- American Government
- Ideas and Rights
- Political Behavior
- Political Parties
- Digital Stories
Welcome to American Government 2015-2016
This class is not a civics course, nor is it an “introduction to” course. Nor is this a traditional survey course, the intended audience is college students. It is important to realize that the lectures and discussions will not summarize the readings nor describe the nuts and bolts of governmental bodies.
Instead, it offers an opportunity to explore in depth and systematically some rather sophisticated arguments, interpretations and controversies about the institutions (Congress, the Presidency, and the Judiciary) and the processes (Elections, Media, Public Opinion, etc.) of American government. Politics and the American political system are badly misunderstood by most citizens, and I will offer interpretations and analyses that may clarify some important events and practices.
I will present lectures and lead discussions that deal with specific aspects of American government and politics. We will critically interpret and evaluate significant parts of the political system. In the process I will try to debunk numerous deeply held but misleading beliefs people have about how politics work in this country. My mission is to challenge your basic beliefs, arouse your intellectual curiosity, and encourage you to think for yourselves. It is my hope that this hands-on experience of "doing" will both enliven your interest in political analysis and help you develop practical skills that you can use in other contexts as well.
Dr. Michael Thompson
The Fight for Women’s Rights
By: Marissa Morris x
Back in the nineteenth century, women in America had no political rights. Women could not vote, serve on a jury, or enter into a contract after marriage. These laws of coverture were adopted from English common law. The laws of coverture meant that women’s political rights and her duties all operated through her husband. The husbands controlled her property, wages, and even her body. Women began to become outraged and started fighting for gender rights. For societies to thrive, women and girls must have access to education, healthcare and technology. They must have control of resources, land and markets. Women must also have equal rights and equal opportunities, and women were able and willing to fight for just that.
The first gathering for women’s suffrage was the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention. During the time the abolition movement was taking place. When women joined the abolition movement they became frustrated with the barriers they had to face. Women could lecture to other women, but not men and they could join abolitionist societies, but not be elected officers. Following the Seneca Falls Convention women began campaigning for political rights and economic independence.
Following the Seneca Falls Convention women began to campaign for political rights and economic independence. Several groups and determined women helped lead the way. The Women’s Christian Temperance Union argued that alcohol was a cause of male violence against women, was active for suffrage, and wanted decent wages for women. The Women’s Christian Temperance Union worked to promote and create a pure world to help stop the violence against women. The main focus of a lot of groups of women was the fight for their right to vote. The American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), led by Carrie Chapman Catt focused on winning voting rights state by state. The National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) founded by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton opposed the Fifteenth Amendment unless it included the vote for women. Alice Paul started a group called the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) that worked to unify the AWSA and the NWSA.
Eventually the hard work and active stance by the women began to pay off. Success came first in the West, beginning with the Wyoming and Utah territories who granted women the right to vote in 1869 and 1870. By 1916 an effective political campaign had won full suffrage in fifteen states and partial suffrage in twenty –three others. Women were allowed to vote in every state of the West and Midwest except in New Mexico.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 determined that people could not discriminate on account of race, color, religion, sex, and national origin. The National Organization for Women (NOW) drew direct tactics of the civil rights campaign by hosting demonstrations, rallies, lobbying, and litigation. NOW too saw success as Congress implemented Title IX that required equal athletic opportunities to men and women and Title VI that denied federal funds for programs that discriminated against women.
Today, women are entering the workforce at a rapid rate. According to the US Agency for International Development more than half a billion women have joined the workforce in the last 30 years. According to the World Bank, countries with greater gender equality are more prosperous and competitive. Women in all 50 states are exercising their right to vote and women are even holding government positions in office. Further positives of women’s roles today include their effect of society and government and the environment, several key areas. Gender equality and women’s empowerment are fundamental to ending extreme poverty and promoting resilient, democratic societies. When women play an active role in civil society and politics, governments tend to be more open, responsive and transparent. When women are at the negotiating table, peace agreements are more durable. And women often lead the way in managing and adapting to the impacts of climate change.
Kersh, Rogan. "Gender." By the People: Debating American Government. By James A. Morone. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford UP, 2014. 207-12. Print.
"Closing Gaps." Closing Gaps. US Aid for International Development, Aug. 2015. Web. 7 Sept. 2015. <https://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/gender-equality-and-womens-empowerment/closing-gaps>.
