- Thinking Sociologically
- Social Identities
- Culture, Knowledge and Belief
- Social Organization and Control
- Production, Inequalities and Social Division
- Digital Stories
The Study of Society
Sociology focuses on identifying, explaining, and interpreting patterns and processes of human social relations. This introductory course is designed not just to teach you some of the major findings of sociology, but to help you master fundamental sociological skills, including the ability to think with a "sociological imagination" as well as integrate "technological fluency" with "informational literacy" utilizing basic computer-based data analysis—skils which have broad applicability in a range of educational and work settings.
Our goal in this class is for you to gain a different perspective of a diverse world often taken for granted and to gain new insight into the ways that society shapes people and the way people shape their society. Our objectives are directed at building competence as a critical thinker and change agent so that you will better able to raise relevant questions about the direction in which society is moving, interpret social trends, and examine significant social problems.
It is my hope that this hands-on experience of "doing" sociology will both enliven your interest in sociological analysis and help you develop practical skills that you can use in other contexts as well. We can best understand the process of social interaction when we understand the person in place and in time. Our syllabus sets the place, time and process of this course for you the person.
Welcome to my world, your world, our world.
Dr. Michael Thompson
Beauty Standards in Today’s Society
Beauty standards in today’s society are set ridiculously high. Women-especially young teens-feel pressured to be the perfect height, weight, and body type. Young women often turn to harmful ways of getting to this standard such as having eating disorders. Women who don’t fit into this standard often feel bad about themselves, and in turn, are unhappy. It takes a lot of convincing for a woman to believe she’s beautiful just the way she is. But who or what is responsible for these insane standards in beauty?
There are so many forms of media in today’s society. TV shows, movies, video games, and magazines are all examples of ways young women are exposed to unrealistic expectations for their body. Advertisements always use young, fit models to portray their products as sexy. Back in the 50’s, things were completely opposite. There used to be pill that women could take to gain those extra 15 pounds that they needed, because back then, bigger women were the beautiful ones. Skinny girls were considered sick. Now, there are tons of diet pills and supplements and diet foods available to the public. Of course, there are a lot more fast food places and processed foods. But obesity is an entirely different story in itself. Why do women find the need to be the “perfect” 5’10” 110 pounds? The average American woman is 5’4” and 145 pounds. In my opinion, that’s pretty healthy. The ideal woman on the other hand, is not. When I see a woman who is all skin and bones, it makes me sick!
The hit TV show “America’s Next Top Model” is a prime example of this problem. The models aren’t even allowed to audition for the show if they’re over the height of 5’8. Once, they did a special season for the tall models. During one season, there was one girl who was considered a plus size model because she wore size 8 jeans. This show is inferring that you need to be a certain height and weight to be beautiful. Why discriminate against people who are taller than others, or a little bit bigger? I think the only advertisements I’ve seen that use average sized women are the Dove ads. They use all different types of women: tall, short, skinny, bigger, black, white, everyone.
Peers are another big factor in setting the beauty standard. Girls are natural gossipers. When girls are together reading their favorite magazine or watching the awards shows on TV, these following phrases are always heard. “Oh my god look what she’s wearing, she looks like a cow!” “Why can’t my legs be that long and perfect?” “I wish my stomach looked like that…” And so on and so on. Girls torture themselves because they want to look like their favorite model, favorite actress, and favorite music artist. Even though we know almost all advertisements use Photoshop, we still feel the desire to look like them.
Sociologically, this perspective on beauty is harmful. Young women are focusing more on their looks than anything else. On average, each women spends at least $50 a month on makeup products. A lot of women face challenges with eating disorders. We’re starting to see signs of eating disorders in girls as young as kindergarten. KINDERGARTEN! The only thing a kindergarten girl should be worried about is which swing to use at recess, not her weight! All in all, I think the perspective on beauty is messed up.
Thinking sociologically, what does this actually mean? After doing some research I have come to the conclusion that sociological thinking and commonsense are closely related with some variances’. So the best way for me to explain sociological thinking is to compare it against common sense. It is often thought that sociological thinking is a division stemming from commonsense. It appears that commonsense thinking refers to the everyday thoughts and assumptions that we tell ourselves what is true and not true. These beliefs are not concrete or backed up necessarily with evidence. For example many believe that children from a single family home are more likely to grow up and become adult criminals when in theory it is proven that the low socio-economic status of a home may lead to more children growing up to be adult criminals. Sociological thinking is more accurate and logical in life. One will look for proof to back up what is the truth behind their thoughts and beliefs.
Another difference of the two is that commonsense is a combined body of observed knowledge based on someone’s personal experiences, but sociological thinking is not. However, it is believed that a part of sociological thoughts is consequential from commonsense and everyday observations. Sociological thinking is more dependable. It accounts for the reasons for its claims and leads us to the resources from where the proof lies. On the other hand, commonsense does not offer this kind of backing. With commonsense we tend to make assumptions to back up their claims. We used references that may not be or can not be easily accessible. For example, People might get their information from uninformed sources. Past on beliefs from parents, grandparents, friends and so on. Sociological thinking is like saying, “the proof in the pudding”. From reading an article, I used, he mentions an author named Berger that acknowledged,
“To ask sociological questions then, presupposes that one is interested in looking some distance beyond the commonly accepted or officially defined goals of human actions. It presupposes a certain awareness that human events have different levels of meaning, some of which are hidden from the consciousness of everyday life.” (Berger, 1963)
Sociological thinking attempts to look at society not as a group of isolated individuals or separate entities, but as one. Meanwhile commonsense is taken and is slowly developed by practical information from everyday life and occurrences. Sociological thinking does not accept the world at face value, whereas commonsense does. For example commonsense may suggest, people contract HIV because of one’s irresponsible behavior or actions, which then makes this issue an entirely individual one. However, one who thinks sociological will dig deeper and find that people for one reason or another may not be able to negotiate safe sex. Some may be dependent on their partners economically. The problem then boils down to gender inequality and not personal irresponsibility.
Sociological thinkers like to draw connections between the individual and the world they live in, much like the social and the psychological connection of that individual. The thinker acknowledges the complexity of life and resists attempts to understand the uniqueness as either strictly social or strictly personal.
So I guess it is safe to say that commonsense is culturally angled knowledge that is subjectively varied between individuals and societies. However, sociological thinking attempts to claim a higher level of consciousness and objectiveness to the overall social trends and happenings in relation to the society as a whole. So with the points above it can be concluded that sociological thinking is commonsense further evolved and probed to allow a greater understanding of society.
Berger, Z (1963) Introduction to Sociological Thoughts New York Doubleday
I remember looking at pictures of old basketball photos and seeing the very limited selection of shoes people wore back in the early 1950s. Some of the popular brands were chuck taylors and pf flyers. These shoes were very heavy and didn’t have very good support for the ankles and damaged athlete’s feet. People viewed shoes very differently. Today they are used for fashion, sports, dress clothes etc. Shoe companies have revolutionized a way to make millions or even billions of dollars. Celebrities and famous athletes sign multi-million dollar shoe deals on a daily basis. For example, Lebron James out of high school signed a 7 year- 99 million dollar shoe contract for Nike. It all began when Larry Bird and Ervin “Magic “Johnson signed a shoe deal with Converse and stared in a commercial for the Converse Weapons.
The brands and styles that have been evolving each year are great for marketing and for buyers. I own many shoes ranging from Jordan’s, Nike, adidas, reebok, etc. The styles are a great way to match you clothing or just look good when playing. They have high-top, low tops, mid tops, mid-high tops, different colors, light weight, and I heard there is a shoe that can make you jump higher as well. I wonder what athletes or celebrities would have been like back in the 1950s with all these options.
The biggest supplier of shoes and probably the most successful show company in the world is Nike. Nike was founded by Phil Knight in 1971. Nike is a multi-trillion dollar company that has grown into a shoe empire and other amenities such as clothing, athletic gear, etc. They also have the top dollar athletes representing them on a daily basis, which helps there marketing strategy. Shoes have become such a big money maker for people it is insane.
My opinion on shoes is we all are suckers for what the price of shoes has risen. If you look at what materials it is to make a shoe, it might cost you a maximum of $5 for each pair. They pay very poorly in other countries to make shoes and all the big brands are guilty of committing this unethical act. Some of the Jordan’s that come out now are $300 or more and it is getting to the point where some basketball players that live in suffering areas can’t afford good basketball shoes. Back then you could buy a pair of converse for $10-$25. Except, back then you would have to wear you converse for potentially 2 years or more. Today kids have 6 different pairs of shoes for one sport and it usually matches their shorts, shirt, and socks. I own around 50 pairs of sneakers and sometimes I think to myself, why do I need all these but I find it addicting in some ways. Because it gives me a reason to stay looking good and being 6’10” 350lbs you need to have good support in your ankles and feet.
All in all the main reason why I wanted to write about shoes was because it is a hobby to me. I grew up in the Jordan shoe era and love to have the freshest kicks on the block. I can only see the shoe game growing over the years and look forward to seeing what new technologies and styles develop. I believe Jordan shoes will always be the most popular for me because I am a ball player, but Nike will always be the front runner for other people because they have the best quality on the market.
Sociology is the developmental study of structure, and functioning of the human society. It enables us to understand the world and even ourselves. Understanding this helps you gain more control over your life and it can also be put to more uses as well. It’s a field of study that analyzes important matters about our personal lives and explains it to us. Such as showing us where we are located in society’s social structures and changes that might take place during these structures. The structure patterns are your relationship’s you have between people. Your social structure could be between groups of any social group. Whether they are big, small, family, or to different political parties. As well as any organization like universities, big business corporations, and even a hospital are considered social structures. Not only dose it describe to us the different social structures, but it allows us to understand ourselves.
Understanding yourself is very important when dealing in sociology, such as your identity, the way you think, feel, and behave. Only by knowing the social process with your understanding knowledge, you may truly understand yourself. Socialization is term sociologist use to define our social and cultural beings, and turns individuals in members of society. Every time you enter or join a new group you begin to start a whole new process of socialization. Socialization gives us an identity and provides us with a sense of personal identity. Our personal identities are made up of whom we are.
The use of sociology provides you with plenty of knowledge and understanding that could benefit you in many areas of work. Sociology could help you in the works of research by solving crimes, drug use, violence, and many more known problems in society. Investigations with cause and consequences could not be solved without an input of a little sociology. Sociology dose not only limit itself to only being used in crime and investigation, but it can also be used in central contributions for the study of management and training managers. There are structures that enable for organizations to function productively and efficiently. A very important contribution sociologist have to contribute here is having the skills to be able to penetrate beneath the surface of things. Not only are sociologist just focused on organizational efficiency, but they are also concerned about the perspective of others that are in the work place as well. Such as perceiving the employee of wondering how meaningful is the work that they do and how they meet the criteria by carrying out there job and still being cautious and careful of what there doing in a professional way without exploiting themselves. Having the skills of sociologist can help you determine all these things when you have the right knowledge. Sociology can be used for many things from criminal investigations to management and product efficiency, and can even take part in policy debates and social movements.
There is still constant tension to those out there that want to use it for organizational reasons and social problems to make social control more effective. But they’re others out there who will use it for exploitation to domination and even manipulation if they wish to.
Sociology (James Fulcher and John Scott) 4th edition
Growing up in a small town, complaints were often said about not enough things to do or places to eat. We feel deprived because stores and restaurants are not open later than six o’ clock, but in various places of the world, there is nowhere to get what you need, or not enough money to buy it. We are so incredibly privileged in this country as well as other select countries in the world. Yet we choose to compare ourselves to those more fortunate than us rather than being thankful for how much we have.
Since the United States is currently in recession, unemployment rates are unusually high, compared to Americas history of unemployment. It’s currently at 7.3 percent according to the bureau of labor statistics, while in Spain it’s 25 percent. It’s eye opening just to look at the facts but there is so much more that occurs in this world. In some third world countries the idea of a job is absurd. Many people including children and law enforcement resort to crime to feed themselves and their family. The slums are filled with gangsters, drugs, and prostitution.
According to IndiaTimes.com, there are over thirty thousand accounts of murder per year. Homelessness is not unusual and families struggle to break the chain of poverty. Myself as well as many of my friends complain about school and fail to show up to class on a pretty regular basis, kids around the world wish for no more than an education so they can have a shot at a successful life. It’s mind bottling to think that people can have such different mind sets. How can people and places be so different from one another?
The way we live and the amenities we have are completely dependent upon where we live, the physical climate, the population, and the culture. To be born into an impoverished area is simply bad fortune because to break free of that kind of situation is next to impossible. The only way those people and situations can be helped are from people who have more than just what they need. These people are not simply rich people who send a lot of money to charity, but people who genuinely care about the less fortunate, and are willing and ready to help however they can. These kinds of people, I believe are the cause of the good fortune in this country and others. The good will and positive intentions of others in other countries are soiled by the negativity of their surrounding environment.
No matter what the cause of the poverty in these countries, a lot can be learned from the sociological patterns of our country and ones like it, as well as smaller, third world countries. The people and cultures that every country is composed of, is what causes the society in an area to be what it is. The chain of poverty in these places is a terrible thing that occurs in these countries, but is something that is essential to our world. We will always have prosperous nations and poor nations and everything in between.
In today’s day and age the identity of a college degree compared to a person with no degree has changed a lot in my option over time. Back before I was born it was always you worked for the family business or you went to college to get a degree. In that time whether your degree was a teacher, doctor, lawyer, or banker it seemed your identity was you have your degree so you’re looked up upon opposed to the young man or young women that stayed at home to work on the farm of help the family business. During that time for most families it was right for the oldest or any number of family members to not go to college and work for the family farm or business because the business or family business had to keep going when mom and dad were gone or if anything ever happened to them. I believe it was more of an honor and the society looked at you as upper class even if you were from a lower economic class. Everyone believed that it was more of a privilege to go to college, to me it seemed like the women and men that went to college had the same identity as those that were drafted or joined the military.
I feel like in today’s time the identity of a college degree has gone in the opposite direction. I have friends back home that don’t even consider college because they can get a construction degree or start working for some type of firm and they work their way up. It seems more like most people today don’t look at college as a privilege but more as they have to do it because their parents want them to do it, or they have to do it because it’s looked at as more like high school where everyone goes just because. People are able to take over a farm or business just like they were before but it seems smarter because of the money and that fact that you can make just as much doing that opposed to going to college and getting a degree then doing the same thing or something different. The identity of a degree has less value because of what happens after you graduate.
