- Digital Stories Fall 2015
- Digital Stories Spring 2015
- ethnographic analysis & cultural traditions
- ethnography, fieldwork, and participant observation
- cultural variation and similarity
- cultural change and continuity
- cultural systems
- holism: concepts of culture
- holism: concepts of culture
Anthropologists have studied humankind all over the world for hundreds of years. Even before the scientific studies of humankind began people were curious about other peoples around them. Travel is quite an educator. Anthropologists' fieldwork has been instrumental in helping us see ourselves from worldwide perspectives.
Dr. Linda Davis-Stephens, Instructor
Student Digital Storytelling
Your posted work here is a personal, virtual reflection on topics in the world of today and/or the past/future. Your posted work will be public, indefinitely, on the internet.
There are quides to digital storytelling online at places like
If you need help using Windows Movie Maker this is a good tutorial:
Include your name and people in your group below here with your production.
Next student post here
Maria De La Cruz
Savanna Sullivant and Shelbie Huddleston
Dolvine Serem and Trizer Wangari
Kelsey Wilson and Catherine Bonhomme
Sheldon Nelson and Brian Wood
Deja Cato, Amanda Miller, Jetta Smith, Deandra Williams
Weston's Digital Story:
Desmond Major and Jahrod Henderson
What Makes The Classroom American?
In class we were able to go to the Prairie Museum and tour the old schoolhouse. It was a great experience because it opened my eyes as to how they did things back then. I noticed they studied a lot of American history books. They learned reading, writing, and arithmetic in the English language. I noticed that the class sizes were smaller, and they had a stove in the middle of the room to keep them warm. So this was an American classroom in the early 1900’s. What makes our classrooms distinct to the United States of America?
One thing we need to understand is that The United States is very diverse. Especially today! In a classroom in America there could easily be different nationalities represented. Also, In the United States we have the freedom of speech. Students can share their opinion, and in many different countries like China, they do not have this privilege. In the U.S. religion and the state are separate, so a person wouldn’t see religious practices like prayer happening in the classroom. In the United States we see all of the social classes represented, meaning there is poor kids, rich kids, and middle-class kids. In other societies it would be common to only see the rich kids at school, because only they can afford it. We have a very diverse culture in the United States. We study all types of curriculum, we speak English, and school is mandated. It is definitely different than other cultures and countries worldwide.
Cultural variation and similarity
Growing up in a small town in Kansas many kids would go out for sports. As I grew up in Colby I found that one of the best ways to spend your time was participating in sports. Most of the kids in town and even most of the kids that lived on farms would go out. Now you have to ask yourself why so many people would want to spend all that time and effort in something like sports. I believe there are many different reasons.
First, it’s a great way to meet new friends, and build a brotherhood that could stand the test of time. Second, it’s a great way to build a long list of skills that will help you become a better person, and a better leader in the future. Third, many kids can showcase their skills and eventually earn a scholarship to further continue their education. Forth, once the athlete is playing for a college, if good enough they could possibly make a lot of money in their professional sport.
Next, you might be asking yourself how sports is related to cultural variation and similarity. I think that most of the people that play against each other come from all different kinds of backgrounds, and all different parts of the world. Many people that play on a team together will end up becoming very close to each other when if they hadn’t participated together them might not of even known each other.
Sports are much more than just some people playing some silly game. For a lot of those athletes it’s pretty much their whole life. Not because they are forced to, but because they love their sport, and they love what they do. There are many different sporting events out there among the whole world, so it’s a great way to bring millions and millions of people together. When I say together in not just talking about in one place at a certain time. I’m talking about how a game could emotionally and spiritually bring people together on a whole another level.
You don’t even have to be an athlete to enjoy sports. Many people will come together and root on their favorite team as hard as they can, and have a ton of fun doing so. All of this may seem a little far out there but it’s seriously one of the best ways to bring many people from vast different cultures and corners of the earth. It doesn’t matter what color you are, or what religion you worship or what your background is. Participating in a sport is the best way for many unlikely people to come together as one.
History traditions culture and beliefs of the maasai
The Masai People have a reputation of being fierce warriors. Warriorhood prepares the young males to be responsible people both for themselves and for their community. Known for their bravery and courage, typically the Masai warriors are never seen without their sharply honed spears. They protect the homestead, maintain water sources for the community, and protect the livestock from wild animals and theft. It is true that when they surrounded a marauding lion, they crossed on it and speared it to death.Their nomadic way of life led to no attachments to possessions, and togetherness banded by the age sets of those who underwent circumcision ritual together. When a young man reaches junior adulthood he has the freedom to have sex with the wives of other elders, his comrades, if he so wishes. Likewise, a Masai woman belongs to the entire age-set and sexual jealousy does not exist.
leadership: The community has its own way of organization whereby the elder men are at the top of the hierarchy, then elder women, morans and finally the girls. Passage from one age set from the Moran to young adult is marked by slaughtering of a cow as an offering to the Gods. They have a ‘council of elders", which makes decisions as to which tribe will graze where and when, to avoid over-grazing and the destruction of the land.Masai women are in charge of taking care of the entire home which includes milking cows, fetching water and firewood, preparing food for the entire family, repairing their homes, milking the cows and tending their small children. Children are taught to respect their elders, and they quickly learn the ways of Masai family life. Young girls are taught to care for domestic duties and boys are instructed in the care and protection of livestockFor centuries they have continued to believe that all the cattle in the world belong to them and were given to them by Enkai, the God. This belief stems from the legend that in the beginning God had three sons and that to each he gave one gift. The first son received an arrow for hunting, the second received a hoe for cultivating, and the third son received a stick for herding cattle. This last son, it is said, became the father of the Masai nation. A fact that has been a source of trouble with other neighboring communities by generating inter-tribal conflicts. The young Masai morans (warrior) job is to protect the cattle of their fathers and to capture those of other communities, because in their folklore God gave them all the cattle. In the Masai community, the size of a man's herd and the number of his children determine his status and importance. The very survival of the Masai depends upon the health and strength of their herds. Family members bond emotionally with their cattle. Cattle are often branded and marked with long curving lines and intricate patterns that are designed to enhance the animal's beauty. Songs are sung describing physical beauty of certain herd and affection for them. Large curved-horned bulls are specially prized, and a young calf is tenderly cared for and fussed over as though it were a newborn child.