By: Jackie Runlde x
The word “Equality” is supposed to mean that every citizen can enjoy the same privileges, status, and rights. That has not always been the case, and today people are still fighting for equality. There are three types of equality; social, political, and economic. Economic equality focuses more on the differences in wealth between citizens. Where a person is position in the economy will determine how equal or unequal the economy will be. The economic position of a citizen is based on different characteristic such as ethnic background, gender, education or if they have a disability.
When the United States was still young, President Washington, and a French political thinker, Alex de Tocqueville, both had imagined America’s future to be successful in economic equality. They thought the people of New England had a remarkable way of living, Tocqueville noted “there will be no exceptional wealth or irremediable poverty.” President Washington had said there would be “few opulent… and no poor.” Today, neither of their predictions came true, the United States dramatically changed toward inequality. In 1970 the United States ranked between France and Japan for economic equality on the Gini Coefficient chart, among other wealthier democracies. Today the United States is ranked among the less developed countries like South Africa, leading us to one of our countries greatest debates; “shall we adopt public policies to limit inequality?”
There are three types of economic inequalities; income, pay, and wealth inequality. Income inequality is when any form of income (wages, tips, bonuses, government benefits etc…) is not distributed evenly among a group of people. Pay inequality refers to what the employer pays, how often they pay, and how much they pay employees. Finally wealth inequality is the total amount of assets of an individual, and when it is distributed among a group of people unevenly.
There are also three common ways to measure economic inequality. The first was mentioned earlier, the Gini Coefficient, which measures all of society and not just different groups. The way the Gini Coefficient works is if one person had all income leaving nothing for anyone else then the coefficient would equal one (1). If income was evenly dispersed to everyone the coefficient would equal zero (0). Meaning the more equality the lesser the number. As of the late 2000’s the United States coefficient was around .45. Another way to Measure inequality is using Ratios to compare people from two different levels of income. Some example:
“50/10 ratio- describes inequality between the middle and the bottom of the income distribution
90/10- describes inequality between the top and bottom
90/50- describes inequality between the top and middle
99/90- describes inequality between the very top and the top”
The third common way to measure economic inequality is the Palma ration. The Palma ratio is “the ratio of the income share of the top 10% to that of the bottom 40%.” It is similar to the Gini Coefficient, where one (1) or below is to a more equal society, but in an unequal society the higher the ratio, it can be “as large as a seven (7). The ratio is mostly used for international development purposes.
On average, American CEO’s make roughly 300 to 500 times more than the average employee. Japans culture tries to discourage individuals to attract attention to them by excessively flaunting their wealth. Western Europe has higher taxes to prevent anyone getting to rich or to poor. These foreign policies are there to help prevent inequality and to help keep the wealthy and the poor more even. Tocqueville had tried to warn the Americans with economic inequality: “The friends of democracy should keep their eyes anxiously fixed in the direction of… the manufacturing aristocracy we see rising up.” If we were to adopt different public policies it would also be contradicting the “American dream” of being able to achieve great wealth, this is one reason why economic inequality is such a big debate in America right now.
"how Is Economic Inequality Defines?" How is Economic Inequality Defined? 2012. Accessed September 11,2015. https://www.equalitytrust.org.uk/how-economic-inequality-defined.
Morone, James A., and Kersh, Rogan. "Equality." In By The People: Debating American Government. New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
The American Dream
By: Alex Boswell x
When somebody asks me what I believe the American dream is, I think of many things. In fact, I think of so many opportunities and possibilities that I could make an essay out of it. But to put it simply, I believe the American dream is having the freedom and opportunity to do and achieve anything you could possibly want. To me, the American dream is a powerful phrase that reminds me of how lucky I am to live in such a great country, and be free to accomplish my biggest goals.
Benjamin Franklin said a long time ago, if you work hard and are talented, you would have financial success. This later became known as the American dream. This important idea came out of a form-tips for getting rich. As much as each and every one of us could be rich, I would hope the majority would know there are things more important than money. Today, critics would argue that the concept is aimed toward the wealthy majority. Gordon Wood, a historian in the Revolutionary War era, said all people care about is “making money and getting ahead”. While many would disagree, the income inequality problem that the U.S. is facing today says different. The top 1% of the nation holds more wealth than the other 99% combined. That is a huge gap making it seem almost impossible to live the dream if you fall in the 99% bracket.