Yes you can still get a degree and make plenty of money and be looked at as a great accomplishment because you took the time to go to school. But the identity of the young man or women that doesn’t go to school but makes just as much money and is just as much successful it looked at as better. If you find what you want to do and you don’t have to go to college to be able to succeed in today’s world why would you go to college and try and get a degree? I think being successful and being able to make it trumps you getting a degree, being successful, and making it. Not that It’s better but to people and the way it’s looked at, it seems they don’t care as much if you get your degree but just how you’re doing or how much better off you are now that you didn’t get your degree.
Social identity is a big deal in todays no matter what you talk about, but having a college degree compared to not having a college degree isn’t looked at as a bad thing or looked down upon. It seems that society and the social way we think that it’s accepted to not get a degree if you can provide and get the job done.
By Marci Scripter
Some people in this world feel that farmers and ranchers are not necessary in this day and age. This is not true at all in my opinion. There is so many reasons why we need farmers and ranchers to stay around and keep passing there knowledge down from generation to generation. Plus growing and producing the food we eat every day. Without them it would be so different without them and meet and grains would be even more expensive.
Farming and ranching is not what society thinks it is all about. They think that ranchers are cruel to their animals and just abuse them by beating them and putting them in such poor conditions. The only reasons people think this way is they see videos and pictures on the computer that people like PETA but out to scare use. They’re just trying to take ranchers out of business. Just because you see something go wrong or someone do something they are not supposed to do at a ranch don’t mean all of the ranchers in this world are like that. Most ranchers take pride in what they do and in their animals. Some treat their animals better than their own family.
With farmers so people think that they are taking up land that they can use for development such and towns and cities to bring more jobs and businesses to each of their communities. Farms have changed so much in the past 30 years that if is so different then long ago. With the development of technology they have grown. If we didn’t have farmers then we could not have all the wonderful foods we have today. Even if people think they are not healthy and not organic, but infect that are. They are they are made with love, sweat and, tears. In my mind that is organic. The farmer puts hard work and takes pride in what they produce. If we didn’t have them we couldn’t have as much food in this world. Plus we couldn’t have as many jobs to. I’ve read that every one out of twelve jobs in the US has to do with agriculture. People don’t see that agriculture is in every part of their life. Such as clothing and the products they use every day. Starting with you clothing, most of you clothing like your cloths and your socks are made from cotton or wool. We have to have farmers to plant the cotton seeds and to watch over the plaint while it grows. Then they have to harvest the plant. Then it can go to the factory where it is turned in to thread. With wool you need the rancher that takes care of his flock. This is what a group of sheep are called. With taking care of the sheep the farmer has to feed and water the sheep and give it medicine so they will not get sick. They even shave them at least once a year. Then to wool gets turned in to many different things. The sheep can be used for their meat too. Even you makeup or even your kids craft glue is made from things in agriculture. Pig fat in used in you makeup.
As you can see there is a lot of things in your like that has to do with farmers and ranchers. We need to help the farmers and ranchers to keep their jobs and there lively hoods. Let them pass it on from generation to generation. You can do this by buying there produces even if it is just a pair of wool socks for the winter. So please try to look passed what the media think of the farmers and ranchers, go and see a farm and get your own view on them. Plus please tell them thank you for all their hard work and dedication.
I am who I am because of him…
My family consists of two brothers, my parents, and I. We’ve always been a very close, brave family. We are all some how one anothers rock. Every single one of my family members has their own unique, beautiful qualities that defines who they truly are. For example, Ivan, my older brother has multiple fascinating qualities. He’s the bravest man I know. He has to appreciate just about everything there is in this world. And finally, he’s inspiring. Being the most amazing quality yet. He makes me be who I am today, making my identity become what it has to this present day.
Ivan has to be the strongest person I have met in my life. I grew up with him, having him as an older brother. Since then he has undergone 22 surgeries in his life. Soon to be 23 surgeries. He was born with hydrocephalus, autism, and epilepsy. Making him very ill at times, yet he keeps fighting. Always finding ways to face his fears and pulling through all the difficult situations. It’s a very hard situation to be in but it is always worth it because I do believe it makes me who I am today. He’s demonstrates us how to be strong and pull through all the obstacles put our way.
Even after everything Ivan has undergone he still seems to appreciate everything. Not just what’s truly important but the simple things in life. Perhaps it’s all these insane conditions and life changing experiences that have made him so appreciative. If you ask me, I know not everyone would look at life so positive after going through hell and back. Perhaps his attitude and appreciative ways have gotten him this far in life and is why he has been so fortunate. I hope to continue learning from him and keep growing as a person. He only makes me a better person each and everyday of my life. And again giving me a lesson. How to appreciate what’s truly important in life. Not to take things for granted.
I’ve had quite a few inspirational people in my life, but no one like my older brother. He has survived so much and still always manages to keep smiling. He never complains about a single thing. No matter how much pain he is going through or how terrified he is about what is to come he’s still the strongest one. There are times I try and put myself in his place and it is so very difficult. I cannot imagine going through what he goes through. Living in his shoes, his life. Ivan is truly such and inspiration. He just keeps surprising me everyday, as I go on with life.
Life makes many turns and people come and go. Many will make a huge impact but those will be very few. I have to consider myself one of the luckiest girls on this planet having such a great family that surrounds me. All of them being unique and their own identity. Ivan being the bravest of them all. Along with the most appreciative. Not to mention how inspirational he is! Making me who I am today. I can only hope to learn much more from him and with him. Ivan being my hero, my brother, and my angel.
Fulcher, James and John Scott., “ Sociology” Oxford University Press Inc: New York, 2011
People With Tattoo's
By Haylie Montoya
Many people have tattoos; there are some with meaning and some without meaning. There also are many people who think badly of you if you have tattoos and some people support tattoos. Some people classify people with tattoos uneducated, classless, cheap, or are into drugs and alcohol. That is not always true. There are people who are educated, have class and are not into drugs and alcohol with tattoos. They're doctors with tattoos and they save lives on a daily basis and people are saying they are uneducated. Cops, firefighters and people in the military also may have tattoos and they also help save lives daily, they also fight for our country and some do more for people than people without tattoos do. Yes, there are people with tattoos that are in to drugs and alcohol and are not educated but there also are people that do not have tattoos and are the same way. Tattoo's can affect someone's job and I disagree with that to a point. Some tattoo's can be inappropriate such as being gang related. In that case then yes it should affect a job but they can cover it up instead of losing their job. If you just got hit by a car and its life or death are you going to let yourself die because you don't want someone that has a tattoo not help you? I don't think so.
Everyone has a different way of expressing something, some it is through tattoos. Some people have tattoos that have very special meaning to them and they express that by putting it on their body. Others express it in another way. People may also have tattoos that can be seen on purpose because the tattoo shows what they are allergic to or if they have some type of condition such as being diabetic. They do this so if something happens to they and someone is helping them they can see what they can and cannot do. That tattoo alone can save someone’s life. Tattoos are a form of art. Is there that big of a difference from wearing art on your shirt or putting it on a piece of paper compared to putting it on your body?
More and more people are starting to get tattoos and more and more people are starting to judge those people. Judging someone by having a tattoo or not is stupid and immature. Someone having a tattoo or not should not be the determining factor on someone’s class, education or if they are drug addicts or alcoholics. Some people get tattoos when they are young and not fully thinking it through and regret it later on in life but that doesn't make them any less of a person. Everyone also has a past, no matter what they have one and some is worse than others but people also can change. Some people's tattoo's remind them of their past and remind them not to go back to that. Everyone may not seem eye to eye on it which is fine, you can't expect that but you also don't know the full story behind their tattoos. Tattoo's is not what makes someone 'trash' or 'classy'. Their personality does.
**What Effect does moving have on teenagers
By: Regina Johnson**
You ever picture yourself leaving everything you know and love. I never did then it happened. My whole life I lived in Illinois and I absolutely loved it. I had all my friends and family near me. I had everything I needed and wanted. But then something changed, I came home from the last day of school and i got the most terrible news I could ever ask for. My mom came up to me and said "We're moving to Kansas." At first I thought it was a joke so I started laughing but then she said she was serious. At that moment I felt everything get ripped out of me.
So you want to know what effect does moving have on teenagers well I’ll tell you once you come to the realization that your moving and there’s nothing you can do about it you feel defeated. Once you think about the move you can’t help to think that this is the most terrible thing you have been through. you then start realizing that your about to leave everything you know and love, your leaving everything that makes life normal to you; your home that you stayed in almost your entire life, your neighborhood, your friends won’t be with you anymore, you’ll be forced out of your comfort zone.
Teenagers are the mainly affected by moves. Everyone thinks being a teen is the most amazing thing ever but in reality if you’re in that situation it’s not especially if you have parents that like to move from place to place. It can affect anyone's life but mostly teens. Saying goodbye is probably the hardest thing to do especially if your leaving everything behind that made you, you. Moving place to place affects teens mentally, physically and emotionally. It affects teens mentally because when you move to somewhere you are highly unknown and people treat you differently, they start treating you like an outcast. It takes time for everyone to get comfortable with you and vice-versa. Physically teens are affected because moving to far distances will take a lot of energy from you which can distract you from school or work. The emotional effect however will also rise when a teen has constantly moved for their parents. It reflects emotions such as anger, hate, regret, and loss of love. They may feel anger towards their parents and feel as if their parent does not love them enough to think what they want may be different than what their kids need. They may turn to hate their parent's decisions and hate any idea their parents may have to offer. They may feel that they are losing their freedom and may regret being born to their parents. Emotional effects will cause teens to have many problems in life if not taken care of. Teens that have a lot of anger and hatred built up inside of them for so long will end up blowing up and causing some major event in their life or others.
But some youth who are subjected to moving frequently and, their lives distupted do however, show signs of accepting situations as they happen and dealing with them the best they can. They have a better perception of life, how other people live and as adults can also move frequently. After numerous family moves, some often develop positive personality traits, such as independence and resilience, improve their involvement with positive peer groups, relationships with their parents, attachments to the community, educational achievement, and positive personality traits. Ultimately, they will decrease their chances of developing problem behaviors. Teens are constantly making new friends to replace the ones that they have lost; they are often more outgoing and independent. They learn to adapt quickly to fit into this ever changing environment. This can be a benefit to moving from place to place like I did.
The Courage to Stand Up for what is Right
One day in December of 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, a black woman named Rosa Parks took the bus to go home after work. She was sitting in the section farther back of the bus that was designated for blacks, when the first rows of seats that were reserved for white people were full and another white man entered the bus. The bus driver then told the blacks on the bus to move back so that the white man could take a seat right behind the reserved whites-only section. The others did as they were told, but Mrs. Parks refused and for this she was arrested for breaking Montgomery’s law on segregation.
At first this may seem like a minor incident that must have happened many times before, but Mrs. Parks’ courage and determination to peacefully resist when she was told to give up her seat on the bus for a white man, contributed to many other positive results that followed and are well known today. As a result of that incident, blacks boycotted the Montgomery bus service for more than a year which finally ended in fairer treatment when they used pubic transportation. The incident also helped Martin Luther-King become more visible and better known as the leader of the boycott, and where he moved on to his other well known civil rights efforts.
While this story is still well known today, I continue to be inspired by the simple actions of this woman. I am a white male who learned of Mrs. Parks’ act of courage during class while attending high school in Alberta, Canada. At first I didn’t really understand the importance of her actions, and felt that it was just another incident that we were learning about that happened in another country a long time ago. The more our class discussed it though, it made me realize that this was an example of exactly the kind of action I hope I would take in the same situation. It is an example of how the small actions of one individual can help bring positive changes in society. I admire the courage that it must have taken for Mrs. Parks to stand up against something that was so wrong in society, not only as a black person standing up to a white person in those days, but also as a woman standing up to a man for what was right. Mrs. Parks did both of these things firmly but peacefully, in what could have been a very serious incident that could have caused her physical harm.
There are certainly lots of examples where people have shown extraordinary courage when it would have been easier to simply do what was expected even if it was wrong; after all it is easier not to make waves even if we don’t agree with how things are being controlled. This is one example where one small courageous act influenced others in other cities to take similar actions, and helped them realize that peaceful protests would work where they were.
Today in my own world of college, sports, and iphones, I don’t see racism as much as others might in other parts of the country and the world. I feel fortunate for this, and I count people of different color, gender, size, and beliefs among my circle of best friends. I don’t know if I will ever run into a serious situation like the one Mrs. Parks went through, but if I do I like to believe I will have the courage to peacefully and forcefully stand up for what is right. I believe that fighting back does not always have to involve violence, and that making important changes in society involves having the courage to take a stand which can influence others to help make things right.
By: Ashley Elsasser
Social identity is what makes you who you are. You make your own identity the way you do this is by showing people what you want them to see and make them believe you are that person. The way you decide who to become has a lot to do with how you are raised. My social identity is a farm girl who rides the rodeo circuit during the summer and only dates rodeo boys. My social identity came from the person I admire most in my life which is my father.
I grew up with a father that works seven jobs but his main one is farming. People judge me as a stupid farm girl that knows nothing but they are wrong. My father raised me working by his side learning how to take care of myself. I am a farm girl and a rodeo girl like people think I am. I am proud to be that girl and I would not want people to see me any different.
Farmers play a big role in the world even today. People may look down on farmers because they are usually covered in dirt and they may think that they are not smart people. Just because they do not have a high paying job in an office or are dirty does not mean anything. They are dirty because they work hard all day to grow crops to make your food that you eat every day.
It takes a lot of knowledge and hard work to be a successful farmer. Farming is not as easy as people think. Farmers are strong physically and mentally. People give farmers the social identity of not to bright and anti-social but that is not the truth in my eyes. I think that being seen as a farm girl is the best social identity I could have asked for. When people say I am a farm girl I say “yes I am and I am proud of it and would not trade it for anything in the world.”
Farming takes a lot of science and math I have learned that from my father. I also found out that you have to be social. The mixture of chemicals that you have to put on the crops that is still safe for humans to mess with takes science. The way math plays into framing by the crop per acre. Figuring out how much chemical needs to on the field and how much water to give the crops while they are growing also includes math. The amount of hay and grain you feed your cattle and making sure that they have enough pasture per head also takes a lot of math. Not having enough grass for the amount of cattle you are raising can lead to not having a good calf crop to sale.