Rarely do the Masai slaughter their cattle for food instead sheep and goats are commonly kept for eating. When one of the cattle is killed, every part of the animal is utilized. Horns are used for containers; hooves and bones are fashion.
kenya in formation guide, the maasai.
kivulini safaris, travel to Africa.
The newyork times through the eyes of the maasai
The Anasazi were a group of Native Americans that lived in the American southwest from 100 B.C. to 1300 A.D. They lived and farmed in the four corners region; Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. The houses that the Anasazi lived in were multistory buildings called pueblos. Pueblos were made of adobe a mixture of sand and straw that is dried into bricks. Many of these pueblos were built in canons and on the tops of high mesas. The Kiva, a congregational space that was used for ceremonial purposes was unique to the Anasazi civilization. This is a hole in the ground with an adobe top many times set up in a celestial way. Today you can visit many parks that have these interesting buildings, a few are Mesa Verde in Colorado and Pueblo Bonito or "Beautiful Town" in New Mexico.
The Anasazi learned to farm in the arid dry land of the American Southwest. They planted corn, bean, and squash seeds deep in the dry soil so there crop would receive the most water it could. Anasazi also stored water in holes and ditches to use during droughts. They had a complex system for terracing, irrigation, and gridding. Along with their knowledge of storing water and farming the Anasazi were able to store crops during a drought that would last for two years. The Anasazi are well known for their basket weaving and pottery. They made baskets from tightly coiled plant fibers and shaped their baskets into a wide array of shapes and sizes. There pottery incorporated elaborate designs, texture, and patterns.
Besides the Anasazi’s architecture, farming innovations, and pottery the Anasazi leave behind a mystery. Around 1300 well before Columbus sailed in to the Americas, the Anasazi civilization was fading away. Explorers and American ranchers stumbled upon untouched sites what were once bustling towns and villages. There were pots, baskets, and other Artifacts left behind, as if the people just vanished in to thin air. Archeologist and others that have studied the Anasazi are not sure how or why the civilization began to deteriorate. Many Archeologists believe that a combination of drought overpopulation, depleted resources and discredited political and religious leadership to be the cause of the disappearance of the Anasazi.
The Maasai of Kenya
This is a Nilotic community in Kenya mainly living in the Kenyan plains, they are majorly nomadic pastoralists who keep moving from one place to another place in search of pasture for their livestock. Its one community that still values its culture with their clothing, the shuka which is what men wrap themselves around their waist and on the upper part of their bodies. It’s a community that still has the tribal warriors also known as the morans who are selected according to their age groups and age sets.
In this community the women are left home as the men go out tho fend for the family and also look after the livestock which are always in large numbers. The ladies mainly help in the construction of the houses which are made of mud and trees which act as the pillars building houses known as the manyattas.
The main food to this community is the game meat and that from their livestock, also the blood from their animals. They were also ruled by the tribal king the Oloibon where it’s hereditary from within a single family that rules over the whole community.
Tribes before Columbus; 1492
As many too few knew that there were tons of tribes that existed in the 1400 century. The tribes in America before that was it called, had numbers of tribes known as Southeast, Mid Atlantic/ Northeast, Great Lakes, Great Plains, California/ Great Basin, Northwest/Plateau, Southwest. Specifically speaking on the area of the Great Plains, many people are unaware of the multiple that derived from the state of Kansas and even further. The Wichita Tribe; ranged for the Arkansas River, Kansas, and southward toward to the Brazos River. They called themselves Kitikiti'sh (Kirikirish), which is of uncertain meaning, but probably implies preeminent men. By the Sioux, they were known as the "Black Pawnee," to French traders, "Tattooed Pawnee," and to the Kiowa and Comanche by names meaning "Tattooed Faces." Living establishments showed them that they’re highly resourceful in the agricultural area as well as being efficient inactively. Their permanent living habitations were very cone shaped with a diameter from 30 to 50 feet, with the major structure were made out of stout poles overlaid with grass thatch (a roof covering of straw, reeds, palm leaves, or a similar material.), which had the appearance of a haystack. The Wichita were gradually forced westward and southward by the inroads of the Osage and the Chickasaw Indians to locations on the upper Red and Brazos Rivers where they were first known to American settlers.