While the American dream has been criticized for promoting the wrong values, it has brought over many new people. Immigrants have traveled, and are still traveling to the U.S. more than any other country in the world. While some countries might hate us for our narcissistic values, some countries still see opportunity. Immigrants cross the border everyday to make better money, be more successful, and provide for their families. Why? There are so many jobs and opportunities here than there is anywhere else in the world. The U.S. offers many paths and routes to starting from scratch and going as far as you can as long as you can believe in yourself.
The American dream could be argued to have brought the immigration issue upon us. There are valid arguments against this but Americans tend to look past the situation. Most people from other countries are working like slaves for little to nothing while trying to provide for himself or herself or a family. When these same people get the opportunity to move to the U.S., they drop everything and I think every single one of us would too. The initiative being taken by immigrants to leave their current situation to come to the dream land and work half as hard for two-three times the pay was all influenced by the American dream. To their families, these men and women are their biggest hero’s.
Money shouldn’t be the first thing thought of when you hear “The American Dream”. There are countless other things that should pop into your rather than money (although money is a necessity). America was built on the idea of freedom. This means you can do whatever you want, strive to be your best, and nobody can tell you otherwise. People can come here and live without fear of government control, we can be free in whatever religious faith we choose, and we have the ability and opportunities all around us to change any difficult situation we might be in for the better. You can literally be free. That is what the American dream should be. Not wealth or fame, but just freedom. Without freedom, we wouldn’t be able to be rich or famous.
Marone, James A., Rogan Kersh. “By The People: Debating American Government”. Second Edition, (46-49). Oxford University Press. Print.
By: Marissa Morris x
What Is Congress and What is It’s History?
The Congress was established in 1787 when the Constitutional Convention adopted the United States Constitution. In 1789, with only 20 senators and 59 representatives, the first Congress met in Federal Hall in New York City. Today, the Senate is composed of two Senators from each state, who are elected to serve a term of six years. The Members of the House of Representatives, who each represent approximately 600,000 people, are elected for two-year terms. The number of representatives from each state is determined by population, but each state is entitled to at least one representative.
The United States Congress is split into two divisions, the house, and the senate. The two chamber design of Congress follows the same basic principle of government embraced by the framers of the Constitution. This basic principal is that government must be divided into units which share power with each another, and check one another against tyranny. The division of the Congress into two chambers emanates from this principle. The principle referred to is a bicameral. According to dictionary.com bicameral means having two branches, chambers, or houses, as a legislative body. The two legislative bodies are equal, but different, and each is granted exclusive powers by the U.S. Constitution. Though considered equal, the house and senate both differ from each other in several ways. Despite the differences, In terms of legislative power, both divisions must cooperate and adopt identical legislation in order for it to be enacted into law. The Senate and House of Representatives have jobs they work together to accomplish and individual jobs as well.
Jobs of the Congress
- Manage the nation’s legistlative business
- Investigate executive branch activities
- Stage public hearings about a wide range of matters
- Raise money for relection
First convened in 1789, the composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each state is represented by two senators, regardless of population, who serve staggered six-year terms. The terms are staggered so that approximately one-third of the seats are up for election every two years. To be a senator one must be at least 30 years old, have been citizens of the United States for at least the past 9 years, and must be inhabitants of the states they seek to represent at the time of their election. This organization reflects Americans’ liberty-loving, individualistic side. Each woman and man in the Senate possesses a remarkable degree of autonomy especially compared to the House. Any senator even the most junior is able to halt the entire body’s consideration of a bill.
Individual Jobs of the Senate
- The Senate holds trials and decides whether to remove the president that the congress impeaches.
- When a president negotiates a treaty with other countries the senate must approve them by two- thirds or 67 votes.
- The Senate has the sole power to review presidential appointments
-Example: each nominee for Supreme Court goes before the senate Judiciary Committee and then must win confirmation from the full Senate.
House of Representatives
The House is larger than the senate and includes 435 members, divided among the states based on population size, along with six nonvoting delegates from Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, and other U.S. territories. All 441 House members serve two-year terms and each represents a district of around seven hundred thousand people. To be a member of the house one must be at least twenty-five years old, have been a citizen of the United States for the past seven years, and be (at the time of the election) an inhabitant of the state they represent. Members are not required to live in the district they represent, but they traditionally do The qualifications for being a member of the house are less strict than the qualifications of being a member of the Senate.