A farmer come across many people on a daily biases. To be a successful farmer you have to deal with the seed salesman, the coop people, other farmers, and the people at the business that you buy all your machinery form. A farmer will also have to deal with a vet each year when giving calve shots and has to deal with the people at the sale barn when it is time to sale the calves each year, he may also have to deal with a person that he rents a bull from if he does not own his own bull.
//James Jones //
Concepts and Theories
Race and Racism.
The thing about race and racism is not that it’s about your color people are being identified by more than just that now of days. All sorts of things: hair color, eye color, body form, skin color. No one is perfect in any type of way so everyone is being judge in every different way there is because someone is always going to have something to say about someone. No matter how perfect someone may think that they are there is going to be something that someone doesn’t like about them and they are going to critic them. Racism is a common used word for someone that it not being given their human rights and justice for the act that is being put against them. Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequalities among races.
It’s all how people use the words that there using to make you feel a certain way. On how they proceed about it. Racism makes its way into our heads is through the media. By letting things go to their head when it’s not really what they see and hear to be made out to be. The way that people where brought up is really the main reasoning behind knowing if someone is racist or not or to have those types of tendencies. Theories of racism argue that racism is a form of extreme prejudice and is a manifestation of the psychological process of social perception.
A prejudice is a form of extreme stereotype, and a stereotype is an attitude of one person towards another individual or group. Racism one of the Nation’s biggest problem when it comes down to everything. Money, Job, Rights, Freedom. You will always have to face adversity in life no matter what the situation is having to overcome everything making sure that you got what you want in life. Racism is the belief that characteristics and abilities can be attributed to people simply on the basis of their race and that some racial groups are superior to others. Racism and discrimination have been used as powerful weapons encouraging fear or hatred of others in times of conflict and war, and even during economic downturns.
We generally believe that people's behaviors derive in some way from their underlying attitudes and ideologies. Racism is controversial both because there is little scholarly agreement about the meaning of the concept "race", and because there is also little agreement about what does and does not constitute discrimination. Critics argue that the term is applied differentially, with a focus on such prejudices by whites and defining mere observations of racial differences as racism. Racism was a driving force behind the transatlantic slave trade, and behind states based on racial segregation such as the U.S. in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and South Africa under apartheid. Practices and ideologies of racism are universally condemned by the United Nations in the Declaration of Human Rights.
References .wikipedia.org/wiki/Racism, http://www.globalissues.org/article/165/racism
single mother statistics
Being a single mother use to be limited to women who are poor and minorities. Now days it has become a “norm” in our society. Most children are born to unwed mothers and the mothers are under 30 years of age. In 2012 our nation counted in 12.2 million single parent families where more than 80% were headed by a single mother. There is about a total of 15 million children (1 out of 3) who are being raised without their father. Within these single mothers 45% have never been married and 55% are either divorced, separated or widowed and have more than one child. As a single mother I do agree with these statistics. I am a single mother of three kids and divorced. Their father does not come to see them for his visitation and he never calls them. I did have my oldest right out of high school and was not married. My life was turned around completely after becoming a mother.
Single mothers often put their education on hold or don’t have enough to pay for their education expenses. They do get generous financial aid which helps them out. I did put my life on hold and ended up going down a different road with my education than originally planned. I am a no traditional student. Which does make it harder for a single mother of my age to bond or make any connections with their peers. With my first semester back to school it is difficult to separate my life from school. In the winter season and everyone getting sick I tend to miss class because as a single mother your kids always come first to school and work.
About two thirds of single mothers are working outside of the hoe and two fifths of those mothers are employed full time for an entire year. Along with a small income only one third receive child support. Personally child support helps out more than anyone knows even with me having a part time job. Two fifths of single mothers receive assistance. Rather it be TANF, Food Stamps, Medicare, CCAP, or living in government housing. From a single mothers point of view these assistance are a gift. However not all single mothers want to live off assistance for the rest of their lives. So they do try to move up in the world and better themselves for their children.
Single mothers do have a hard time but all know that it is worth it. They do everything they can to make sure their kids are taking care of before themselves and just to see a smile on their faces is always worth it. For those who are able to go back to school it can be difficult are hard to balance both. However, in the end it is all taken care of. There is a lot of assistance and help out there for single mothers and some depend on that to help them get by. In the end of it all, just because they are single mothers does not make them any less of a person then mothers who are married or mothers who do not struggle. All mothers want the same thing, for their children to be healthy and happy.
Jessica Razo- single mother
Redlining is the practice of arbitrarily denying or limiting financial services to specific neighborhoods, generally because its residents are people of color or are poor. It’s a discriminatory practice, involving lenders which refuse to lend money or extend credit to borrowers in certain “struggling” areas of town. It is against the law to discriminate against borrowers based on race or income level, among other factors. Redlining became known as such because lenders would draw a red line around a neighborhood on a map, often targeting areas with a high concentration of minorities, and then refusing to lend in those areas because they considered the risk too high.
Yes discriminatory practices did exist in the banking and insurance industries way before the 1930s. The HOLC instituted a redlining policy by developing color-coded maps of the American cities. The homogeneous housing areas received green lines, black and poor white neighborhoods were usually known by red lines denoting their undesirability. Without the bank loans and insurance, the redlined areas lacked the capital essential. That being said this discrimination was very damaging. The negative effects weren’t recognized until the 1960s. The community activists in Chicago were unsatisfied by the results of The Fair Housing Act of 1968 and the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act of 1975.
Due to this they spearheaded further reform, this lead the nation in identifying and addressing the redlining issues. “Greenlining” was then developed in the early 1970s by the Citizens Action Program and a cross racial group of all community leaders. This was done by asking residents to deposit savings into the banks that pledged to reinvest funds in urban communities. Based upon race and ethnicity, the FHA played a very big role in legalization and institutionalization of racism and segregation. FHA’s mortgage lending requirements were established by The Underwriting Manual. Basically this institutionalized racism and segregation in housing industries. The FHA had a positive impact but also had a very negative impact. They were isolated to new residential developments, not all of them but specifically the ones on the edge of metropolitan areas and no inner city neighborhoods.
It was now easier for the families to purchase new homes than it was to modernize old homes, which meant many old homes were then abandoned in the inner city properties. The FHA used redlining when deciding which neighborhoods should or should not be approved. James Loewen wrote a book in 2006 called Sundown Towns, the FHA publications implied that different races should not share neighborhoods, and then would repeatedly list characteristics. Some of the characteristic were words like, “inharmonious racial or nationality groups” and “smoke, odors, and fog.”
FHA obviously caused dome serious harm. Detroit grew out in the 1930’s. The white families started settling near the black. Blacks were surrounded in the 1940’s and due to their area and how close they were to the “inharmonious racial groups” blacks nor the whites could get FHA insurance. When 1941 came around one of the enterprising white developers built a concrete wall between the whites and blacks and of course the FHA appraised and then approved the mortgages for only the white properties. Not only is this wrong but it is embarrassing to know that this is how our world use to be but I am so thankful that things have changed and gotten better. There is always room for improvement but we are getting there.
**The animal activists
By Chantee Luna**
“All beings tremble before violence. All fear death, all love life. See yourself in others. Then whom can you hurt? What harm can you do?”- Buddha. We have all experienced some sort of animal activism either in the news or in person. They strive to increase the animal rights movement which is a global movement that seeks to end the moral and legal distinction drawn between human and animals, to eliminate the status of animals as property, and to stop the use of animals in research, food, clothing, and entertainment industries. The average animal activist protests against animal testing, slaughter houses/hunting, and animal shows such as circuses and zoos.
First off, animal activists are strictly concerned for the animals’ welfare at slaughterhouses and the unnecessariness on the hunting grounds. There is both reported and video evidence of animal cruelty at the slaughterhouse. This year there was Tyson pork factory farm in Oklahoma that abused animals. There were thousands of pregnant sows in gestation crates, which didn’t allow them to even lie down or turn around. The other pigs were being punched, kicked, and slammed against the concrete floors. Although, there is a humane method of livestock slaughter act, some farms choose to ignore this due to losing time or money from stunning each individual animal. Hunting is also something a lot of animal activists protest against because some people do it strictly for fun. People not only set out to hunt on their own, but also participate in hunting contests and competitions. With a big group of people hunting is double the amount of animals that are killed. Animal activists get so upset with hunting because, we are starting to see children shoot animals with no mercy. In foreign countries people are hunting animals that are very close to extinction.
Next, animal activists’ protests against animal experimentation. It is said that in animal research that cruel things happen behind the doors. No medicine to rid of or even ease pain, force feeding the animals pills and liquids, dropping substances into their eyes, and infecting animals with life threatening diseases such as cancer and Aids. Several animals are used in these experiments. This includes mice, rabbits, monkeys, guinea pigs, farm animals, cats and dogs. Most animals must go through the procedures and testing, and when the testing is done they are either killed or used to breed, then killed. As Arthur Schopenhauer said “The assumption that animals are without rights, and the illusion that our treatment of them has no moral significance, is a positively outrageous example of Western crudity and barbarity. Universal compassion in the only guarantee of morality.” Animal activists protest for either better treatment of the animals or to stop animal testing all together.
Lastly, animal activists’ also protest the use of animals in entertainment shows such as circuses and zoos. The animals in this type of setting do not get the nature experience that an animal should have. Lions, elephants, monkeys, and birds all roam around in cages that are created too small for a nature environment they are used to. If you have ever been to a circus you will see how bad the animals are treated. They are whipped in order to move a certain direction and taught to do unnatural things like jump through hoops of fire. In return they might get a good meal but most will never have the freedom to walk around the environment they were born into. I went to the circus with my family a few years ago and I saw around 50 people protesting for the animals. They stated that circuses were cruel. At the time I wasn’t quite sure what they were talking about, but after the show started I saw it live. The elephants were whipped during the whole time they were entering the arena, while they were preforming, and even while exiting. Same case with lions and other animals.
As you can see, animal activists have several reasons for protesting but the most important is to try and give animals a better life. Animals are treated poorly at slaughterhouses/ hunting grounds, in research facilities, and even in entertainment shows such as circuses and zoos. Most of society treats the common animal activists like they are weird, messed up, or even evil. In reality they just have a big heart for animals and think they should be treated well, especially considering that we use them for a lot of things. In my personal opinion I agree with what animal activists are trying to do for the animals. I love animals just as much and would like to see a better change for their well-being. Next time you see a animal activist, don’t be quick to judge.
On the Basis of Morality by Arthur Schopenhauer
**Our Technology Dependency.
It is difficult to admit that as a society we are addicted to technology, gadgets and the internet. We can't go out without our phones, we check Facebook everyday, we love to sit around on video or movie streaming sites or blogs and forums and waste time. We like to gain information and share what we find with other people online.
An addiction can take many forms, from substances such as tobacco and alcohol to other things such as unnecessary money spending(shopping), certain types of food and even technology and the internet. Addiction is a psychological attachment to something, and with addiction comes dependency. Dependency tells our mind that we need some more of a certain thing, after dependency comes withdrawal. Withdrawals happen to addicts who need a little fix of whatever they are addicted to, people who are addicted to technology will become enraged once their gadget breaks or their internet goes out for a few days, and they will do anything within their power to get their desired addiction back.
People addicted to technology can feel the same feeling of euphoria someone addicted to alcohol or sex feels, they also have the inability to tell how much time they've spent before a screen. Many people who are addicted to technology have affected their social interaction in one way or another, whether in school, workplace, family or other relationships. Some have heard of the girl who won't stop texting in the dinner-table or the guy who didn't go to sleep until 5 am because he was watching some show online or maybe even the guy that got fired from the office due to browsing the internet during work-time or even the young mother who neglected her child over Facebook. People addicted to computer or internet use can develop physical health issues which include: back-strain, weight-gain, carpal tunnel syndrome and eye-strain. While some users develop this through their computer-centered jobs, others don't get payed to endure all this physical pain but will endure it to satisfy their addiction.
We've all heard the phrase "there is an app for that," this is not far from the truth and in this days you can do everything from computer or mobile from ordering to reading a book or watching an entire film. Many things that existed have been replaced by this. It's not hard to see how far technology has come in our lifetime, in some ways, it has enhanced the way of life of many but it has all come with a consequence and that is people not being able to communicate outside of the internet or device, social interactions have been affected by this phenomenon and will continue to be affected as time goes on.
In the end, some people don't realize the consequences of technology dependence and some of the people that do don't care. It is important to be aware of these facts, and to better regulate our using time. If we allow everyone to become an ignorant internet addict then it won't be long for the world to look like a sci-fi movie wasteland.
What is Family? Over centuries the definition of family defiantly has changed. Many years ago family was a father, mother, and kid(s). No matter what was going on in their lives they stuck together through good and bad times. The wives put up with whatever their husband put them through. When their husband cheated, the wives would look the other way. When their husband put their hands on them, the wives would forgive them and stick around. When they allowed their sons to go to school and act however because they were boys and not all their daughters to do the same, the wives would stay silent backing up their husband.
Now a day’s family range from a father, mother, and kid(s) to two fathers and a kid(s). Society has changed so much. It is common for people who wed to get divorced. Individuals do not fight or try like they use to keep their family together. One mistake and instantly one is asking for a divorce. They are not seeing if they can fix whatever is broken in their relationship with counseling or talking to a past. The answer seems to be divorce. What happened to the vows that were recited back and forth in front of friends and family? Where did all the love go?
Divorce is becoming something that happens more often than not. Over the years it is just not as rare to hear that someone’s marriage ended in divorce. I personally believe that because people’s morals and values are not what they use to be is the reason divorce is more common. Because our society has allowed individuals to believe that it is okay to give up on a relationship and not stick it out. As a society we have failed out children. I say that because what are they learning? I personally believe by showing our kids that divorce is the answer its a huge mistake.
Every kid wants to grow up in a home where their father and mother both live together. They do not want to have to split holidays and family functions. They want to grow up learning what their parents believe in and stand by their beliefs. They do not want to have to wonder where they belong or fell like outsiders when they are around. Kids watch and take in everything that happens around them. It is our job as a society to build back up what family use to be. Because of our relaxed attitude as a society is the reason things and people are the way they are.
If we do not change as a society the number of people getting married is drastically going to change. When the younger generation grows up to be old enough to get married, they will not see it as something they want to do. They will not want to do it because they will see marriage as just a piece of paper, nothing to cherish and work hard to maintain.
