturbance of thought. For example, people who believe that they are being persecuted unjustly may be easily angered and become hostile. Often, paranoid schizophrenics will come to the attention of mental health professionals only when there has been some major stress in their life that has caused an increase in their symptoms. At that point, sufferers may recognize the need for outside help or act in a fashion to bring attention to themselves.
Since there may be no observable features, the evaluation requires sufferers to be somewhat open to discussing their thoughts. If there is a significant degree of suspiciousness or paranoia present, people may be very reluctant to discuss these issues with a stranger.
There is a broad spectrum to the nature and severity of symptoms that may be present at any one time. When symptoms are in a phase of exacerbation or worsening, there may be some disorganization of the thought processes. At this time, people may have more trouble than usual remembering recent events, speaking coherently or generally behaving in an organized, rational manner. While these features are more characteristic of other subtypes, they can be present to differing degrees in people with the paranoid subtype, depending upon the current state of their illness. Supportive friends or family members often may be needed at such times to help the symptomatic person get professional help.
Schizophrenia: Disorganized Subtype
As the name implies, this subtype’s predominant feature is disorganization of the thought processes. As a rule, hallucinations and delusions are less pronounced, although there may be some evidence of these symptoms. These people may have significant impairments in their ability to maintain the activities of daily living. Even the more routine tasks, such as dressing, bathing or brushing teeth, can be significantly impaired or lost.
Often, there is impairment in the emotional processes of the individual. For example, these people may appear emotionally unstable, or their emotions may not seem appropriate to the context of the situation. They may fail to show ordinary emotional responses in situations that evoke such responses in healthy people. Mental health professionals refer to this particular symptom as blunted or flat affect. Additionally, these people may have an inappropriately jocular or giddy appearance, as in the case of a patient who chuckles inappropriately through a funeral service or other solemn occasion.
People diagnosed with this subtype also may have significant impairment in their ability to communicate effectively. At times, their speech can become virtually incomprehensible, due to disorganized thinking. In such cases, speech is characterized by problems with the utilization and ordering of words in conversational sentences, rather than with difficulties of enunciation or articulation. In the past, the term hebephrenic has been used to describe this subtype.
Schizophrenia: Catatonic Subtype
The predominant clinical features seen in the catatonic subtype involve disturbances in movement. Affected people may exhibit a dramatic reduction in activity, to the point that voluntary movement stops, as in catatonic stupor. Alternatively, activity can dramatically increase, a state known as catatonic excitement.
Other disturbances of movement can be present with this subtype. Actions that appear relatively purposeless but are repetitively performed, also known as stereotypic behavior, may occur, often to the exclusion of involvement in any productive activity.
Patients may exhibit an immobility or resistance to any attempt to change how they appear. They may maintain a pose in which someone places them, sometimes for extended periods of time. This symptom sometimes is referred to as waxy flexibility. Some patients show considerable physical strength in resistance to repositioning attempts, even though they appear to be uncomfortable to most people.
Affected people may voluntarily assume unusual body positions, or manifest unusual facial contortions or limb movements. This set of symptoms sometimes is confused with another disorder called tardive dyskinesia, which mimics some of these same, odd behaviors. Other symptoms associated with the catatonic subtype include an almost parrot-like repeating of what another person is saying (echolalia) or mimicking the movements of another person (echopraxia). Echolalia and echopraxia also are seen in Tourette’s Syndrome.
Schizophrenia: Undifferentiated Subtype
The undifferentiated subtype is diagnosed when people have symptoms of schizophrenia that are not sufficiently formed or specific enough to permit classification of the illness into one of the other subtypes.
The symptoms of any one person can fluctuate at different points in time, resulting in uncertainty as to the correct subtype classification. Other people will exhibit symptoms that are remarkably stable over time but still may not fit one of the typical subtype pictures. In either instance, diagnosis of the undifferentiated subtype may best describe the mixed clinical syndrome.
Schizophrenia: Residual Subtype
This subtype is diagnosed when the patient no longer displays prominent symptoms. In such cases, the schizophrenic symptoms generally have lessened in severity. Hallucinations, delusions or idiosyncratic behaviors may still be present, but their manifestations are significantly diminished in comparison to the acute phase of the illness.
Just as the symptoms of schizophrenia are diverse, so are its ramifications. Different kinds of impairment affect each patient’s life to varying degrees. Some people require custodial care in state institutions, while others are gainfully employed and can maintain an active family life. However, the majority of patients are at neither of these extremes. Most will have a waxing and waning course marked with some hospitalizations and some assistance from outside support sources.