Individual Jobs of the House
- The house holds the power to impeach public officials including the president for high crimes and misdemeanors.
- All budget measures originate in the House
Morone, James A., and Rogan Kersh. By the People: Debating American Government. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford UP, 2014. Print.
"The Two Houses of the United States Congress." The Two Houses of the United States Congress. The Center on Congress: Indiana University Bloomington, n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2015. <http://centeroncongress.org/two-houses-united-states-congress>.
By: Shania Dirks x
Political parties play a huge role in the United States government when it comes to trying to better the country. These political parties are a group of people that share common beliefs and/or policies and battle to win control in the United States’ government. They are able to take control of the government by winning elections that take place throughout the country. Some elections such as the Presidential, Senate, and House of Representative elections to name a few. There is also local elections that take place in counties and cities that have the same battle.
There has been a lot of political parties in the United States throughout the years. The Republican Party and the Democratic Party are the most common parties; they are both recognized in each state in America including the District of Columbia. To know more about the parties it is good to know about their foundation, what they believe in, and other parties that affect them.
The foundation of each party started many years ago. In 1792, the Democratic Party was officially put together. Around the 1850’s, Democrats had issues expanding slavery into Western part of the country. Democrats in the south wanted to keep the slavery in their homeland while Democrats in the north disagreed. This lead to a split in the party in 1860. Stephen Douglas was nominated by the Northern Democrats to take over their side of the party. The south had a pro-slavery mindset and chose Abraham Lincoln as their new leader. This side of the party became known as the Republican Party.
The Democratic Party is the oldest standing party. They believe that working together in our country is better than working individually. This leads to everyone having an equal shot and no one is left out. Democrats like to work on problems such as equal pay, education, environmental improvement, and health care.
The majority of the Republican Party lean towards a conservative view. Even though it has not always been that way. Republicans want limited government involvement for United States. They believe in reducing taxes, favoring organizations such as our military, and playing a big role on issues dealing with religion.
There are also three other majority political parties that are represented in the United States. They are called the Green Party, Libertarian Party, and Constitution Party. These three parties formed after the Republican and Democratic Parties; actually within the last 45 years. The three parties’ beliefs are a collection of different sides of Democratic and Republican views. When coming down to election time, if a candidate is elected from one of these parties, it could take away from the common Democrat or Republican vote.
These five parties are not the only groups the United States has. Other parties have come and gone throughout the years. Some parties are not talked about as much and are known as minority parties. So although you may hear about Republicans and Democrats, it is good to research and find out about what each party, but also see what other views are out there. It is not required to pick a party to side with, but it is important to look at the views of the candidates. When it comes to election time, it does not matter if one is Republican, Liberation, Democratic, etc. It matters if the people are voting for the candidate which represents their opinion the most. It is not good to be lazy about the knowledge of the country; taking the time to learn about the issues, the people, and the heritage of our nation can help us grow to be a better country. Even if that means sometimes people have to agree to disagree.
The Functions or Roles of Political Parties
By Nikki Hemel x
Political parties have many different functions here are a few. There are four to five major roles of a political party. The first is selecting candidates, monitoring the other party, informing the public/ mobilizing voters, and organizing the government. These steps have no definite order, they just rather happen. Every party does these steps whether they admit to all of them or not. The steps listed above are just a basic outline of what political parties do.
The first one of these selecting candidates, the political parties nominate candidates. They then narrow the list from many to a few credible candidates. This step helps the voters by keeping their role simple and not having to be involved in narrowing the candidates. This step also helps keep what could become chaotic simple. Narrowing the candidates gives the party an idea what they will be representing in the upcoming events. This also starts the base for the parties’ agenda in the upcoming race.
Mobilizing the voters and informing the public involves sending out brochures, media campaigns, calling voters, and going door to door. The party takes their agenda and starts to support and back it. This sometimes deals with discussions on where they stand as compared to their running mate. This informs voters on issues discussed and the candidates stand point of those issues. It also presents alternative options to solving problems. In this area, the parties put on fundraisers to help their candidate financially throughout their campaign. The agenda is taken from paper and put into motion, it is no longer ideas and thoughts it is events and plans.
Monitoring the other party serves as a watchdog for the public. The party out of power watches the party in power and notifies the public of any wrongdoing. Party leaders sometimes criticize the actions of the President who represents the opposing party. Some think this is petty and self-serving for the party monitoring the other.