WHAT MAKES US HUMANS
Are humans really biologically and socially different from the rest of the created world?
are there definitive characteristics that separate from other forms of life, or are humans
simply an improvement on the body plans of other animals, the result of random processes
that have accrued over millions of years? The answers to these questions may seem obvious
to a Christian, but defining what characteristics separate man from the animals that closely
resemble him, such as chimpanzees and gorillas, still has not been completely resolved by
secular science. Is this an answer that can be derived by studying the physical and biological
creation, or can it only be understood in light of Biblical truth? There have been many
attempts to answer these questions. Paleontologist have identified many features unique to
human skeletons, enabling them to distinguish between human ape fossils. For example,
apes and man share the same tooth pattern in their jaws, two incisors, one canine, two
premolars, and three molars. But the tooth bearing mandible in humans is smaller in relation
to the skull and V-shaped, while that of an ape, providing support for the abdominal organs
as as result of the constant upright position of humans. But these skeletal qualities cant fully
define 'What makes us human." They only describe some of the attributes of the "vessel" that
"house" a human. Anthropologists have looked for cultural evidence to identify and describe
human remains and help determine"what makes us human." Humans have been described as
tool users, once through to be a quality unique from all other animals. However, extensive
studies over the years by many researchers has identified tool use by chimpanzees, and
more recently gorillas, indicating that use of crude tool, such as a rock, to crack open shell
fish. The use of fire and burying the dead are also cited as evidence of what makes us human.
it certainly could be argued that using fire and evidence of burials are unique to humans, but
these activities result from spiritual nature within humans. Fire use and religion do not fully explain what makes us human.
Currently, molecular geneticists have taken their turn at defining a human based on DNA
sequence differences between humans and apes. The arrangement, sequence, and expression
level our DNA provide valuable information of what makes a human unique from other
created kinds, including the skeletal feature and behavioral differences mentioned above.
Man was created to serve. Human ambition for the purpose of serving oneself certainly
cannot provide anyone with the fulfillment they are seeking. There are many examples of
people who became famous and wealthy, only to find there is no fulfillment in personal
ambition. The resulting disappointment in reaching personal goals and not finding
fulfillment them frequently leads to that individual's despair or eventual suicide. King
Solomon, in the book of Ecclesiastes, described human ambition as vanity and a chasing after
the wind, concluding that man's only duty was to fear God and keep His commandments.
Certainly, a life spent not functioning as it was designed to leads only to frustration and
misery. The role for man as a servant can be seen from the beginning of his creation. Adam
was created and placed in the Garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. The first recorded
task placed was given to serve his creator by caring for the garden that He planted.
Unfortunately, Adam and Eve made the wrong choice and all their descendants have followed.
Ultimately, what makes us human is the choice we make about the spiritual disaster in our
lives. Do we accept the gift of salvation and experience the peace of God, or do we reject the
gift and experience the consequence of spiritual death. What makes us human is our incomprehensible value to God.
Trizer Wangari and Dolvine Serem
The Kenyan Bantus
The Bantus are single largest population division in Kenya. The term Bantu denotes widely dispersed but related people that speak the same language is south Niger, Congo. The language is originally from west central Africa. the Bantus migration stared happening in 1000 B.C and started to migrate to the south and east Africa for economic reasons. They migrated to areas around the Congo River and beyond many Bantus lived in many small villages and towns. The Bantus group include the kikuyu the kamba the kisii the mijikenda the luhya and the meru. The Bantus occupies 70% of the country and also occupies on the most fertile area which are on the foot of the highest mountain in Kenya which is Mount Kenya and the central highlands. Bantus believed in a single supreme god who created and ruled an orderly universe. People followed social rules were abundant harvest and the birth healthy children. Those who violated traditional were punished with accidents, crops failure or illness. The supreme god were many lesser dieter who influenced the daily affairs of men and women. They believed in life after death and think that ghost go on living only as long as people remember them. People pray or offer sacrifice to the gods or to the spirits to gain things such as good heath or fertile land.
They were people who were trying to get food, they were hunters and gatherers and were called Bushmen because they lived in wet forests. They lived in fertile regions where the population grew with the aid of very productive crops especially bananas plantation. They were also farmers who grew bananas, Asian yams coffee and tea. They sold the crops produce to traders which they traded with gold and ivory. Traditionally, the Bantus husbands could marry more than one wife if he could afford to care for them. Paying dowry in terms of cattle’s, sheep and goats to the family. They also had economic activitis such as trading hunting or cattle herding. The woman works on the land and it was given to her when she joined the husband household. She supplies the bulk of the food consumed by her family she grew maize, millet, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, beans, pigeon peas green, arrow roots and cassava. Traditionally it was the mother’s role to raise the children. Grandparents helped with the less strainuous chores around the home such as rope making, training leather, cleaning calabash and making arrows. Older women continued to work on the land as their source of food independence and economic security. Some Bantus like Kamba naming of the children was an important aspect of culture. Children were named after a time or events of surrounding their birth for example (mutuku) means a boy child born at night while (duku) means a girl child born also at night. Circumcision was widespread in the Bantus speakers and it was usually performed annually on groups of youth approaching adolescences and even to this days circumcision is still practiced. During that time of circumcision the group is isolated in the bush apart from villagers and women. Novices are stripped, shaved, bathed, and sometimes marked with ashes. During the week of recovery the novice are hazed by older circumcised youths or by elders. When it comes to food, marriage ceremony and everyday family life the bantu's uphold their culture.
Maria De La Cruz
Anthropology Fall 2015
The Mayans were Indians that settled across what are now Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize, and Mexico. It is not known when they first settled, but it is believed it was as early as 1,000 BC and continued to 1,000 AD after which they strangely disappeared. The Mayans were nomads at first, but after a while they began to build permanent buildings, and settle according to where crops would grow. They grew crops like corn, beans, squash, and manioc. Because they had permanently settled in an area, they began to make tools that would make their work easier. Pottery, grinding utensils, arrowheads, and axes are just a few examples of the tools they invented. The invention of these tools made others want to settle down as well, it is believed that Maya population could have reached up to 2,000,000 people. They also began to build plazas, temples, pyramids, and even recreational areas. They also began to record everything they did, what they saw, and what they believed in through hieroglyphics. The Mayans are very popular for having invented a way to keep time, if you remember just a few years ago it was believed the world was going to end because the Mayan calendar had reached its final days. The Mayans were able to accomplish this because they worshiped the sun and moon, and made sure to keep track of their movements. They kept track by carving in stone, but they soon found a way to make paper from tree bark and began to write books. Only four of the books written by the Mayans are still around, it is believed the others were burned and destroyed by the Spanish. There are many theories as to how the Mayan civilization collapsed, including the Spanish Conquest, malnutrition, disease, and a change in climate.