People having a higher level of functioning before the start of their illness typically have a better outcome. In general, better outcomes are associated with brief episodes of symptoms worsening followed by a return to normal functioning. Women have a better prognosis for higher functioning than men, as do patients with no apparent structural abnormalities of the brain.
In contrast, a poorer prognosis is indicated by a gradual or insidious onset, beginning in childhood or adolescence; structural brain abnormalities, as seen on imaging studies; and failure to return to prior levels of functioning after acute episodes
Medications for Schizophrenia
One of the medications that are commonly used for schizophrenia is clozapine. If you are diabetic, problems with reproduction, bladder, or have had any surgery this includes dental surgery. Some of the symptoms you need to watch out for taking clozapine are: extreme thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, and blurred vision. Further, you are more likely to become diabetic or hyperglycemic. Hyperglycemic means that you have high blood sugar. Clozapine can cause a condition called ketoacidosis, this only happen if you are miss using the medication. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening condition. Do not mix this with alcohol, tobacco or any other medications. Doing this could either cancel out your medication or make it do other problems that you do not want. Clozapine will not cure schizophrenia and it will take a couple weeks before getting the full affect. It is kind of a last resort when it comes to schizophrenia. The doctors only give it to you if none of the other medication works. They will also give it to you if you have tried to hurt or kill yourself or other. Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic to try and change the activity in the certain natural substances of the brain. When you take the medicine orally one to three times a day, make sure to take it as told and to take it about the same time everyday. The pill dissolves very fast with a little amount of moisture, so when you start taking clozapine keep it in a dry place. Also you need to take it out of the container and put it in your mouth because your fingers and hands have moisture. They will decrease your dosage gradually.
Another medication use for schizophrenia is olazapine. This is also known as Zyprexa. It is mainly used for people over the age of thirteen. Olanzapine is not only used for schizophrenia. They also try and use the medication for Bipolar disorders, anorexia nervosa, bipolar and OCD. This is another atypical antipsychotic just like clozapine. You take this pill orally and they will start out with smaller doses and increase them gradually. If you miss a dose don’t take two pills for it, just skip that pill. It is important to let your doctor know if you have ever taken any street drugs or overused prescriptions. If you have ever had a stroke, heart problems, seizures, cancer, high or low blood pressure or high blood sugar, tell your doctor. When you take the medicine and have any of these symptoms it may cause sever vomiting or diarrhea. Furthermore, it will cause drowsiness and it will make it harder to cool down if you are hot. In addition to that, the drug will cause headache, restlessness, and dry mouth or increase saliva. Talk to your doctor right away if you have shaky hands, seizure, bladder problems, change of vision, fever confusion, sore throat or unusual bleeding or bruising. Moreover, drink lots of water and possible grapefruit juice, and make sure to talk to your doctor about that.
Dermatillomania; Origin Greek:
Derma - skin
Till - pull
Mania - madness
Dermatillomania is an Anxiety Disorder that can be caused by emotional and physical stress, as well as an impulsion to “fix” oneself, when they are bored, or it can also be hereditary. Many people just start out picking as a way to improve their skin or get rid of a pimple, but over time it can form into an unstoppable habit. There are not a lot of known causes to why people who suffer from Dermatillomania compulsively pick at their skin but there are a few theories why. One theory is that the person who has CSP (Compulsive Skin Picking) may have been bullied by a parent, friend, or peer. As a result of the bullying it may have caused the person’s own personal space to shrink, sometimes as close as their own body. The person begins to pick as an anxious way of telling themselves that they are in control of their body, they often do this when they are alone so no one can stop them. Some people even describe the feeling of picking to be a self-stimulating experience, almost giving them the sensation a roller coaster or a piece of chocolate could give you or me. After the person gets done picking however, he or she may feel regret or remorse. Another theory is the person suffering from CSP underwent a traumatic experience early in life and harbored that anger, depression, or fear from that experience into self-affliction. The third theory is that Dermatillomania spawns from other forms of disorders like Depression, Schizophrenia, and Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The last theory is that it is hereditary and passed down through generations. Sometimes two sisters can feel the same need to pick at their skin or a father and son who have holes in their backs and arms from CSP. There are no real medications for this disorder, the only way a person can get over this is to restrain them from picking and receive counseling.
Symptoms of Dermatillomania
1. Face Picking: 17 million Americans suffer from Facial Picking. 4% of which are college students. Many times face picking starts in the adolescent years, teens try so hard to make their face perfect by getting rid of any little imperfection that they only make it worse.