Organizing the government has two parts one that takes place before and during the presidential race. The part that takes place before is a candidate comes forward with backers that support him or her and what she stands for. This person has certain ideas about how they would change the government or a certain idea they want to put into effect. This group may start the ideas and beginning stages of policymaking before the election so they can push it into Congress as soon as possible. The second part occurs after the candidate has won the election and has taken office. This is where the now standing President rearranges Congress and State Legislatures according to their affiliations. The Legislative Representatives usually support their party’s position when considering potential laws and policies that they vote on.
In summary, these steps are all of how a political party is involved in the entire process and what they do for their candidates. The political party one chooses their candidates then narrows that list to a select few, which the public then vote on. They then set the agenda that they will support and start to inform the public on their ideas and policies. They then put on fundraisers to help financially support their candidate. While all of this is going on, they are also monitoring the opposing side and what they are doing. Then is the election that tells who won and if their party won they then start to push their ideas and set up Congress and State Legislatures to their liking. Political parties and their chosen candidate accomplish all this.
+The Green Party Who They Are and What They Stand For
By Darryl Simpson
The Green Party was founded in 1984 when the progressive ideology was falling by the wayside. The Green Movement Committee made its first appearance and this would later turn into what we now know as the Green Party. Their mission was, “To be effective, a Green political organization must originate from a broad base of support, from natural allies concerned with ecological politics and social justice, peace and non-violence, local and regional self-management and grassroots democracy.” And in the summer of 1984, The “US Greens” had their first official meeting in St. Paul, Minnesota.
In 1987, the Green Party had spread its roots and they held their first National Green Gathering at Hampshire College in Amherst, Massachusetts. This brought in over 600 Green Party members and they discussed what they wanted to do and established their Ten Key Values. The current Ten Key Values are Ecological Wisdom, Nonviolence, Social Justice, Grassroots Democracy, Decentralization, Community-Based Economics, Feminism, Respect for Diversity, Personal and Global Responsibility, and Sustainability.
The Second National Green Gathering was held in Eugene, Oregon in 1989. They centered this meeting around “SPAKA” which is Strategic Policy Approaches in Key Areas, this would help them build their platform and also assist in attempting to come up as a full blown political party.
1990 brought great things for the party. Twenty-one Greens ran for office and of those twenty-one nine were elected. Their next goal was to register 103,000 voters. They changed their name in 1991 to The Greens/Green Party USA. The party was growing more and more everyday. Ralph Nader became the first Green Party member to run for president. He received 700,000 votes although he was only on the ballot in twenty-two states.
2000 they had 2.8 million people attend their national gathering. In the same year there was a record high 282 Greens running for offices and 46 were elected. The next year they decided to change their name once again to their current name Green Party of the United States and they also applied for recognition as a national committee by the Federal Election Commission.
The Green Party made history in 2012 when they nominated Jill Stein for president. She received 470,000 votes which is the highest number of votes received by a women in presidential voting.
The Green Party founds itself as a party that puts the public first. They believe in fair share economics and a country that can support everyone’s needs. They are very focused on protecting the planet from climate change. They believe in a world that has livable wages in each position and building an economy that is good for the people not the top 1%ers. They invest in renewable energy and cutting down the world’s dependency on fossil fuels. They are very progressive in the idea of changing politics and not staying in the same politics of the past. They are about the ordinary man and making a world that works for them.
They are Pro-Choice in terms of women’s reproductive rights and are opposed to the death penalty in the US as well as worldwide. They are Pro Public Schools and making high-quality education available to all students. They support full legal equality for gay couples. They also believe in reducing arms stockpiles. They are Pro Union and they also support the idea of health care being universal for all. They also support the granting of citizenship to illegal immigrants currently working inside of the US.
The Green Party does relate very closely to the ideal of democrats, but over the years many people have decided to move over to the Green Party.
There are 91 countries that have a full blown Green Party and 18 associate member countries. Countries include Albania, Bulgaria, Burundi, Chad, Georgia, Italy, Mongolia, Zambia.
Policy Making Process
By Nikki Hemel x
There are many different combinations of processes for policymaking. In the United States, government there is a basic five-step process. This process helps lawmakers choose which policies to consider and which to toss out. This process also gives a basis format for how a policy shall proceed to become a law.