Cultural anthropologists conduct their studies by analyzing the world's cultures and societies. They gather information about a culture's lifestyle in their natural environment to determine a society’s differences and similarities. Gradually, anthropologists started to progress to the physical study in the field, collecting their information hands on, rather than doing their research comfortably in their own home through reading. They visit different places all around the world and have to live there as though they are a member of the civilization themselves. They strive to build trust with other members from the inside to collect more effective and accurate research on their beliefs, kinship systems, social/political organizations, and/or economy’s. It is important to respect people’s culture and to learn as much as you can to “fit in” for the time being. By understanding cultures we may be able to deal more effectively when encountering people of different cultures.
Some anthropologists may find artifacts that could lead to understanding the history of a civilization, sort of like that of an archeologist. Along with artifacts, an archaeologist would also analyze a cultures' inscriptions, monuments, and things like that. Excavating material remains from the past help answer questions we have that can’t be answered through anthropology, being that anthropology requires you to research and understand present day events. If an artifact like a stone tool would explain how a civilization would make it through the day in the past, therefore enlightening us of their culture. Unlike anthropologists, archaeologists ask questions: Where did they migrate from? How did they get here? At the end of the day, the goal for both and anthropologist and an archaeologist is to understand the origin, development, and behavior of human beings from different areas of the world.
Kelsey Wilson, Catherine Bonhomme
Ethnology vs Ethnography
Ethnology is the study of characteristic of various peoples and the differences and relationships between them. A lot of people also use it for the scientific description of the customs of individual peoples and cultures. Ethnography and ethnology both are natural sciences that deal with the study of the natural history of man. This field of study is commonly known as anthropology. Although ethnography and ethnology are similar because they both study groups of people, they still have fundamental differences. The expert in the subject of ethnography is called by the name of ethnographer. On the other hand, the expert in the subject of ethnology is called by the name of ethnologist. Ethnography’s sphere of study incorporates the use of descriptive details and the analysis of a society. It includes a description of things like the marriage and burial procedures. While Ethnology, on the other hand, employs rational exposition in explaining human aggregates and organizations such as, tribes and nations. Also an ethnographer studies in detail the various tribes and the various customs that prevail among them. An ethnologist takes a review of the beliefs, myths and institutions that are common to or are different from the other part of the world and studies them However, an ethnologist takes a review of the superstitions, beliefs, myths and institutions that are common to or different from the other cultures. The ethnologist involves himself in a study of the human tribes. An ethnographer is more interested in unearthing what is common in terms of the principles of the various societies or tribes of the world. An ethnologist studies a given society and does his best to come up with a theory of how a society works. This is another difference between ethnology and ethnography.
One may ask, what is culture? According to the online Oxford Dictionary culture is "The custom, arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular nation, people, or other social group." I am from the Bahamas and my culture serves as a very important part of the person I am today. The customs and artwork involved in Junkanoo, the food we have and the Dialect we speak in the Bahamas all represent the different aspects of my culture.
Junkanoo is one of the most popular events that happens in the Bahamas. It only happens during the summer months for tourist called "Goombay." Then for Boxing Day, which is the day after Christmas, and for New Years day the Junkanoo festival is one of the highlights of the holidays. There are over twenty different groups that participate in the Junkanoo festival. These groups comprise of over 8,000 residents of the Bahamas. It is a competition of who can make the most extravagant, and well put together group of the year. The groups battle from 12 a.m to nearly 3 p.m on the 26th of December each year. And the overall winner of best music, best costumes, and best lead piece is the winner of the whole festival. This group gains bragging rights for the next week in a half and then for New Year's Festival whoever won would gain bragging right for the rest of the year. Another important element of our culture is the food we eat.
Bahamian food is always highly season and cooked until completely done. That's how I distinguish my country's food from many others. Our diet consist of mostly meat and seafood. The main meats we eat are chicken, pork, goat meat, and beef. Then we eat all sorts of seafood such as dolphin, lobster, snappers, craw fish, conch, and salmon. The foods we eat can be cooked in any formed from fried, to roasted, to scotched, and grilled. Our foods are very distinct and take very much skill and repetition to prepare. Some significant food that a tourist would try are the scotched conch, which is a mollusk that is prepared in a certain wait called scotching. Also our pea and rice, which is brown rice season and had peas in it. Lastly one of the hardest dishes to explain is souse, which is sort of like a soup, but not really, it is boiled meat of your choice mixed in with onions and other vegetable. The souse usually comes with Johnny bread. Johnny bread is just regular bread.
When I am speaking people always ask what language I am speaking, or if in the Bahamas we speak a different language. The answer is no. As a Bahamian I have a very thick accent, and we speak very fast. In the Bahamas we do speak in a different dialect though. One may ask what is a Dialect? According to google a dialect is "a particular form of a language that is peculiar to a specific region or social group." So a more informal way of defining a Dialect is just like the Queen's English and American English. Its all English, yet spoken a bit differently. We used words such as "bey" which means boy and "bright" which means light complexion. It's still English, but we just have a different meanings for certain word. Lastly as a Bahamian we speak quite fast. So all of the elements of how we speak combined make it harder for non- Bahamians to understand what we are saying.