It is important that we really look at our families and see where we as a society are falling short. What has changed in our family? If it is nothing, then good.. For those of us who have gone by the wayside and did whatever we wanted without really thinking about what we are showing our kids, then we need to dig deep within and fix it. Our kids need to know that marriage and family are important and that without family we have nothing. I personally believe it is sad that our society has changed so drastically and I just want it fixed.
Education of women in society
The Literature on education and class has been mainly concerned with the persistence of inequalities in educational achievement. Girls were excluded and sidelined but historically they have overtaken boys. In the 19th century, girls were stationed to do house work and take care of the kids. They had little of formal education which was beyond elementary level. By the 1800s the teaching skills were taught differentiated by gender; girls were learning domestic skills and boys learned craft skills and elementary arithmetic. Abbott and Wallace believed girls were considered being acceptable to stay home helping their mothers around the house and acquiring domestic skills. In the second half of the century, secondary schools for girls were gradually established.
There were two models that helped the girls in their education: Cheltenham Ladies College and North London Collegiate. Cheltenham Ladies College, found in 1854, was a model for the girl’s education which provided improvement training for women’s traditional roles. North London Collegiate, opened in 1850, was a model for the Girl’s Public Day School Company which was funding thirty-eight schools by 1901. In the 19th century, women were excluded from Universities. The University of London was the first to allow girls well women to take degrees while Cambridge and Oxford slowly opened their doors. The percentage of high education for women remained low for a long time.
The 1944 Education Act made free secondary education available to all, but that doesn’t mean they pursued the same curriculum as boys. Girls were moved towards extensions of domestic role and boys were moved towards technical and scientific work. Heaton and Lawson did not require girls and boys to take the same subjects. There are three responses that Feminists argued about how science was taught in a ‘masculine’ way. First stated girl-friendly science: Making science more attractive to girls by introducing topics that interest them. Second stated Feminine science: replacing competitive masculine behavior in the laboratory with a more cooperative feminine approach. Last stated Feminist science: challenging masculine ways of thinking by arguing that scientific method should give more weight to feminine intuition.
These debates exemplify the problem between the liberal and radical tendencies in feminism. In liberal feminism it shows equal opportunities for women within the existing system. After the passage of the 19th amendment liberal feminism was quiet until the 1960s when it awoke during the civil rights movement by realizing that similar to race discrimination there was a great deal of sex discrimination inherent in the system. Radical feminism results about how women starting to think and act like men. According to that, masculine ways should be challenged and replaced by feminine ones. Researchers Spender and Stan worth believe boys got more attention and interest than girls. They also think boys tend to receive higher marks than girls and also perform better in examinations. This led to girls better of being in an all-girls school or class.
Schools Minister believed that separating the sexes would get more girls taking science and engineering courses. Recently results have showed that girls are better performers than boys at A-level. Due to this success it reflected their access to higher education and considerably outnumbered boys in 2000. In 2009, women had the best percentage in higher education participation rate than boys. Girls tend to perform better at coursework while boys better at unseen examination. The educational success of girls should not be taken to mean that older gender patterns have disappeared.
Dropping Out of School
The main reasons students drop out of school today consist of mental issues, failing grades, and teen pregnancy. Students must realize that valuing education ensures a secure and stable future. Keeping education as a first priority helps students focus on educational goals.
Over the years, “Approximately fifty percent of students with a mental disorder drop out of high school, the highest dropout rate of any disability group.” Alcohol and substance abuse cause mental issues and disorders such as anorexia nervosa, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and panic disorder, which can lead to students dropping out. The students with these types of mental issues have trouble staying on task and often have behavior problems.
Students’ grades contribute to the drop out rates more and more every day. This usually happens during the middle of the year when students come back after a vacation. Students do not work hard like they did in the beginning of the year. According to James Lehman, “It’s easy for children to lose energy, and when that happens, a kind of lethargy can set in.” Usually when students start to fail their classes they consider dropping out of school. Instead of giving up they should consider asking for help because a diploma will help in the future with a job that they desire.
Teen pregnancy remains a huge issue for high school students. “It has been known that three out of ten teens will get pregnant at least once before the age of twenty. That’s 750,000 teen pregnancies every year.” Parenthood creates many difficulties, such as completing homework while taking care of a baby. Overwhelming responsibilities makes dropping out of school appealing to a young mother. “Usually less than half of the teen mothers ever graduate from high school.” When teen moms drop out of school, they do not receive the diploma they need to find a job to support their baby.
After considering reasons why students drop out of school, students may realize they have other options. Even though mental issues, failing grades, and teen pregnancy exist; other opportunities remain if students reach out and ask for help. Some opportunities that remain include programs for mental issues, tutoring for students that need help with their classes, and online schooling for teen moms. These opportunities will guide students to take the right path into getting their diploma in high school.
Giving my Life to Christ
By: Heather Schneider
As you grow up you hear about Christ and people start to share the Gospel with you. Well I have heard about Christ all my life from my Grandma and Grandpa but it wasn’t tell November 8, 2004 when I was in Grand Island at Weekend of Champions for a Fellowship of Christian Athletes retreat. I have gone many times before to Fellowship of Christian Athletes retreats. What this retreat is, is when a bunch of kids that believe in Christ or that want to learn more about Christ get together for the weekend and they learn about Christ and hear several different people talk and the do all different sports with their huddles and compete for Christ. They break into these groups for the whole weekend and sometimes you build a strong bond with others in your group and learn to have an accountability partner in Christ.
But this one proves to be totally different than any other one I have been to. I would usually go and get all fired up with the word and want to share the Gospel when I got home. After a week of being home I would go back to my old ways and fall into this whole “Luke warm Christian”. A luke warm Christian is one that gives their life to Christ but not really sure if they want to really live for him or not they are kind of on the fence with their beliefs and what they really want in life but in all reality sitting on the fence is just as bad as not being a believer in Christ.
But like I said November 8, 2004 was a totally different day for me. So we showed up to Weekend of Champions and put all of our stuff in an area and then went and found our huddles that we get assigned. I am usually this quiet shy person until you get to know me but not this day. I walked in knowing I wanted to fully accept Christ as my Lord and Savior. I got in my huddle and I visited with others in my huddle. We started singing and then they started by sharing the Gospel with us. At the end they asked that if anyone wants to accept Christ in their hearts to come down and nail their sins to the cross. Little did I know I was walking to the front and passing people from my Fellowship of Christian Athletes group. I nailed my sins in the cross and accepted Christ into my life that day. I can’t even put it into words how I felt that day or the feeling that I got through my whole body it was like my whole life changed. That whole weekend I was on fire it was like Christ knew I needed him in my life and weighed it so heavily on me.
When I got home after that weekend I was pumped and I later became a Fellowship of Christian Athlete leader in Nebraska City during my junior and senior year. Now that doesn’t mean I don’t struggle with my faith on a daily bases because I do. If you read through the Bible and look to God for the answers in life he will show you the way some way he always does. Because when you are reading the Bible when you are a sinner even though you ask Christ into your life you still sin. We all fall short of the glory of God. I am going to leave you with this from Luke 5:20 “When Jesus say their faith, he said, “’Friends, your sins are forgiven.”’
1. Personal Interview
2. Serendipity Student Bible. Ed. Lyman Coleman. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997. Print.
Culture in Sociology
Sociology: the scientific study of human behavior, social groups, and society. It looks at social relationships and institution going from the area of crime all the way to religion. Therefore with this being said, sociology helps us to look at life from a different prospective. We see things now as we would never see them before, in fact we also interpret things in different ways than we would. This teaches us the values of life and the basic everyday norms. The study of Sociology is divided into sections such as: culture, knowledge, and belief, social organization and control, production, Inequalities, and social divisions, and there is the group in which my study continues: Culture.
Culture according to the Wikipedia is “a modern concept based on a term first used in classical antiquity by the Roman orator Cicero: "cultura animi" (cultivation of the soul). This non-agricultural use of the term "culture" re-appeared in modern Europe in the 17th century referring to the betterment or refinement of individuals, especially through education. During the 18th and 19th century it came to refer more frequently to the common reference points of whole peoples, and discussion of the term was often connected to national aspirations or ideals. Some scientists used the term "culture" to refer to a universal human capacity”. Other sources such as the Merriam Webster tells us that culture is basically the beliefs, customs, and arts of a particular society, group, place, or time. This refers to the way a certain society would do things. As all countries have different cultures and history, each country carries it out in their own way. For an example in America the majority of people would dress in big close and nice chains, whereas in countries of the Caribbean such as Jamaica and Grenada their fashion requires everything to be fitted. They are both very much different; however this is a part of their culture.
As we may know there are many different forms of culture. In society we have Customs, laws, dress, architectural style, social standards, religious beliefs, and traditions these are all examples of cultural elements. Each one of these elements play a big part in society. Imagine a society with law. No law means no rules, and no rules means a society that does not care what happens. There would be no form of order. As stated earlier each country has its ways of fashion. This is not a rule or law, but it is just the way a particular society believes that they should dress. Other elements such as religious beliefs exist in every culture around the globe, for everybody wants to believe in something. Furthermore society is made with living standards and traditions. The living standards basically tells one the level of wealth or poverty that the society or country lives in. Traditions as many may think is the base of culture are made up with the history of a society or country, and they are repeated for years and years after their birth.
When we think of culture the first thing that comes to mind is what a certain country would do as traditions or what do they believe in. My country, the Bahamas, home of the 2012 Olympic men 4x400m relay gold medalist, the beast food under the sun, and dream place of vacation to many has its very own beliefs and cultures. The Bahamas is a Christian based country; however the crime is unexplainable. As Bahamians we believe that we are dominant in everything that we do, dress as if we own five star hotels and carry a strong accent. Developing from slaves the Bahamas found its very own traditions such as junkanoo (a large festival of costumes and groups, and others such as regatta (boat sailing contest). Like most countries Bahamians believe that they have the best culture, but if your beliefs and traditions was as good as ours, wouldn’t you?
-“SOCIOLOGY” James Fulcher and John Scott, Fourth Edition
Long Hair Don't Care
By: Christopher Speaks
Stereotyping is a part of my life. Everywhere I go its constant stares or an occasional glare. People misjudge me by giving me a label. I am a “drug head,” I am a “bad kid,” or even I am a “girl,” just because I have long hair. They assume that I am no good and over look me. They give me my social identity.
Having long hair for a guy is not a bad thing. It was actually normal for a guy in the caveman days to have long hair. Society has, since then, changed the way a man looks. They have also changed the way people look at a person with long hair. People have labeled me as a pot smoker, hippie, girl, bad kid, high school dropout, not athletic, and even an abusive person. I am actually a very shy person. I am not the usual guy with long hair either. I graduated high school and I am now pursuing a college education. I have a one year old baby boy who is very healthy and beautiful. I am married and we support ourselves with no help from our family.
It has taken me two years to grow my hair out. The reason I stopped cutting it was because I previously had come from a school in which I was not allowed to have my hair past my ears or eyebrows. When I finally came to a new high school with no limitations on my hair, I just stopped worrying about it.
Soon, cross country season was approaching and I definitely stood out. Not because I was winning my races, but because I was that “kid with the hair.” Everyone knew who I was, but did not even know my name. Running freed me from the label I was given. It made me feel like a normal person. I liked the positive attention I received from everyone at my races, but once I took my uniform off, I was back under that stereotype. I was afraid to look people in the eye and would avoid contact at all costs. Just because I was afraid what people would say about me.
I will not cut my hair because I feel like I need to be different. I do not like following the same routine that everyone is doing. I do not like just being another face in the crowd. I like to stand out, but I also do not like the judgment that comes with being different. It is just one of those things that will be around me for a long time, and I know that as long as I am different, people will judge.
The majority of people with long hair have made the stereotype that everyone has come to know, but there are many great role models with hair just like mine. Steve Prefontaine was a famous runner. He had long blonde hair, along with a long mustache. Prefontaine set many records, and gave America hope to place in the Olympics. Prefontaine was different, and stood out compared to other runners when he had done what no one else could. He would lead the running pack, and take on the most gut wrenching challenges. Even though he died young, thirty eight years ago, he is still idolized by many people.
The label people have given me has never stopped me from accomplishing my goals or dreams, even if it did hurt my feelings, or make me socially awkward at times. I am never going to change the way I am, or give up on my dreams just because it is not normal to society.
1. Speaks, Christopher. Personal Interview. 19 November 2013
By Jordan Seegmiller
Family has been an important necessity for a long time. Although we can all imagine a family, husband, wife, children, maybe throw in the old folks, too, can we see our own family tree and the ties that come with it? I am what many would label a Product of Divorce. Which is funny in a way because the only time I feel like a Product of Divorce is when I let it define me. The way I look at it I am not only a child of divorced parents but I am also an avid reader, good listener, and have a great taste in music.
However, being a Product of Divorce also means I have 4 Christmases every year instead of the one or two. Awesome, right? Yeah, in a lot of ways it is. I am also an only child. All that attention focused on one point, me. This can be a good thing and a bad thing. It was nice because when August came around and school was starting, I got my own cloths. None of those hand-me-downs for me! Birthdays were always special and never forgotten like Samantha Baker’s in that John Hughes eighties movie Sixteen Candles. But what about that first D I got my Sophomore year of high school? That wasn’t the cleanest conversation between my mom and I. I rebelled against my mother for the greater part of my teenage years. Always fighting to go out and do my own thing. Why? I didn’t know. I didn’t care. Now I realize she was just doing her job, which was to make sure I didn’t screw up too bad, being young and all that.
I often find myself wondering what on earth made my parents choose to have a kid. What is the reason behind having children? I recently watched a mystery thriller called Stoker (2013). In it a motherly character who turns out to be not so motherly states, “You know, I've often wondered why it is we have children in the first place. And the conclusion I've come to is… At some point in our lives we realize things are screwed up beyond repair. So we decide to start again. Wipe the slate clean. Start fresh. And then we have children. Little carbon copies we can turn to and say, ‘You will do what I could not. You will succeed where I have failed.’ Because we want someone to get it right this time.” Although I didn’t agree with the negative lilt to her voice carrying that line, I can see some truth in it.
What is family really? To some, family are just those people you live with, for others a simple bond of protection, like a roommate in the dorms or best friends sharing an apartment. Each family serves a purpose, broken or unbroken and each has a set of values. Relationships within a family start out stronger than those outside the boundary of the family. Each family has it’s own sense of identity, based on values. A famous quote of Leo Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina states, “All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.” He was saying that families want to be happy but as usual with a larger group of people everyone wants different things, has different values. We all want to be our own unique selves so we fight against the uniqueness of others around us. This is a major reason families have a tough time. Divorce rates, financial problems, and adultery are also large topics for controversy within the family. Forty to fifty percent of marriages today end in divorce. This doesn’t mean there is no point to marriage and having children and a family. A family can do a lot when it stands together, but is only as strong as the weakest link.