2. Scalp Picking: The act of picking the scalp skin on the head. Often plucking hair in a certain spot till bald.
3. Acne Excoriee (Pickers Acne): Picking at gaping open sores on the face. Infection can set in making the hole bigger and bigger.
4. Lip Picking: May be a cause after extreme sun, cold, or fever. In many OCD patients the overwhelming urge to pick trumps the guarantee of pain.
5. Nail and Cuticle Picking: When faced with a hang nail or a dry piece of skin the person with CSP will bite the nail and the cuticle until it bleeds. This affects the toes in many people with CSP as well.
6. Picking Scabs: Common symptom of scab picking is eating a scab after picking. Many people with CSP find this comforting even though painful and disgusting to the rest of the world.
7. Nose Picking: Everyone both men and women pick their noses from time to time, however people suffering from CSP who don’t give their noses time to heal can get an infection. The nose shares the same blood supply as the brain so compulsory pickers who have an infection in the nose can potentially get an infection in their brain.
8. Other symptoms include an intense urge to pick before and a sense of relief after picking, anxiety, obsessive thoughts about picking, and even panic attacks.
If you or someone you know may be suffering from any of these symptoms they may have Dermatillomania or CSP (Compulsive Skin Picking). There are treatment centers and books about this topic if you are interested in hearing stories about people who suffer from this Compulsory Disorder or learning more about it.
by: Johnathan Carrasco & Mackenzie Wilson
Tourette syndrome is called TS, it is a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, stereotyped, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. The order was named after Dr. Georges Gilles de la Tourette, he was a French neurologist who in 1885 first described the condition in an 86-year-old French noblewoman. The symptoms of Tourette syndrome were first noticed in early childhood between 3 and 9. Tourette Syndrome occurs in people from all ethnic groups; males are affected about three to four times more often than females. Estimations show that 200,000 Americans have the most severe forms of Tourette Syndrome, and as many as one in 100 exhibit milder and less complex symptoms such as chronic motor or vocal tics. Tourette syndrome can be lifetime, but people with this condition experience their worst tic symptoms in early childhood or as a young teen.
Tics are classified into two groups, simple and complex, simple tics are sudden, brief, repetitive movements that involve a limited number of muscle groups. Some of the other common simple tics are eye blinking and other eye movements, facial grimacing, shoulder shrugging, and head or shoulder jerking, simple vocalizations might include repetitive throat-clearing, sniffing, or grunting sounds. Complex tics are very distinct; they are patterns of movements that involve several muscular groups. Other complex tics include facial grimacing combined with a head twist and a shoulder shrug, complex tics may actually appear purposeful, including sniffing or touching objects, hopping, jumping, bending, or twisting. The most dramatic and disabling tics include movements, like punching oneself, or using curse words. Tics are worse when excited, anxiety, mad, or any emotions; tics are better when calm. Some other things trigger tics, like tightening of shirt collars, cause neck tics to go off or hearing another person sniff or clear their throat may trigger similar sounds. Tics also do not go away during sleep, they just sort of diminish.
Tics come and go over time they vary in type, frequency, location and severity. The first symptom occurs in the head and neck area, then in the muscles. Some people with tics can manage to minimize the impact of functioning and hide their minor tics. Another type of people cannot help their tics and the build-up tension makes them express their tic against their will. Tourette syndrome is unknown; it’s cause by abnormalities in certain brain regions. Many people with Tourette syndrome face a lot of difficulties as of reading, writing, and arithmetic; and obsessive-compulsive symptoms such as intrusive thoughts and worries and repetitive behaviors. Tourette Syndrome is diagnosed after a patient has had recorded tics for a year. Common tics are easy to diagnose, to diagnose these symptoms there is no blood, laboratory test or MRI to diagnose Tourette Syndrome. There are rare cases of Tourette Syndrome that may need test and blood work done.
Tourette Syndrome has no medication that can be taken to help with the tics for most patients with this syndrome, because it does not cause impairment, but people that have trouble functioning can take medication.
Why Do People Get Tourette syndrome?
Tourette syndrome is probably, in part, a genetic condition, which means that a person inherits it from his or her parents. Tourette syndrome is not contagious. You cannot catch it from someone who has it. Doctors and scientists don't know the exact cause, but some research points to a problem with how nerves communicate in the brain. Neurotransmitters may play a role in it too because the chemicals in the brain that carry nerve signals from cell to cell.