Mallory Kern, Alicia Arizmendis
Nature vs Nurture
Nature vs Nurture is one of the oldest arguments in the history of psychology. It is an everlasting debate trying to understand whether or not your personality comes from your DNA or from environmental influences. Nature plays a huge role in different traits that we have such as hair color, eye color, and height. The big question is does it play a role in the becoming of our personalities? The answer still ceases to exist. Some might say that it is because of a mother or father’s personality that a child acts the same way. Meaning it in DNA perspective kind of way. This could be because of how they were raised also, which would lead us to nurture. Nurture theory is based upon the fact that we were raised to act the way that we act. It is also by the things we are introduced to in our environment. If a child was to hang out with a child that was more rebellious, then that other child would probably slowly become more and more rebellious as time continues. Other people play a huge role in how we act. Some people might even start dressing like others or do their hair like others just to seem like they could be “cool” or “popular.” These debates will continue to go on in our lifetime. Either way, both play a huge role in how we live.
Elderly Aging, Independence to Death
- Gary Stewart
The transition that all of us go through as adults can be a difficult one.
Independent Elderly Adults from and enjoying retirement, keeping busy with exercise, traveling and enjoying the time with there family.
Loss of independence occurs as people age, as they suffer physical, social or emotional setbacks which prevent them from functioning independently. The key to this loss of independence is how easy people find to accept help
What kind of loss of independence do the elderly experience?
Physical and Mental Losses
These can include:
• Forgetting appointments and day-to-day tasks
• Having difficulty climbing stairs or getting in and out of the bath
• Unable to open jars
• No longer able to walk long distances
• Vision problems
• Less control over emotions
• Less physical energy
• Less flexibility
• Hearing problems
• Less ability to move easily
• Memory problems
• Lower levels of stamina
Often hearing loss, poor vision or reduced mobility can have a significant impact on the rest of an older person’s life.
• Going out to eat
• Playing sport
• Going to parties
• Visiting places
As a result, it is harder to see friends and friendships can begin to fade.
• Loss of independence can create tremendous frustration, feelings of uselessness, and sadness, due to a sense of loss of control in one’s life.
Typical reactions to loss of independence
Reactions are often complicated. These can include:
• Fear Some people become frightened by their new vulnerability, wondering how they will manage on their own. Overwhelmed, they begin to expect close friends and family to be always available for them and become overly dependent
• Anger. Others feel angry that they can no longer manage on their own and may take their anger out on their loved ones
• Guilt. Others feel guilty and refuse help from family and friends, because they think they will be a burden
• Confusion. It is not uncommon for people to feel confused about needing help and long for “what was"
Look at Change Realistically
Sudden Illness and needing assistance with ADL's, Preparing Meals and Medications is usually the beginning signs of needing assistance.
As with anything in life, the discrepancy between what one expects and what actually exists can be a set up for disappointment and frustration. It is therefore important to realistically look at changes which may occur and which may be experienced as losses from life as it was.
To begin with, the aging process brings physical change. Older adults may not feel or look as well as they did. There may be a general slowing down of activity level and cognitive speed. There are also specific losses – of vision, hearing, movement, and memory. Seniors can still do the same things but it can take longer. The changes though, can impact on mobility in terms of going places, driving and pursuing activities.
There are also changes in identity and roles, which accompany retirement. Our jobs typically define much of our identity. Retirement from a job can create a gap and affect self-esteem. It is also not uncommon that seniors are faced with necessary changes in their living situation. Health and safety issues may necessitate a move from a place that was home for many years. There is then a loss of the familiar, of neighbors, of possessions, of a place of worship, and so on. Transitions and losses associated with moving can echo and intensify earlier losses of friends and family through death or through their also moving away.
In addition to the role change that occurs with retirement from a job, gradually, over time, there is a role change that occurs with seniors vis-a-vis their children. Children of adult seniors may begin to take over responsibilities for finances, physical well being, getting places and so forth. Neither senior parents nor their adult children find this role reversal comfortable. For seniors, giving up decision-making and choice is an affront to their self-esteem. For adult children, it may be embarrassing and arouse anxiety to see their parent as dependent and vulnerable. It is a sensitive issue – to know how much to take over and what to leave in the province of a senior parent. For adult children there is also the challenge of balancing their own lives, families, careers and social needs with that of their aging parent. If not handled well, the issue can lead to tension frustration and conflict between adult children and their aging parent.
Moving from Independent Living and Assisted Living
Residents living in an Assisted Living still have the sense of being Independent with oversight and security. They can do as they want but yet still get assistance as their needs change like getting in and out of the shower, medication assistance, dressing, social activities like playing bingo and socials.
As residents continue to make the transition through life and need more assistance with everything that pertains to their daily needs. Their signs of Dementia increase by increased forgetfulness, wandering, unusual behaviors and the in ability to control their bladders and bowels. Residents show signs of anger, depression, and isolation because of their increased needs, as an Administrator of an Adult Care Home I tell my employees to remember that these residents yes by name are the same person but they have no control or these changes and the behaviors are not from the person they are which is the hardest thing for caregivers to understand. Patience and Care is the most important thing for caregivers to have.
Nursing Home Care is the next step in the continuity of the lives
In a Nursing Home resident get help with all their needs, they usually have little to no control over their bowels or bladder, they need assistance with dressing, walking and sometimes even eating, things that everyone takes for granted.
All of the transitions that I have talked about to this point start with an Older Adult living home being independent and doing anything they want. Then transitions to the increased need for minimal assistance like housekeeping and meals. As their needs increase to a little more physical needs they move into an Assisted Living where they can usually have their needs met for and average of 2-5 years. When the dementia, chronic illness or failing health take over the resident then needs to move to a Nursing Home for 24/7 skilled nursing care.