**What is religion?
By: Ashley Beek**
Religion is an important part of our society. When asked what religion people are affiliated with, most are quick to answer, but the bizarre part is not many people can truly define what religion is. By definition, religion is an organized interest group that involves other people. When first hearing the word religion, a good deal of things can come to mind. Some think of God, others think of it as a way of life. Religion doesn’t necessarily mean you have to worship something; it’s more of a structure that people base their morals and responsibilities on. It provides people with a sense of wellbeing and they are able to connect with themselves and others on many different levels. Just because you have a belief, that doesn’t mean it’s a religion. Attending church is an obligation that many people think they have to do. Others do not attend church and still have a strong believe in their faith. As long as you’re doing what makes you happy, then that’s all that matters. Expressing your religion shouldn’t be done to impress people, but merely to have an opinion in your beliefs and praise your creator. Not everyone has a religion either, and just because they don’t, it doesn’t mean that they are horrible people. They may still be deciding and exploring their options. As long as you believe in something, no one has the right to take it away from you! The first amendment even states that people have the right to practice their own religion and no one can impede on that.
Not only does religion play a role in people’s lives, but it has also been known to create controversy. With having so many different religions to choose from, people are wondering which religion is better. This controversy continues to be a problem, not only in the U.S. but also other countries. Having a religion different than someone else, doesn’t mean either of you are better than one another, it simply means you have different beliefs. Not everyone’s views are going to be the same. If everyone’s views were the same, the world would be robotic. It’s okay to express your own opinions. Is there a right religion? Some could argue that there is. According to Rev. Barry Halterman, the right religion is this: to love our Creator and all the people he created. Since not all religions are the same, what you may think is important, may not be as important to the person sitting next to you. Most religions claim they have a clear understanding of how to love and serve a higher power because of the rules they were taught, while others stray away from the Bible and interpret it in their own terms. Religion allows people to become who they want to be and express themselves individually. Having something to believe in lets people become more at peace. Several believe that acting what you’ve been taught is more important than actually believing.
In all reality, no one can really tell you what religion is. It’s up to that individual to decide what they want to believe in or if they want to believe in anything at all! There’s not ever going to be a perfect religion, just a religion that’s perfect for you. Going to church or not going to church, doesn’t affect the way you believe in something. No one should be judged on their preference of religion. Like I stated before, religion doesn’t genuinely have a definition; it’s up to you to define it. Mark Twain said it best when he quoted, “Religion consists in a set of things which the average man thinks he believes and wishes he was certain of.”
By: Rebecca Aschenbrenner
During the 1900’s, many different view, like religious, or civic, started to develop, about prostitution, in the United States. Most thought of prostitution as inhumane, or despicable. The government, and many other people view prostitution as not legal, or as an immoral act, but some people, based on class, or social perspective, think prostitution as acceptable in today’s world. It just depends on your point of view.
I view prostitution as a situational circumstance. For some people, it is the last thing that they can turn to. I believe that that is partly the governments fault. They say it is illegal, but don’t realize that the people doing prostitution, might be in poverty, and that might be their last choice, and there is nothing they can do about it. The government is also not doing a lot to help them out. The arrest them from doing it, but that does not mean they just aren’t going to try it again. The have to do something to help them get by.
With my background, of being a catholic, I believe that it is wrong to do prostitution, but you have got to think about why they are doing it. Is it the only thing they can do to get by? Do they only have one choice, even though it may not be the right choice? Are they educated enough to know that there are other choices for them out there? I think we need to give them more options to help themselves. Maybe once they are caught, and when they get out of jail, maybe make them take a class or something, which will make them realize their other options!
When looking at prostitution, you should also look how they were raised? Was their mother a prostitute? Maybe that was the only way that the mother knew how to make money for her kids, she is maybe just trying to feed her kids. What kind of environment were they raised around? Did they see a lot of prostitution when they were kids? Many different things can make them feel like that’s what they have to do.
According to www.tandfonline.com, “the sociologically defined definition is prostitution is an occupation in which an individual sells sex in a promiscuous and emotionally indifferent manner” The website also says that prostitution is defined into four parts. The four parts are, (1) and occupation; (2) an act of selling; (3) a sexual exchange; and the last one is (4) a promiscuous and emotionally indifferent activity. This means that there are a couple different reasons people fall into prostitution. The way you start prostitution, depends on several different factors.
With the first part of prostitution would be the occupation, and that is probably the most major part of prostitution. Many people do it to make money. To survive. Many people say that prostitution leads to violence, but that is the risk that some of them are willing to take to live, and survive in this world. They feel like they have to do something to save their lives, and prostitution is the easiest way.
I do believe that prostitution should be illegal, but they should make a program to teach prostitutes that there are other options. That they can make it in this world without selling themselves out for money. We need to open their eyes, and help them make the right choices. Sometimes they just are not educated enough to realize what they are doing is wrong. They just need a little push to figure out what’s right.
By Emily Johnston
In western culture there were three main perspectives of how the nuclear family—the modern family of the time—developed. They were the functionalist, the Marxist, and the feminist. The functionalist approach was based on social institutions, the Marxist on capitalism, and the feminist on patriarchic society. All three perspectives were developed in the 20th century and none appear to be widely accepted today due to changes over time. The women in society are no longer considered the “housewives,” and the men the “breadwinners.”
The functionalist approach was the first perspective that tried to explain how the modern family developed. It was based on the opinion that social institutions were developed to meet the basic needs of a society. (Haggar) For the family, these needs were primary socialization and personality socialization. “Primary socialization was the process through which children acquired the basic values of society from their family during their early years.” (Fulcher 434) Without the family, the child wouldn’t grow up knowing what is and isn’t socially acceptable. “Family life also stabilized the adult personality by providing emotional support through marriage and enabling adults to satisfy childish impulses that could not be indulged in public.” (Fulcher 434)
This view claimed that the nuclear family was specialized for the industrial economy. The idea separated work and family because they conflicted. “If family and work overlapped, there would be tension and conflict between the incompatible value systems of work and family relationships.” (Fulcher 434) Instead, each parent had specialized roles. The man earned the income for the family and the woman raised their children at home. This perspective of family development was highly criticized. It supported the gender division of labor—the man is the breadwinner and the woman is the homemaker. It identified family life without conflict.
The Marxist approach refuted the functionalist perspective. It focused on the development of family, based on the needs of a capitalist economy. One argument was that the capitalist system exploited the unpaid domestic labor of the housewife through domestic division of labor. (Fulcher 434) Contrary to Functionalists, Marxists thought family life should be considered an important part of the capitalist economy. Their reasoning was based upon the view that the family produced the future workers. Without the hard work of the mother raising the children to be socially acceptable, the future would be bleak.
The Marxist approach also focused on the physical abuse and mistreatment of women. Marxists saw that family provided a place of outlet, or escape, for the male workers. They argued that, “The bullied worker may restore his self-esteem by bullying his family” (Fulcher 435). Marxists noticed that women did work in paid employment but were paid lower wages than men. Society’s view of the nuclear family was that men were to make more money because they supported the family. A woman’s role in society was “the housewife,” whereas a man was “the breadwinner.” Women were treated as a “reserve army” that could be drawn into work when there was a labor shortage, e.g if their husband was drafted. (Fulcher 435) Because women “didn’t need” to be paid as much, the nuclear family provided for cheap labor.
The Marxist approach, like the functionalist, treated the nuclear family with a gender division of labor as a standard form of family. Little information was provided about the variations of structure in the family. This lead to the feminist approach.
The feminist approach also focused on domestic division of labor. However, feminist didn’t think that the perspective could be explained by capitalism. Feminists thought that capitalism was the result of domestic division of labor. (Haggar) The cause was patriarchy: the domination of the male gender. Because men had the superior position over women, they could exploit the labor of women by marrying them. Women would have to run the household without the assistance of men or earning an income. They believed that by excluding women from paid employment, women couldn’t be independent. Also, feminist thought that the male capitalist employer “actually wanted to employ women as a cheaper source of labor.” (Fulcher 435)
There are problems with the explanations of the feminist view. Feminists relied heavily on patriarchy, but never recognized that it was universal, not solely in western culture. This didn’t explain the changes in relationships between men and women, because men were dominant in most societies around the world.
Over time, the perceived rules of the husband and the wife have changed. Each ideology influenced the next allowing for more rights for the counterpart resulting in an equal partnership to run and raise the family.
Fulcher, James and Scott, John. Sociology. Oxford University Press Inc. 2011. Print
Haggar, R. N.p. Web. 17 Nov 2013. <http://www.earlhamsociologypages.co.uk/functfamsum.html>.
**Bruce Watkins Jr.
Americans we are get divided into social class. By social classes I mean how your family is in wealth, material possessions, power and authority, and prestige in the society. It also is classified in are education, healthcare and leisure. When you talk about social classes in sociology you refer to a group of individuals who occupy a similar position in the economic system of production. There are three social class in the United States. One of them is Upper Class was the people that had really good paying jobs like head of a corporations, owners of lands, stocks, bonds. The upper class was formed more by your insisters’.
If they were wealthy you were more than like to have money when you grew up. If you don’t consider yourself as and upper class because you don’t make as much money as them then you’re probably put in the second group called the middle class. If you were described as the middle class you where know to be employed by more of the lower paying jobs and probably didn’t have and stocks or bonds to invest in. The middle class is the largest group in the United States today. It is bigger because it in more than just an income it’s about your lifestyles and resources also.
Not all of us can be in the middle class or upper class section. Those who struggle to make a living for their family or even just themselves are known as the lower class. The lower class is the ones that are usually involved with drugs, food stamps, social services and other tips of help they can receive. Marx talked about the two great classes and the workers. All workers where known for was the ability to work because they got paid to and that’s how they made their living. They didn’t know any different. Even though he talked a lot about the two great classes he also knew there was a poor class. He seen it hard to find a position for them because of the lake of power they had. Weber argued that all this was because of economic interests. When you see someone down the street you can always judge by what class they are.
Just because someone acts or dress a certain way does not mean they are lower class. Middle, or upper class. To me I don’t really care about social class. We are all the same in the end. Some might make more money than others and that’s okay. You just have to enjoy every day living. I see social class as nothing why others might take it as a big deal. A lot of upper class people act like their big you usually can tell who they are because they always have the nicest things and never anything less. The make sure people know that they have tons of money. Leaning about social classes and how people act are a huge part of society today because you never know what part you will be put in when you get older.
What brings immigrants to the United States? More than likely, every immigrant that comes to the United States wants a better life for themselves and their families. I personally do not believe Americans dislike illegal immigrants entering the United States nor do they naturally show bias. However, I do believe, along with some other Americans, that if undocumented aliens live and work in the United States, they should abide the laws, speak English, and pay taxes. The problem may stem from immigrants taking citizens jobs and earning benefits most Americans do not have. One solution would include minimizing illegal aliens in states by better monitoring efforts. Too many people, in my area alone, dodge the system and it must stop. According to We The People, “The first time an illegal immigrant is caught in the US it is a misdemeanor civil offense. After the first offense, being caught a second time is a felony.”
Illegal immigrants today come to the United States and work in many various jobs. This causes unemployment rates to go down and that makes it more difficult for citizens to find work. “It is also illegal for an employer to knowingly hire illegal immigrants”. If businesses hire illegal immigrants it usually means the businesses did not know, follow the law, or perhaps the illegal immigrant has fake identity documents. “It is unlawful for any person or entity knowingly- to forge documents. Legal documents must be presented when entering the United States”. The illegal immigrants with jobs in the United States cannot pay taxes because they do not have a social security number. This upsets many Americans. If illegal immigrants do not pay income tax, it hurts the economy and is unfair to United States citizens. Illegal immigrants use their nonpaying tax money to take back to their home countries where their currency purchases more than it does here. For example,Do illegal immigrants really want a “path to U.S. citizenship?” No, apparently large numbers want a path to easy, tax-free money they can send home to build businesses, homes and economies, as well as a path home to enjoy the by products of their labors here in “El Norte.” Illegal immigrants need to stop using our country to live off of and learn how to make it on their own in their own country.
Several major problems Americans have with illegal immigrants living in the United States. First, immigrants can receive benefits even though they do not pay taxes. “Illegal immigrants swarm into our country and quickly jump on the welfare rolls. They cost hard-working U.S. citizens billions and billions of dollars in taxes because of this subsidy”. This angers many people because the illegal immigrants should not receive welfare. Illegal immigrants also receive healthcare from our country. They abuse programs intended for Americans. Why should our country spend money on illegal immigrants? They need these programs in their country so we do not have to support them too. If law enforcements stop this nonsense, we could save a large amount of money then America’s national debt might not skyrocket.
Requiring the military to patrol the boarders may decrease illegal immigration. We also need to check businesses carefully and make sure they make their employees pay taxes. By doing this, illegal immigrants caught working at business and not paying taxes would immediately return to their home country. Also, checking backgrounds and watching for fake identification more closely would reduce program fraud. I believe this will help America’s economy and save money needed for Americans.
Will immigration ever cease? I believe this on-going problem with illegal immigration will never stop. Law enforcement does not carefully monitor the immigrant laws. More severe penalties should exist for those caught illegal in the United States.
As Americans, we are bombarded by advertisements while doing almost anything. We can see these throughout our TV shows, while listening to the radio or Pandora, or reading magazines and even seeing ads on billboards on the highway. Advertisers use a few different tactics to get an audience to buy their product or visit their business. One very simple strategy they use is just putting their ads out there for people to see, another more influential one is to use people’s emotions to catch their attention, and the most common tactic is using sexism to catch people’s attention. There are some good ways to ignore it, though. The main way of not letting ads influence people is by being mindful of what is being shown on commercials and seeing how they are attempting to persuade people. Another good thing is to look for the slant that they have on it towards one sex or another or any slant in the way they are going at all.
Advertisers can easily manipulate people by piercing their emotions and getting some sort of reaction out of them. Any kind of influence they have either negative or positive, these companies can get into the back of people’s minds for future reference and they will think about it when the need for a product or certain need arises. Emotions can really lead a person in the decisions that they make especially good ones. Emotions help people to remember things better so they can think back to different ads to come to a decision on where to shop, or eat, or what to buy.