The five Policy Making Process steps:
1. Identifying Policy Problems
2. Formulating Policy Proposals
3. Legitimizing Public Policy
4. Implementing Public Policy
5. Evaluating Public Policy
Identifying policy problems is the first step. This step includes many parts such as agenda setting, which is “deciding what is to be decided.” This also includes dealing with the media and how they are going to influence the decision. Public opinion also pays a small part in this step.
Formulating policy proposals, the second step in policymaking is often compared to biological natural selection. This comparison is brought about in that not all issues that are brought this far are possible on their own or even at all. This step is often done in small-specialized groups since state legislatures and Congress cannot attend to all the policy issues. These groups have many different names here are a few, issue networks, iron triangles, or policy subsystems.
Legitimizing public policy is the third step. This step requires Congress, state legislatures, the president, the courts, and agency officials to take action. This action could include executive orders, rules and regulations, or budgets just to name a few. Most often, this step is where you will see the public take interest.
Next is Implementing public policy, which is what occurs after the law is passed. Sometimes when a law is passed, there are agencies that act under this law and do enforce it, and do more than was intended when the law or policy was passed. Other times nothing happens once the law is passed.
Even after the policy is passed, there will be people who opposed the law trying to delay or stop the policy. They can try to stop or delay a policy by endless court battles. There will always be conflict in implementing public policy.
The last step of policymaking is Evaluating the public policy. The federal government has spent millions of dollars to determine whether or not a policies or programs passed are having the wanted effect or not. These evaluations can cause problems of their own. People can interpret data differently. More often though the evaluations do not solve political controversies.
This is just a basic five step system to show how policies are passed. Sometimes policies take more than these five steps. There are instances where six or seven steps are required. Some policies have to be adopted before they can be implemented which would add a step in the middles or the process.
Not all policies are brought to the government by itself, some have interest groups. These interest groups can help advance their cause. These interest groups can influence the public’s view through lobbying. They can also use demographics to influence their data and how the policy is viewed.
In the end, policymaking seems like a lot but it is just a few steps the federal or states governments take to pass a policy and make it a law. There is a lot of outside influence that can have an effect on the policy but that is not always the case. Some policies are passed and nothing seems to change while others are passed and there are drastic changes.
By: Laura Schmid x
New issues and controversies come up every day. Issues that affect the people directly such as gay marriage or the driving age. They also deal with issues that will affect us indirectly such as borrowing money from China. We get upset and show concern over the issues we are concerned with. We express these concerns to our mayors, senators, governors, and other elected representatives. Eventually these issues will be addressed. There is six step process for policymaking: Recognizing the problem, agenda setting, formulating, adopting, implementing and evaluating. Policymaking is a lengthy process that takes a lot of time and carful concentration.
1. Recognizing the problem. There are many people filtering through all of the calls, e-mail and letters that are made to our representatives daily. They divide and organize all of the information they receive and report the information to the respective representatives.
2. Agenda setting. Once all of the information has been sifted through it is prioritized and an agenda will be made. Agendas can change all the time. It could change with new elections. What the previous people thought were priorities the new ones might not find as pressing, or something more urgent may come up and other issues will have to be pushed to the side.
3. Formulating. This is where the policy starts taking shape. Various groups get together, do research, get statistics and come up with what they think will be the best way to alleviate the issue at hand. These policies are presented and one policy is chosen.
4. Adopting the policy. Once this policy is chosen it could be adopted in a few different ways. I could be implemented with a new law, if the Supreme Court rules on it or if the president signs an executive order. The policy it then broken down into many small steps and is slowly enforced until the complex policy has been pieced together.
5. Implementing the policy. Policy are usually enforced by agencies and occasionally the courts. They make sure that people are obeying this polices and reproductions are in place if people do not follow the new rules. They make sure people have valid insurance on vehicles, appropriate licenses are purchased for building, fishing, hunting, driving etc.
6. Evaluating. The people who carried out these policies then go back after some time of the policy being in place and see how effective the policy was. They determine if it accomplished what they wanted it to and if it was being enforced accurately.
This is a cycle; it is never-ending. Every policy is constantly being evaluated and if it not up to par it is back to the drawing boards. They will then discuss what when wrong, why it failed, and how to improve it. It will then go back through the cycle until it is satisfactory.
Joe Lubick, Dillon Pilch, and Jeremy Gwinn.
Ben Dalke, Reid Fritzke