Resident is Nursing Homes have an average stay of 6 months to 3 years.
The next and final stage of life is peaceful and tranquil
Hospice Service is a very powerful and useful service that helps to maintain the continuity of humanity while in the process of dying with dignity. Patients are usually placed on hospice during their last 6 months of life, with an average resident on their service of 1 to 5 months.
Saying Goodbye to our loved one is one of the hardest things we face as humans. As a caregiver I find the moment that a person makes their heavenly transition a very peace experience. I think of it as being there with a resident making them comfortable as they take the hand of God and make their final journey home.
I have worked in Health Care for 22 years in almost every aspect of the industry from Peds, OB, Surgery, ICU, Acute Care, Post Acute Care, Swing bed, Nursing Home, Hospice and Assisted Living and I have found that Assisted/Independent Living the hardest and most challenging to work in for the following reasons:
- - Elderly are in the beginning stages of Loss, illnesses and change for them is hard for them.
- - Elderly are not used to getting help with private care and they are having the feelings of loss of their dignity and privacy.
- - Family members are being thrown into a new role of being the caregiver (parent to the parent), which is hard on both sides and they need allot of education, patience and support.
- - Also a simple thing like activities, I find harder because many of the residents still maintain their own independence with activities they still participate in community activities still, work or go out unlike in a Nursing Home where they have made allot of the psychosocial changes and accept and participate in many of the facility sponsored activities.
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Ruby Bridges Take Two
The year is 1915 and I’m a struggling biracial woman trying to find my way in society. Being a biracial woman in western Kansas, it was shamed upon that I was even born. My mother was accepted in the community, but I was not. Interracial couples were not allowed. Children of mixed couples were not acknowledged as civilians in Colby.
My mother was a white woman in northwestern Kansas. My grandparents had a large amount of acres that were used for farming wheat. I was the secret love child between my mother and a man whose family had barely escaped slavery in the south. My grandparents knew the real identity of my father. They tried to conceal who I was from everybody in town. Questions were asked, people stared their curiosity was running wild.
I attended school in the local one room classroom where I learned my basic words, arithmetic, spelling and writing. On special days when the sun was burning hot we would walk to the pond and learn how to swim. My teacher would teach on one black chalkboard and taught every subject. We learned the bible and had daily scriptures to memorize. School was not hard for me, I could remember the words and spell very well.
I excelled at all my classes except swimming. I just could not get the concept down. I was very athletic, I could run just as fast as the boys during play time. The boys would say it wasn’t fair that I was as fast as them. I was very tall and people always thought I was older than what I was. I liked to sit by the boys in the classroom but my teacher wouldn’t let me.
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100 years ago schools were only one room. The buildings were usually made of stone or wood. These buildings were very small, not well heated or sometimes not at all. The windows may or may not open. Usually there were many kids of different ages in the classroom. The school was usually the only one around so many kids went. Many times the teachers didn’t have degrees and were teaching everything they had been taught themselves. Mainly girls went to school, because the boys needed to help the older men on the farms and with live stock. Below I wrote a “journal entry” from a child that was in the one room school house.
Today we are learning cursive writing. Mrs. Edwards is a great teacher, but it is hard to focus with the snow outside. We don’t have a big enough stove oven to heat the whole school house. Us older kids let the younger ones sit closer to the stove, because they are so small. Mrs. Edwards doesn’t get much heat at the front but every once and a while she will come and stand next to the stove to warm up, she is very strong. The windows have leaks in them, but her husband is trying to fix them. Wearing so many cloths to school makes it hard to read and write, but we get it done. Next week we don’t have school for a while because of Christmas. The cattle are outside and you can see them covered in snow. It makes me wonder how cold they get every day. I miss the green grass, sunshine, and flowers. I can’t wait until we can have picnics for lunch again. Reading outside in the spring is my favorite, even though the boys like to pick on us. We get to learn more about animals and plant in the spring. I like to be able to learn those things, I hope to be a teacher someday. I am so happy Pa will be here soon to pick us up in the wagon so we can go home and warm up!
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Today was the first day of school. I am now in the eighth grade and this will be my final year of schooling unless the wheat harvest is good this year. If it is, I will be able to attend high-school next fall.
The school house is small. There are four windows, two on each side. There is a wood burning stove at the back of the room that we use in the late fall and winter. The teacher’s desk is in the front right corner with the American flag hanging above it. Along the front wall, there is a blackboard with the cursive alphabet permanently written along the top. There is an aisle down the middle of the room with four rows of desks on each side. We sit three children to a row until the big boys begin attending classes after harvest, then the little kids sit five to a row and we older kids sit four rows to a desk.
Our day starts off by saying the Pledge of Allegiance and reading the Lord’s Prayer. Next, we older kids get our reading assignments and the little ones begin working on their arithmetic. After an hour we switch and the little ones work on their reading and we work on our arithmetic. The next class is combined penmanship and Grammar. After that we have lunch and recess. After recess we have history and Music. Once we are done with music it is time to go home. Many of us have to walk a mile or two in order to get home. Some of the children live even farther and have to ride a horse or drive a buggy.
Today was a fun day and I cannot wait until tomorrow. Until next time,
Goodnight my dear diary.
Shelbie Huddleston & Kirsten Lavers
What gives us our humanity.
The question of what gives the human race their humanity is a question that has baffled scholars for centuries. Simply asking the question from Google gives a plethora of answers. The simplest definition of humanity is; the human race. But when you delve deeper into the question it brings up other topics. One article that had stood out while doing my research, was the 8 Characteristics of True Humanity. Those characteristics went in the following order; humility, equality, nobility, integrity, companionship, compliant, heroism, and truthfulness. The question that arises from that list of traits would be, are those the only traits? Or are those just the most important traits to the author? It is extremely difficult to give a broad enough overview of certain traits and aspects of humanity, with each culture being as vastly different as they are. Who is to say that their cultures views on humanity are the right one?