The best way for anyone to not be influenced by ads is just to be mindful when a commercial comes on or while reading the newspaper or magazines. Making sure that a person thinks about what is going on with the ad and how they are trying to affect someone can help the ad not to have an effect on people. Realizing the slant or bias of an advertisement is a very good way not to be affected by what the company is trying to do. Making sure to not just sit without thinking when commercials come on and being prepared for the emotional effects they may have is the best defense in not being persuaded by the emotions and letting that ad affect you later.
Advertisers have many different ways of influence. These tactics include putting their name out there and getting awareness out, drawing on people’s emotions, and sexism. The best way to go against that is to be prepared and figure out the bias or slant of that company. Make sure, that when watching ads, to think them through so that they cannot get into the back of people’s minds to sway them when making decisions later. In a society that is constantly bombarded with advertisements everywhere, it is good to know and remember what they are trying to do and how not to be impacted by them.
Ah the world, a wondrous little place three rocks from the sun. It’s gotten a lot smaller in the past few years. With the internet, and twenty-four hour news networks, and a fancy new website called myspace, all the information we could ever want is right at our eyeholes. With that information has come the cultures of the world. The globalization of this planet has brought everyone together and their cultures out to be enjoyed or made fun of by all.
The United States of America has the most culturally diverse culture around: American Culture. This country has been gathering up immigrants since its inception. Joining peoples of nearly every culture in to a pot, like a stew or something. Although our dominate religion tends to be Christian, all religions are accepted here, unless it’s not a derivative of Christianity. In every city there are people of all races living together and bringing their natural heritage into the mix. People living in the south tend to hate everyone though. What attracts people to this country is the freedom to be whoever they want to be, and practice their own heritage and culture in peace without fear of oppression. From the government anyways. One of the things that people make a big fuss about is voting for their person of interest during elections. There’s also a big gun culture in America that attracts all kinds of strong feelings from those who hate it and those who don’t.
Halfway around the world is the Middle East. A large group of around three hundred million people who occupy but not limited to Afghanistan, Iran, and Israel. The predominate religion is Islam, they pray when the sun comes up and then again when the sun sets, and put their faith in a fellow named Allah. I can’t show a picture of him. Although the primary religion is Islam the other big two; Judaism and Christianity were formed there as well. The region that is the Middle East is considered the “Cradle of Civilization,” as it is where the first big cities first appeared. The women are required to wear a burqa, or other full coverage garment.
Over in the far east is the Far East, but you travel west it’s a shorter trip. The Far East is made up of countries like Japan, China and Thailand. Japan, this country has four distinct seasons of rain, which is probably why their temples and buildings look so cool. There is more of a hierarchy in Japan that puts those with authority above others. Whether it be legal, a business leader, or a father. In Japan the social groups tend to be more family like, in that there is more of a group awareness towards everything. Compare that to the U.S. where most people are put on their own and told to lone wolf it. The history of the country is very much alive today as the citizens still hold the ancient views of honor and respect dear.
So that’s a broad look at three cultures from around the world. If you were to dive into any of them you’d get lost in a sea of interesting and unique things. Except America of course, what a bunch of losers.
Image found on Bing images.
By Terri Murphy
Religion is one of those subjects that make people cringe in fear of arguments or disagreements. We try not to talk about it and I think we are starting to lose touch with our religion. With the world changing so has beliefs in what our holidays should be labeled or called. No longer do we have Christmas break in schools we now have Winter break! We cant use God in school either because we are afraid of offending someone. Many people come to America for better lives for their families along with these new comers, comes different views of religion and beliefs. Should these beliefs change what our nation has came from? Since 1776 we have been a nation found under our God! Every human has the right to worship their God.
However their believes should not impact another societies way of celebrating their holidays and worshiping their God. We should be able to express ourselves in our religion. I don’t mean go stand on the corner with a sign and scream at the world what you believe in but I mean we should be able to decorate our houses and yards and celebrate our holidays. Then you have the ones who don’t believe in a god. Just because they don’t believe doesn’t mean they won’t be offended by what we say and or do. We should be mature and accept the fact we all have our own religion, but we shouldn’t try to offend people on purpous. There was nothing wrong with the way it was before we became political correct.
When my parents were growing up the only reason you missed church on Sunday was because you were sick. Religion then was a part of your everyday life style. They dressed up in dresses and suits for church. Now days many people don’t go to church. The ones who do don’t dress like they use to, because the pastors say that god doesn’t care what you look like just as long as you believe. In a way I can see what they mean but I still dress up because I care a lot for my religion. No I’m not saying people who don’t dress up don’t care! I’m saying dressing up is part if my religion. Religion is something only you can decide what it means to you.
Crossman, Ashley. "Sociology of Religion." About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. <http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Religion.htmhttp://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Religion.htm>.
Fulcher, James, and John Scott. Sociology. Fourth ed. New York: Oxford UP, 2011. Print.
Image found on Google images.
For most people religion is something for Sundays and holy days, and is practiced largely in and through a church. Religion is often thought to involve a belief in a god or gods, but this is not the case with all religious beliefs. In the broadest sense religion involves devotion or attachment to a system of beliefs that defines the obligations and responsibilities people have towards one another. Which leads me into my talk about the Wiccan religion.
There are many witches that follow into the Wiccan religion, which happens to be afflicted to the Pagan Federation. Many would believe that its practitioners adopt magical means to cast spells, mix different love potions, and engage in other rituals aimed at enchanting a person’s powers or abilities. When in fact, Wiccans, base their magic and rituals on their belief in a so-called Mother Goddess. They celebrate winter and summer solstices, the autumn and spring equinoxes, and they hold festivals at special events such as Halloween.
Paganism is little understood. In fact for the last several hundred years, many often confuse it with Satanism. Paganism; however, is a very respectable religion. Even though, people see witches as evil and dark figures in all reality a witch is meant to be a healer, a teacher, a speaker, and a protector of all things. It has grown rapidly since the 1950’s and even more since the 1970’s. Wiccans go day to day like any of us, but within their religion they believe that they are one with the earth, which means what the earth gives them they should give back. This aspect was lost for many other religions.
In all reality though the Wiccans are not all the different from most religions. They chose to do the right thing and love their brothers and sisters because it is the right thing and it feels good to do. Just like many other people that study different religions. They also do not sacrifice animals or humans because it would violate their basic principal of “Harm None.” Anyone who happens to do this practice would be lying about being a Wiccan or a witch.
There may be many different religious beliefs out there, but it turns out they may not be that different from some of the religions that are very acceptable. Nature is the Pagan and Wiccan belief. There may be more than one god for this belief, but they are being more and more excepted as the years go by.
Fulcher, James and John Scott., “ Sociology” Oxford University Press Inc: New York, 2011
The Acadian-Cajun Culture
The people in Louisiana known as Cajuns are part of an ethnic group that is descendant from the Acadians, who were the French-speaking people expelled from their homes in Eastern Canada from 1755 until 1762 during what was known as The Acadian Deportation. After Acadians refused to pledge allegiance to the British monarchy, and in the face of rising tensions between the British and the French in North America, the British seized and destroyed Acadian homes, farms, goods, and livestock to make sure that they would not return. Many of these Acadians were sent to colonies along the eastern seaboard and many of them found themselves as far as Louisiana, where the pronunciation of “Acadian” eventually became known as “Cajun” over the years. Today there are roughly 700,000 people from Acadian descent who live in South Louisiana, and they make up the largest French-speaking minority in the United States.
Through the years since the arrival of the Acadians to Louisiana, Cajuns developed their own French dialect that is derived from their French-speaking ancestors. They also maintained many of the traditions and developed a vibrant culture which comes from their Acadian roots. This is very apparent in the music styles, cajun festivals, and the famous cuisine seen today. The Cajun love of the violin and accordion music is also very similar to Acadians to this day. Cajun food can be traced to the simple way of life of the Acadians, where one-pot meals that used many simple local ingredients were a tradition. All this reflects the Cajuns’ pride in their history and how they continue to hold their tragic past and peaceful survival in their hearts.
Today, the connection between Acadians in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince-Edward-Island and the state of Maine, with Cajuns in Louisiana seems to be getting stronger than ever. There is great pride and recognition that Acadian-Cajun people overcame a tragedy like the Acadian Deportation in the mid-1700’s, and have been able to peacefully integrate and maintain their ways of living and traditions in the various parts of eastern North America where future generations now still live. This pride has been more apparent in the past two decades where there has been a great increase in the celebrations of the Acadian culture. Many festivals and events are held each year in both the Maritime Provinces of Canada and in Louisiana to celebrate the culture, where people can learn about their ancestors, and learn more about where the Acadians and Cajuns connect in the various family trees. One particularly important event is The Acadian World Congress, which is a festival event that celebrates the Acadian and Cajun culture and its history. It is held every five years at a different location each time. Past Congresses have been held in New Brunswick (Canada), Nova Scotia (Canada), and Louisiana.
Other symbols of the Acadian and Cajun linkage of their people are the respective flags and how they both reflect the origins and religious beliefs. The Flag of Acadia is blue, white, and red which represents the Acadian Motherland of France, and includes a gold star in the upper left section which represents the Stella Maris, or Virgin Mary, who is the patron saint of the Acadians. The Louisiana Acadian flag was designed to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the arrival of the Acadians to Louisiana, and contains the same three colors. There are three silver fleurs de lis in the blue section which represent the French origin of the Acadians, a gold castle in the red section honoring Spain which controlled Louisiana when the Acadians arrived, and the gold star which represents the patron saint of the Acadians.
Culture Knowledge and Belief
By Dolvine Serem
Different places on the earth have different cultures and traditions and believe in so many different things. The food they eat, how they dress and how they behave towards each other varies greatly. A reason for that is also wide and diverse due to some factors like the environment, their knowledge and their beliefs on things. Culture is the shared beliefs and values of group: the beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people. Belief is a statement, principle, or doctrine that a person or group accepts as true.
To begin, we are going to consider the relationship between education and the society. Education is central to the socialization process. One way that education does this is by providing the skills needed for the specialized occupations of industrial societies. As the division of labour became more specialized, it was no longer handed down within the family. Children could acquire them only through formal education. And to get education one has to go to school. At school the children get equal opportunities to learn most of the time. It also brings together people with different beliefs and promotes equality. Over the years, education has really changed that it can even accommodate the disabled comfortably.
Secondly, there is the aspect of communication and the media. We live in a media-saturated world. Media is the various channels that communication occurs that is not face to face but also through various forms of recorded and transmitted images and sound. Media is a good channel for reaching so many people and getting people to know of different beliefs and cultures worldwide through tv shows and documentaries among others. As much as the media is a good channel of sharing knowledge it can also be manipulated and be a source of moral contamination through different shows and programs.
Thirdly, there is the aspect of religion, belief and meaning. A religion is a system is a system of beliefs through which people organize or order their lives. It is often thought to involve a belief in a god or gods, but this is not the case with all religious beliefs. Religious beliefs and rights have been generally organized around objects and activities held to be sacred because they have superior power and dignity relative to the objects and activities of everyday life. Over the years there have been more rise of religious groups but the most common ones are christianity, islam. There are also the group of people who do not believe in any religion, they are the pagans.
In conclusion the different cultures and beliefs of people can either bring people together or have them separated but all in all it all adds up to the social aspect of life
Sociology by James Fulcher and John Scott 4th edition
By: Anthony Farrington II
Proud Of My Nature.
Being one of the only black kids here in the college, I've been stereotyped basically everyday by a lot of people. They think, because I'm black, it means that I'm either a thief, robber or killer. I fall under neither of the categories, I'm just a happy young person with a different skin color, no different from anyone else here. This is my social stereotype.
I walk into people twisting their faces at me almost everyday, simply because they expect nothing but bad from me. If I were to ever let this get to me, I probably would've been either in jail or worse. Being the "different" one, I face a lot of challenges in my daily life. The social stereotypical balance is becoming one-sided. I'm often treated like a convict, even if I'm innocent of things going on around me. Since I came here to Kansas, I've been blamed 3 times for I wasn't there for, yet, I kept a steady head and still smile at the end of it.
There have been a lot going on for my fellow black people, both bad and good. Not because there are a lot of black people killing each other, and people of other races, means we're the only people doing it. I'm the type of person, that socializes with all race of people, no matter their culture. I see everyone from every part of the world as the same. There are others that see the same, by more sees people as different due to skin color, race, or size.
In conclusion, there are many different races of people in the world that most people do not know about, and they carry all skin colors. I feel that there should be no reason for someone of one race, to ostracize someone of another race because of skin color, etc. The remaining races in the world are dying out because no one can learn to live in togetherness, no matter the difference. Once we learn to get along with everyone, the stereotypical socialization will eventually decease.
Sociology by James Fulcher and John Scott
++Culture, Knowledge and Beliefs
By: Desmond Major
Culture exists in every society. It is the specific learned norms based on attitudes, values and beliefs. Culture is often based on long standing traditions that have been passed from elders to the younger generation. It can be evolved through societal and religious influences. Changing culture, though difficult, can be done through choice or imposition. When culture are isolated they tend to stabilize and change is slow or ceases. When culture makes contact with other cultures, a type of cultural borrowing takes place and is more prominent when languages are similar or identical. Cultures are made up of group affiliations. Ascribed group memberships include those based on gender, family age, caste and ethnic/racial/nation backgrounds, they are determined at birth. Acquired group memberships are not determined at birth and include religion, political affiliation and professional and other associations. These affiliations often reflect the status the individual has in the country's class system.
Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit or explicit; it can be more or less formal or systematic. In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology; the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief." However, no single agreed upon definition of knowledge exists, though there are numerous theories to explain it. Symbolic representations can be used to indicate meaning and can be thought of as a dynamic process. Hence the transfer of the symbolic representation can be viewed as one ascription process whereby knowledge can be transferred. Other forms of communication include observation and imitation, verbal exchange, and audio and video recordings. Philosophers of language construct and analyze theories of knowledge transfer or communication.