Human nature includes the debate of how we act, think, and feel as a whole. In majority of cultures in the world, the action of laughing is used to convey a certain amount of happiness. While in Japan, they view that action as one of confusion, insecurity and embarrassment. Another example is in Africa, if a person hasn’t seen a woman in a while, it’s complimentary to acknowledge the fact that they have put on weight if they have. While in a majority of other countries, commenting on a woman’s weight is extreme taboo that will most likely offend the said woman. Humans, in general, are a social species. We thrive best when surrounded by others of like mind.
In summation, there is no real answer to the question of what gives us our humanity. It is all personal experiences that shape us and help us grow. Whether it is the culture that you have grown up with, or the culture that you are learning, humanity will mean multiple different things.
What makes a classroom American? There are A LOT of things to answer that questions. Growing up as a kid I remember waking up early, eating breakfast and being so excited to go to school (I know, I’m weird). It wasn’t just the learning that made me excited to go. It wasn’t the lunch, or my friends;(even though I loved both of those), it was the fact that I knew that every morning I was blessed to be able to be in a place that I was safe, and accepted by all my peers, and my teachers.
My absolute most favorite part about going to elementary school was that every single morning, rain, sleet or snow, my whole entire classroom was going to recite the Pledge of Allegiance. I took so much pride in the saying that pledge, it made me emotional. That is why America is the greatest country on the face of the earth. It’s great because in America, teachers want their students to be great. They don’t want everybody to be the same like other cultures. Teachers want their students to stand out and be something special. Not many other cultures want this for their students. Students in China might not even speak throughout the whole year because they are taught to sit, memorize and write down everything that the teacher is giving them. American classrooms encourage participation and even respectful disagreements with teachers.
Another reason why American classrooms stand out and are so great because most history classes are United States history based. We learn about the amazing history that has happened throughout the many years of our past and it is awesome! What’s more American than learning about President JFK, Herbert Hoover, and Abe Lincoln himself? Nothing. http://www.acu.edu/international-education/student-services/american-classroom-culture.html
Tahnee Saxton & Mara Nash
School 100 Years Ago
School starts today! I had to get up extra early to do my chores, but it’s worth it. I’m so excited to go to school. Mamma made my lunch and shined my shoes while I was out feeding the chickens. My brother seems super sad today. Daddy won’t let him go back to school; he has to work the farm now. I got dressed up, mamma braided my hair, and I was out the door. The schoolhouse was about three miles away from the homestead. I met up with my best friend about a mile into the trek, and we talked the rest of the way. We arrived at the school just in time for the bell to ring. I saw some of my friends that I hadn’t seen all summer and I said hi, but was worried about being late. The teacher gets mad when we aren’t in our seats by the time the bell rings. The bell rang but a few moments later a younger boy straggled in late. The teacher took him into the corner and whipped his hands with a ruler, and then told him to go sit down. I never wanted to go to the corner, no not ever! We started the day by introducing ourselves; there was about nine of us that year. We learned reading, writing, and arithmetic. We listened to the teacher and wanted to participate. I ate my lunch that mamma made. I had an apple and a sandwich. After we ate the boys played marbles and we all played with our dolls. School made me happy, it was an opportunity to play with friends, and learn more about life. I loved reading, and fortunately we read every single day in school. After the bell rang for school to be out I didn’t want to leave. Some days I wished I could stay there until sundown. But I had to get home to do my chores. The three mile walk home was cheerful as I sang songs we learned that day in school, and thought about the books I was reading. I couldn’t wait for the next day I could go back.
I chose to do question 8 because I love the city I’m from. I’m from a small place in Michigan called Pontiac. Pontiac has 59,887 people in it. It might not seem small but if you ever been there its really small. Pontiac was founded in 1818 by Chief Pontiac. Where the Saginaw Indian Trail crossed the Clinton River, Pontiac was a natural spot to put a town in. A fun fact about Pontiac Michigan is that the silver dome was built in the early 1970’s, the silver dome is a place where carnivals, and all fun activities take place. Pontiac is 24 miles away from Detroit which is home to the Detroit lions, Detroit Pistons, and the Tigers which are very good sports teams. Pontiac Michigan has a lot of great things about it and these are some reasons why.
Pontiac is named after Chief Pontiac and he has high schools, middle schools, and streets named after him. Pontiac is also known for the general motors power plants and cars. GMC only had one car named after the great city and that was the “Pontiac”. In 1909 they had a car company called Oakland motors car company which was a company made by GMC. The silver dome is where the Lions football team use to play until 2002 when they moved it back to downtown Detroit. Pontiac has a lot of history behind it but I only gave the majors reasons why Pontiac is such a great place.
Culture and History of Michigan
I chose to work with question 8 and discuss local culture and history of where I live. Although I was born in Columbus, Ohio I was raised near in Southeastern Michigan on the outskirts of Detroit in a city called Pontiac. There were some early Indian tribes that were originated there in 1618. After the Revolutionary War, the U.S. acquired most of the region, which remained the scene of constant conflict between the British and U.S. forces and their respective Indian allies through the War of 1812.
Growing up in Michigan I was exposed to the different types of music, ethnic groups and historical monuments. In Pontiac not much happens but there are a ton of things that happen in nearby cities, like Detroit. The city of Detroit is known for being called Motown as many of you may not know that it was named “Rock City” by the band KISS. It is known for many major car automotive plants like General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler.
Motown was the music of the 60’s with bands like the Temptations, but there was music in Detroit before Motown. Detroit has always been a big jazz town. But it gets a little bigger every Labor Day weekend. That’s when thousands of music fans from around the country take a visit to what’s become the largest free jazz festival in North America—The Detroit Jazz Fest. Even today many major artist that are from Michigan continue to make music that is loved by people all over the world.
In 1943 and 1967 Detroit experienced many race riots. In 2000, the black population of Michigan totaled an estimated 1,412,742. In 1980, nearly two-thirds lived in Detroit, where they made up 75.7% of the population, the highest percentage in any US city of one million or more. Since then things have changed, Asians and Latinos are beginning to migrate to Michigan. With my grandmother being born and raised in Panama, I was already open to eating different types of food such as Spanish, Asian and Indian food. All of those cultures are much different from the American lifestyle. As I continue to grow I’ve learned to respect them more.
Some of the historical monuments that I have been to is the Charles H Wright museum it will open your mind and change your heart. I am mixed with African American but I didn’t know much about the history of it until I visited this museum. Each day they discuss something that happened in the history of African Americans. I learned about some of the great inventions that were created that we still use now, I also learned about the leaders of certain movements and I was exposed to some of the most impacting poems that I have ever heard.
The American culture is an interesting one. We are a blend of different cultures from all over the world put together in the confines of our borders and asked to live together. In order for this arrangement to work we have to create a brand new culture that is the best fit for all. Because of this it seems to me that the American culture is a completely different breed than that of any other country.
Since day one America has been the land of opportunity. The pilgrims came over in search of freedom of religion, a risk that has since set the precedent for American culture. The first Americans put faith in their ambition in order to create a living situation that met their needs, where they could be independent and make their own choices. The culture that the pilgrims set up has stayed fairly constant since then.
The American culture was built on taking risks and it still is. Our culture has always highlighted that you have the ability to do anything. It was risk for the pilgrims to leave England but against all odd they survived because they didn’t give themselves another option. However, this is not always the case, with risk there is always the possibility of failure, this is why we have such a wide array of incomes, it’s why we have poverty, but it’s why America is home to many of the richest people on the planet. Because the basis of our culture is risk and ambition that creates a fast paced lifestyle that is embraced by a majority of our society. This is why our culture has created our competitive nature that has given the world some of the greatest inventions, markets, and ideas. Some of America’s greatest contributions to society include the assembly line, the movie industry, and Facebook. These are things that are used all over the world but started with the ambition of Americans.
Many immigrants take a risk to leave all their friends and family at home and become apart of a foreign society. That’s why America has so many immigrants, and that’s why it works. America is seen as the land of opportunity, and like it or not it has always been a society based around immigration because it was built on immigration. People from all over the world come to America because it’s history shows that there is hope for all people against all odds.
There is no other culture like the American culture because no one has the same history. Our history has effected much of they way we do things today and that’s is what makes us unique.
“EMarketer expects 4.55 billion people worldwide to use a mobile phone in 2014. Mobile adoption is slowing, but new users in the developing regions of Asia-Pacific and the Middle East and Africa will drive further increases. Between 2013 and 2017, mobile phone penetration will rise from 61.1% to 69.4% of the global population, according to a new eMarketer report, “Worldwide Mobile Phone Users: H1 2014 Forecast and Comparative Estimates.” (emarketer.com) With the growing rate of technology in today’s society the classrooms are now being forced to keep up.
Some of the pros to the contemporary digital learning tools and texts of college level education is accessibility. College is now virtually accessible to anyone with a computer and Internet access. People with jobs and families now have the second chance to further their education and open themselves up to more opportunities than they may have had before. With classrooms online students with learning disabilities that may not be able to focus in a classroom can now be involved in the class. Even students with physical disabilities are now able to educate themselves. Now students can access their classroom and their teachers at any time. If a student is sick they can still keep up with the homework and the classwork they missed.
Some of the cons to having such a digital-based age is that now you don’t have to show up to class. People rely too much on the Internet and have no social life. With some students it can cause a digital divide where it’s required to have Internet and a computer. Another con is that some students have a problem with test taking; they need to be involved in learning in order to fully comprehend it. Classrooms begin to rely on trust where teachers can’t force the student to watch the lecture, only hope.
Kaxandra Naranjo & Sind Valadares
Kaxandra Naranjo, Sind Valadares
Being around a Brazilian for most of this semester she has shared a lot of her stories with me on how they do things differently in Brazil. The language barrier gets hard, but Portuguese is a combination of Spanish and french so she understands most things. We have helped her adapt to the new cultures that the Americans have to offer. Coming from such a different set of culture can really shock anyone coming from from a different country. For most people they adapt fairly quickly to the American Culture. But as for Brazilians its way more complicated than that.
The one thing that is the hardest thing to adapt to is the food and our nation is all about fast food. In Brazil they eat a lot of rice and beans with bananas and chicken most of time. Yes it is common to have fast food once in a while but not as common like in the United States.
Most of the Brazil culture is wrapped around family, and music. They show each other love constantly and are always dancing to something new that's playing.
Brazil is nothing close to the United States but it has taught many people what different countries cultures how normal being adapt to others quickly.
"We are all people weather we agree or not, we go to different countries to experience new things that is why I am here." -Sind Valadres
Being her friend has taught me a lot about the Brazilian culture and it makes me want to go out there and experience the culture for myself. Even though she misses everything back home and occasionally wants to leave because it gets hard for her sometimes it always helps to have someone to relate to. And even though me and her are not from similar cultures, we learn from each other and share the experiences we have together to learn more and make it easier for the transition.