Belief is the psychological state in which an individual holds a conjecture or premise to be true. Epistemology is the philosophical study of knowledge and belief. The primary problem in epistemology is to understand exactly what is needed in order for us to have knowledge. In a notion derived from Plato’s dialogue Theaetetus, philosophy has traditionally defined knowledge as "justified true belief". The relationship between belief and knowledge is that a belief is knowledge if the belief is true, and if the believer has a justification for believing it is true. The concept of belief presumes a subject the believer and an object of belief. So, like other propositional attitudes, belief implies the existence of mental states and intentionality, both of which are hotly debated topics in the philosophy of mind, whose foundations and relation to brain states are still controversial. A belief is a mental state has been seen by some as contentious. While some have argued that beliefs are represented in the mind as sentence-like constructs, others have gone as far as arguing that there is no consistent or coherent mental representation that underlies our common use of the belief concept and that it is therefore obsolete and should be rejected.
These show that they are all connected in some way. Whether it is learned, the way you were brought up, or the way you think; these three topics are related.
The Influence of Media—
Before the TV, internet, and media the only ways of communication was through mail and telephones. They people found out news back in the day wasn’t nearly like it is today. They couldn’t just hop on the internet and keep up to date on current events going on in the world. They had to wait to hear about it on the radio or newspaper. News also did not travel as fast as it does today. Now were able to find about things that happen across the world right away thanks to the TV and internet. The media keeps evolving and can influence the way we feel, think , and sometimes act.
The current level of media saturation has not always existed, As recently as the 1960s and 1970s, television, for example, consisted of primarily three networks, public broadcasting, and a few local independent stations. These channels aimed their programming primarily at two-parent, middle-class families. Even so, some middle-class households did not even own a television. But today one can be found in almost everyone home, a lot of families even have multiple Tvs.
Today, just about everyone depends on information and communication to keep their lives moving through daily activities like work, education, health care, leisure activities, entertainment, traveling, personal relationships, and the other stuff with which we are involved. Its not unusual to wake up, check the cellphone for messages and notifications, look at the TV or newspaper for news, commute to work, read emails, take meetings, and make phone calls, and make decisions based on the information that we gather from those mass media and interpersonal media sources.
We trust the media as an authority for news, information, education and entertainment. How does the media influence us though? Radio and the television have exposed us to untold numbers of images of advertising and marketing, suffering and relief, sexuality and violence, celebrity, and much more. Media shapes the public opinion in different ways depending on the content. An example is following the 9/11 terrorism, media coverage followed accusations by government authorities that pointed toward al Qaeda as the group that carried out the attack on the United States and Osama bin Laden as leader of that group. The news reports on the attack and the aftermath shaped public opinion to support the war on terrorism.
Ads can influence us just as much as news can. The media receive billions of dollars in revenue from the advertising they sell and what we are exposed too. Ads are everywhere we look, in the air, printed in the newspaper, commercials between shows, etc. After seeing thousands of persuasive advertising messages, we make buying decisions based on what we saw in the newspaper/magazine ads, saw and heard in television and radio ads, and saw and heard on ads on websites. Those ads tell us we can trust a product or service and that many people we know are buying the product or service and liking it. An example of advertising is if a recreational sport gets a lot of attention from media and through that media exposure your friends begin to enjoy it, you will more likely to engage in the sport. Advertising can also be negative, especially on teens through the depiction of celebreticy movie stars using tobacco products, exposure to thousands of junk food ads, the constant excessive exposure of sexual and violent images, and endless beer ads. We all want to be accepted by our peers. We want to be successful. Teens look for something to live up to. Whether it is the expectations of their parents to a specific person they want to be like, nearly all teens try to mirror someone at some point in their life. If it weren’t for tabloids, teenage girls would not be so concerned about what they look like because they wouldn’t have someone they want to look like.
By Danielle Schaffer
A disciplinary society is exactly what it sounds like. It is a type of power struggle used to control the societies actions and beliefs. According to Michel Foucault, discipline is the central most feature in the society as one. Meaning, we all live in a disciplinary society. According to Foucault, discipline involves control of the masses, constant observation, and punishment. This requires people to be under the constant supervision of those in control. This is how they decided how to organize prisons. They are separated into blocks, then into individual cells. The prisoners are always being monitored. Another example would be schools. The children are divided into different grades, with a certain student to teacher ratio, so that the children get continually supervised.
Foucault’s new way of punishment focused mainly on imprisonment. This seems pretty typical for this age, you break a law and you’re sent to prison. This is actually an improvement from the old ways of punishment. If you broke a law during the pre-industrial age, you were brought into the public and depending on the severity of the law broken, were inhumanly tortured. This was mainly done to show the dominance of the lawmakers. They wanted the public to know that they were in control and would know when such laws were broken. This holds true to this day, to a point. In America there is rarely a story reported of public hangings and beatings (that I know of), but it is very common for individuals to so jail time for offenses. This lets the public know that there are lawmakers watching us that will punish us for certain things.
Prisons at this time were drastically changing. The development of incarceration, locking people away from society, was a relatively new idea. People found this new idea so good, that they used it to model other places after, such as hospitals and factories. There are sociologists that would argue that those organizations are that similar to the makeup of prisons. They say that though there is constant observation and disciplinary action taken when needed, there is no loss of freedom. Workers in factories will get paid and are not forced to stay there, and hospitals are for sick, that may leave whenever they are healed or whenever they feel like they no longer want care.
Today’s society is very much a disciplinary society. We are constantly observed whether we know it or not. Technology has advanced so much that it is much easier to watch over the population than it was in the past. We are a controlled society. We are taught as children to walk in straight lines and will do so whenever the opportunity arises.
Sociology By James Fulcher and John Scott
Social organization and control
Today social organization can be defined as the formation of a stable structure of relations inside a group, which provides a basis for order and patterns relationships for new members. This means that the groups we associated with have order in that each member is accustomed to the same ideals and practices. We first distinguish culture as social control from formal control. We also suggest that social control may be a more powerful form of control in modem organizations than traditional formal controls (see the second and third sections). In the fourth section, we explore the social psychological underpinnings of culture. In the fifth section, we illustrate how the psychological mechanisms used to develop social control are similar across a variety of organizations, ranging from the extreme examples of cults and religious sects to more conventional organizations characterized as strong culture firms.
Finally, we discuss the boundaries of organizational culture; that is, when culture as social control may be inappropriately applied, as in cases when organizations cause people to harm themselves or others, or ineffective in generating desired behaviors. Both the process of gaining member commitment and the content of the values members commit to may lead, under certain conditions, to high levels of performance through enhanced coordination and motivation to uphold strategically appropriate values and norms. But, under other circumstances these same processes can lead to reduced adaptation, exploitation, and in extreme cases, harmful or unethical behavior. In this sense, social control targets values, attitudes, and behaviors that may be relevant to desirable organizational outcomes, such as service, safety, and respect for others.
But, of course, social control can also increase undesirable outcomes if the norms and values to which members attend to are not strategically appropriate, or if internalization is so complete that members are unable to even think of alternative ways of doing things. Either way, rather than being based on legitimate or formal authority, social control is based informational and normative influence. we view culture as a form of social control that operates when members of a group or organization share expectations about values, or what is important, and how these values are to be manifest in norms, that is, in words and actions. Norms and values are closely related, and the distinction between them is one of emphasis. Norms refer to the expected behaviors sanctioned by the system and thus have a specific “ought” or “must” quality, while values provide rationales for these normative requirements. For a value to become an organizational norm it must have a number of qualities: it must have an explicit formulation, it should refer specifically to identifiable behaviors, and its formulation should be systematically linked to behaviors so that it can be enforced.
By: Tori Biddle
What is the family? This may seem like a rather silly question, because surely everyone knows what a family is. When we refer to our family we are usually talking about the people in our household. However, it may mean wider group that includes our parents and/or our children, whether or not they live with us. Divorces and remarriages may make this an extensive and complex group with unknown boundaries. It may mean a wider group of relatives whom we only speak to occasionally over the phone or at family meetings.
Traditionalists see the family as centered on marriage and a domestic division of labor between a breadwinning husband and a housewife who is responsible for childcare and housework. A definition of a family in these terms excludes single-parent families, and unmarried couples, heterosexual or homosexual, even though they may consider themselves to be families and act together in family ways. This definition divides the family, instead of treating it as a way in which families can organize their work lives. The problem of what we mean when we refer to our “family” does not go away, however. The notion of a family unit is still important to people, and the question of whether particular unites should be viewed as families or not does not matter to them. It matters for example, whether gay couples or single parents with children see themselves as families and treat each other as families. While we recognize the complicated issues raised by this question “What is a family?”, it is essential to arrive at a working definition.
We should consider that families have two main things in common:
1) The closeness of family relationships. Relationships within a family are more tightly bonded than the people outside of it. There is a boundary around a family, a sense of closeness and family identity that separates it off from other people.
2) A sense of obligation and responsibility. Families do not have fixed responsibilities, usually responsibilities are constantly negotiated, but there is something unique about them that makes family commitments different from those to friends.
The denotative meaning of family is a group of individuals living under one roof and usually under one head. However, a family may be defined as a small group of closely related people who share a distinct sense of identity and a responsibility for each other that outweighs their commitments to others around them. This group is usually based on marriage, and on biological decent or adoption. These criteria are becoming less important in the way that people think about the family unit.
If you were to ask me, I personally believe that the true meaning of family runs deeper than just being biologically related or living under the same roof. I believe that true family members are the people whom you feel safe around. They are people that you completely trust and that support you through anything and everything. Their loyalty is unquestionable, and they are committed to you. These commitments are much different from those they make to friends.
Living under the same roof also does not make those people a family, a household consists of a person or a group of people living in a particular residential area. Is common residence enough to make people a household? The Annual Tech Report(2001/2:58) states that a household is defined as ‘one person or a group of people who have the accommodation as their only main residence and either share at least one meal a day or share the living accommodation’. Note that the main point here is that this definition goes further than common residence, a household is, in other words, more than just a collection of people who happen to live in the same place.
Sociology by James Fulcher and John Scott
Annual Technical Report 2001/2:58
Globalization mean that we live in a world where goods are increasingly made in one country and sold in another. Transnational corporations increase their profits by producing in countries where the costs are lowest and selling their products in the high consumption markets of the developed world. As our opening piece shows, they pay lower taxes by making their profits in low-tax countries. Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities. Though several scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European age of discovery and voyages to the New World. Some even trace the origins to the third millennium BCE. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectedness of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly.
The term globalization has been in increasing use since the mid-1980s and especially since the mid-1990s. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge. Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water, air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment. Humans have interacted over long distances for thousands of years. The overland Silk Road that connected Asia, Africa, and Europe is a good example of the transformative power of trans local exchange that existed in the "Old World". Philosophy, religion, language, the arts, and other aspects of culture spread and mixed as nations exchanged products and ideas. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Europeans made important discoveries in their exploration of the oceans, including the start of transatlantic travel to the "New World" of the Americas. Global movement of people, goods, and ideas expanded significantly in the following centuries.
Early in the 19th century, the development of new forms of transportation and telecommunications that "compressed" time and space allowed for increasingly rapid rates of global interchange. In the 20th century, road vehicles, intermodal transport, and airlines made transportation even faster. The advent of electronic communications, most notably mobile phones and the Internet, connected billions of people in new ways by the year 2010. The term globalization is derived from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of social and economic systems. One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled, Towards New Education, where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education. A related term, corporate giants, was coined by Charles Taze Russell in 1897 to refer to the largely national trusts and other large enterprises of the time.
By the 1960s, both terms began to be used as synonyms by economists and other social scientists. It then reached the mainstream press in the later half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations, with antecedents dating back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onwards. Due to the complexity of the concept, research projects, articles, and discussions often remain focused on a single aspect of globalization. Although in its simplistic sense globalization refers to the widening, deepening and speeding up of global interconnection, such a definition begs further elaboration. Globalization can be located on a continuum with the local, national and regional. At one end of the continuum lie social and economic relations and networks which are organized on a local and/or national basis; at the other end lie social and economic relations and networks which crystallize on the wider scale of regional and global interactions.
Cohabitation in Today’s Society
By KaiLee Homburg
Marriage is usually the reason why most people have chosen to live together, however that idea is becoming part of society’s past. Now, people have many different reasons for cohabitating without being married. Today cohabitation before marriage is not as scandalous as it has been in past decades. With the decline in abstinence before marriage, people’s reluctance or inability to get married, and economic hardships, it seems that society has become more open-minded in the views of couples living together.
In past generations it was almost a requirement to be married before a couple lived together, as it was the proper thing to do. It was also more socially appropriate and important in the eyes of society to be celibate than it is seen today. This change in socially acceptable behavior has developed into a factor of cohabitation becoming more popular. In 1970, the United States recorded 523,000 households with two unrelated adults of opposite sex compared with 4.2 million cohabiting households in March of 1998 (Cohabitation). Since more and more people have become used to having an intimate relationship before being married, it can also make cohabitating seem like the next reasonable step in a relationship. Some couples may even see living together before being married as a “trail marriage.” With the increase of these views, it has also related to the rise in numbers of couples who aren’t finding a reason to get married, therefore increasing the numbers of people cohabitating.
Cohabitation is generally defined as people living together who are not married, so the term is also centered on what one defines as marriage. If two people have lived together long enough, they might not see any benefits in getting married or might feel that they are already married in a sense. In some states it is still illegal for homosexuals to be married, which would cause cohabitation, since by law they would not be a married couple living together. The U.S. Census Bureau reported in 2000 that there were 594,391 same-sex unmarried partner households in the United States (Dailey). We can only assume that those numbers have risen in the past thirteen years.
The economy has also made living alone a tough financial situation. Since the costs of living alone can weigh heavily on a person, some people see cohabitation as a way to make costs more affordable. When you split the costs of living from one person to two people the difference can be astronomical. In most cases, this is why younger couples decide to cohabitate, especially those attending college or working part-time jobs. The average adjusted household income of cohabiters in 2009 was $106,400 and surpassed that of $101,160 earned by married adults and was greater than $90,067 earned by adults lacking partners (Fry). When the financial burden isn’t as great on one person’s shoulders, living with another seems perfectly reasonable and logical.
No matter the case or situation, cohabitation is becoming more popular today. With the larger number of people finding this living arrangement more sensible it is also more acceptable to society. As years have gone by we have continued to see the numbers of people cohabitating increase, which may lead us to expect it to keep rising unless the definition of cohabitation changes.
"Cohabitation." International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family. 2003. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Nov. 2013 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
Dailey, Timothy J.. "Family Research Council." Family Research Council. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. <http://www.frc.org/get.cfm?i=IS04C02>.
Fry, Richard, and D'Vera Cohn. "Living Together: The Economics of Cohabitation." Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends. N.p., 27 June 2011. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. <http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2011/06/27/living-together-the-economics-of-cohabitation/Find a website by URL or keyword…>.
What Happens When Social Control Goes Awry (The Anabaptist Rebellion)
By: Matt Hubbel
Throughout our history, human beings have invented systems of control to maintain social order. The most pervasive of these systems in religion. Religion is most likely the oldest system of social control, certainly predating government and institutionalized education. What exactly is religion? Wallis and Bruce define religion as “…actions, beliefs, and institutions predicated upon the assumption of the existence of either supernatural entities with powers of agency, or impersonal powers or processes possessed of moral purpose, which have the capacity to set the conditions of, or to intervene in, human affairs.” In their definition, Wallis and Bruce identify religion as system of control, one which sets the conditions of human affairs.
Europe in the middle ages was a difficult, brutal place to live. The Roman Empire had fallen, it’s legions and governance leaving people in Western Europe (in places like Britain, and modern day Germany) to fend for themselves without the benefits of Roman citizenship. These benefits would include protection from foreign invaders, and the roman engineering expertise that provided running water, and built the roads and buildings that provided a standard of living that Western Europeans would not see again for a very long time. Also, the Roman Catholic Church remained as the supreme law over what remained of civilized Europe.
The Roman Catholic Church of this time was not receptive to criticism, and the Church’s officials had no qualms about using torture or execution to ensure their institution’s firm grasp and control over the laws, kings, and peasants of medieval Europe. Many peasants grew tired of the serfdom that they have found themselves born into, and were readily receptive to a new Biblical message when one was presented to them. When Martin Luther posted his 95 THESES on the door of the All Saint’s Church in Wittenburg, Germany, in October 1517, he sparked the protestant reformation and the radical reformation. These movements would challenge the status quo that the Roman Catholic Church had enjoyed for so many centuries. The reformers, men like Martin Luther, demanded that the Holy Bible be printed in a common language, not just latin. When the Bible was first printed in a language that people could read, it changed their views on the Christian faith, and the role that the Roman Catholic Church had played in their faith.
It wasn’t long before violence broke out after the reformers made the Bible available in a common language. The German Peasant’s War broke out from 1524-1525, and between 100,000 and 300,000 peasants were killed by their rulers’ armies. The Anabaptists began to appear as well. They were preaching a new, apocalyptic faith that railed against evils such as personal property, sexual deviance, infant baptism, the doctrine of transubstantiation, and what they viewed as idolatry practiced in the Roman Catholic Church through the maintaining of relics. Anabaptists were routinely put through public torture and execution for their beliefs throughout Europe. The Roman Catholic Church viewed Anabaptists as a specifically dangerous sort of mental contagion that could infect the people of Europe with seditious ideas. Ideas that included interpreting the Bible for oneself, and that all men are capable of receiving the voice of God and divine inspiration.
The Anabaptist movement, and their plight against the theocratic authorities would come to a head in the German town of Munster from the years of 1534 - 1535. Munster’s town council was eventually in the majority control of Anabaptists and anti-Catholic Lutherans. Eventually, word got out among Anabaptists across Europe (with the help of Bernard Knipperdolling’s printing press) that Munster was to be the site of Jesus’s return, and that all Anabaptists should relocate to Munster immediately. It wasn’t long after this message had begun to spread that a man named Jan Matthys arrives to Munster. He claims to be a prophet of God, who not only hears the word of God, but has literal conversations with God in front other people. To the average citizen of Munster, this just looked like Matthys talking to himself, but enough of the town’s people bought into Matthys’s claim of being a prophet that he was able to wrest control of the town. Once Matthys took charge, he placed only a select few Anabaptists on the town council, and demanded that everyone in Muster who was not an Anabaptist, and would not convert, to be put to the sword.
This message shocked many of the town’s people, as they were not yet willing to kill their neighbors. The townspeople were able to convince Matthys to instead exile the remaining Catholics and Lutherans that would not convert to Anabaptism. Those that refused to convert or leave were killed, however. Jan Matthys, Bernhard Knipperdolling, and Bernhard Krechting had more pamphlets printed, sending them outside of Munster to reach Anabaptists all across Europe. The message contained within these pamphlets beckoned militant followers of the faith to come to Munster, and prepare for the end of the world. Matthys also had all books in Munster that aren’t copies of The Holy Bible burned. Private property became illegal, and all debt was abolished.
It isn’t long before the Prince Bishop Franz von Waldeck decided to take action against Munster, and put a stop to the Anabaptist rebellion. The town was placed under siege for nearly 12 months, while the city of Munster descended into what can be best described as madness. Jan Matthys claims to hear God, commanding him and a small entourage to confront the Prince Bishop’s troops and that God will provide them with victory over the army that lays siege to their city. The Bishop’s army numbers around 8000 men, and Matthys meets them with 12 towns people. Matthys and the Munsterites that ventured out of the city walls with him are quickly run down by 500 cavalry men. Matthys is literally cut to pieces, and his genitals are nailed to the front gate of the city of Munster.
Jan Van Leiden assumes leadership in Munster after the death of Jan Matthys, and remains in power for a short period of time before the Prince Bishop and his forces are able to recapture the city in the name of the Holy Roman Church. Van Leiden had pushed the citizens of Munster further into depravity, forcing the men and women to practice polygamy, and publicly executing anyone who spoke out against him. The Anabaptists of Munster killed and died for their faith, sometimes at the hands of other Anabaptists. While they were seeking a kingdown to call their own, they allowed themselves to be manipulated by abusive leaders at the highest levels of their primary sociological control systems. Namely, men coming to lead the Anabaptists in the name of their god.
Jan Van Leiden, Bernhard Knipperdolling, and Bernhard Krechting were tortured to death in the city square of Munster in front of hundreds of cheering onlookers. The law at the time required that each man be tortured for one full hour, at which time they may be given a merciful death. If one of the men passed out from pain during torture, the timer was stopped, he was revived, and the torture would have continued. These men were executed as traitors and heretics, two of the most serious convictions a person in medieval Europe could receive. After they had died, their bodies were placed in cages, and hung in front of St. Lambert’s Cathedral in Munster. The cages are still hanging on the front of the cathedral today, a grim reminder of what can happen when a social control system like religion goes awry.
Wallis and Bruce. "Chapter 11/Religion, Belief, and Meaning." Sociology. 4th ed. New York, NY: Oxford UP, 2011. 393. Print.
Kerssenbroch, Hermann Von, and Christopher S. Mackay. Narrative of the Anabaptist Madness: The Overthrow of Münster, the Famous Metropolis of Westphalia. Leiden: Brill, 2007. Print.
Family and Life
To some people family may just mean someone that you share your household with. It may include parents and siblings and maybe other relatives. Having divorces and separation in a family make take it to different boundaries and cause many problems. Family involves relationships between people at different stages throughout their life. Traditionalist see family as centered on marriage and domestic division of labor between a breadwinning husband and a housewife responsible for childcare and housework. That definition excludes single-parent families, and unmarried couples, heterosexual or homosexual, even though they may consider themselves to be families and act together in family ways. That then also causes domestic division in the family, instead of just making it to where families can organize their work lives. In today’s society family may be defined as a small group of closely related people who share a distinct sense of identity and a responsibility for each other that outweighs their commitments to others.
A household consists of a person or group of people living in a particular residential unit. The Family Resources Survey of the Office of National Statistics defines a household as one person or group of people who have the accommodation as their only or main residence. In their terms a household is more than a collection of people who happen to live in the same place.
There are many different perspectives on family. In 1956 Parsons took a functionalist approach to the development of the family, starting from the assumption that social institutions developed to meet the basic needs of society. Marxist was a different theory of the development of the modern family was put forward by a 1970s group of Marxist writers, who explained its development in terms of the needs of a capitalist economy. Feminist is an alternative feminist approach focused in a similar way on the domestic division of labor but rejected the idea that it can be explained by capitalism.
The development of family life in many ways life is taken for granted or treated as natural characteristics of the family. The nuclear family is usually defined as a residential unit consisting of parents and unmarried children, but really matters is its relationship to the wider society. The emergence of the nuclear society presented by Talcott Parsons in 1949 shows the extended family unit of pre-industrial society, it emerged long before industrialization. Now historians believe that parents and children become very emotional at a point and time. On the history of childhood in 1962 Aries discussed the aspect of family, he claimed that childhood didn’t exist in medieval times then once children were able to take care of their selves the relationship between parents then became unemotional.
In life there are many changes with certain stages and as family develops the construction of the family changes. With children they were changing, by the seventeenth century. Two major changes were child labor restrictions by the Factory Acts and the development of compulsory education, which lengthened once it reaching the age of 16 in 1972. Life now in today’s society has developed much more. Children now have grown to experience different things and it affects their families greatly. Families now have also changed the mothers are now the breadwinners in the family and majority of the men are now stay at home fathers and they take care of the children.
Sociology James Fulcer and John Scott
Divorce in society today
Over the years divorce rates have risen. Society feels that an unhappy marriage leads to divorce only if the couples are able to end it. In The 1969 divorce reform act made divorce far easier and was followed by a big rise in divorce. The term serial monogamy that is, a sequence of marriages is used to describe this process. In assessing marriage has declined, much depends on the view taken of it. Majority of the time divorce leads to single parenting families. Marriage has, however, become increasingly dissociated from parenthood since children are now becoming comfortable with it.
Single parent families, the proportion of families with dependent children headed by single parents has at least tripled since the beginning of the 1970s. Single parent families have been the main focus of much debate simply because scientists feel that they are a main source of social problems and they are mainly headed by women, the absence of the father is what leads to problem behavior.
Parenting after divorce, scientists feel that divorce ends a marriage but it does not end a couple’s relationship, mainly when children involved, and divorced partners have to continue working out their relationship as parents. According to Burghes 1994, 40 percent of absent fathers have lost all contact with their children, which wasn’t only a problem for the children but also a problem for the fathers. Joint parenting may have been advance, but it was not sufficient to meet fathers’ movement. Now in response government has highly publicized campaign that in 2005 child contact arrangements will be improved. For children, divorce can be stressful, sad, and confusing. At any age, kids may feel uncertain or angry at the prospect of mom and dad splitting up. As a parent, you can make the process and its effects less painful for your children. Helping your kids cope with divorce means providing stability in your home and attending to your children's needs with a reassuring, positive attitude. It won't be a seamless process, but these tips can help your children cope.
With reconstructed families now known as step families there are new key respects. The first kind of stepfamilies generally took the form of the replacement of a dead or disappeared parent. The second traditional stepfamily was an attempt to recreate a nuclear family that had lost a key member through death or separation. Reconstituted families are generally regarded as experiencing additional tensions and problems. “Marriage and divorce are both common experiences. In Western cultures, more than 90 percent of people marry by age 50. Healthy marriages are good for couples’ mental and physical health. They are also good for children; growing up in a happy home protects children from mental, physical, educational and social problems. However, about 40 to 50 percent of married couples in the United States divorce. The divorce rate for subsequent marriages is even higher.”I am one of the children who had to go through a long, hard and tough divorce process. Having to choose between two parents was the worst thing. Now that I have grown older it’s still hard for me to deal with certain situations throughout my life.
Sociology defined by yahoo is the ‘’Analysis of a social institution or societal segment as a self-contained entity or in relation to society as a whole.’’ Sociology, according to Durkheim has broadly three principal divisions which he terms as social morphology, social physiology and general sociology. Social morphology covers the geographical settings, the density of population and other preliminary data which is likely to influence the social aspects. The aspects consist of social identities, social organization, social division and knowledge (just to name a few). In this case I am going to elaborate on the gender part of education and inequality aspect of sociology.
Gender, defined by google is the range of physical, biological, mental and behavioural characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. In 1980, Halsey believed in school for an education, whether it was from a private or public institution.
According to the nineteenth-century there was a division of labour because of gender. Girls were destined to work in houses and child-rearing. They had little need for formal education beyond elementary at the time. But in the 1880’s elementary education was mandatory for both genders. Girls were taught domestic skills, such as cooking and cleaning. Males were taught craft skills and elementary arithmetic. Abbott and Wallace saw that education was seen as a less necessity. They saw it necessary for girls to stay at home helping their mothers. Eventually, women were granted secondary education. Many feminists have challenged the assumption that economic class is the primary determinant of positions within a stratification system. While there is no simple "feminist perspective", there is a general consensus that even where economic class is important, gender inequalities needs to be considered as a means of understanding the true nature of social stratification.
In 1944 there was an Education Act that made free secondary education available to all but the girls were still not able to pursue the same curriculum as boys. Girls were educated more on the domestic extensions of the domestic role and boys towards technical and scientific ones. But later on, feminists argued that some of their classes were still being taught in a masculine way. In other words, they were there in the class but were not being acknowledged. The inequality was shown again when boys got more attention and interest than girls. The boys tended to receive higher marks than girls for comparable work and were also expected to perform better in examinations. Boys also demanded more attention so therefore a conclusion was made that girls would be better off in an all-girls school.
The literature on education and class has been mainly concerned with the persistence of inequalities in educational achievement. It was not because girls were lazy or could not do the work, it was that they had a lack of opportunity. The boys had the opportunity so therefore they really did not have anything to prove or to work for. The girls on the other had something to prove and would as well as did take advantage of any/the opportunity given to them. This was proven as there was an examining between the gender inequalities. The studies did not show a lot of persistence as transformation though. However, as history shows us, girls were excluded as well as side-lined but in today’s society; it is shown by stats the girls have overtaken boys. More recently girls have performed better than boys. Due to that fact, girls are now able to have free choices towards their major.
Yahoo & James Fulcher & John Scott Sociology Textbook
In todays society kids have violence all around them, everywhere you look it seems like there will be some sort of inappropriate thing to a kid. The problem is that this has grown so much throughout the years that there is no stopping it now. Wheather it is some sort of violence on tv or video game to some sort of inappropriate store or billboard signs.
Rated M for mature the game might say, but does this stop a ten year old from playing it? Unfortunately in most cases it is a no. Either the parents don’t care what there children are playing, and don’t realize the kind of images this puts into a childs mind, or the parents don’t even pay attention to what there kids may be doing behind there backs. With all the new and up to date video games you can do pretty much whatever you want. For example in the new grand theft auto game, first you can steal cars. After stealing the car most likely you aren’t going to drive inside the lines, you are going to see how fast this new car can go. While doing this crashing into all objects in the way including running people over during your little joy ride.
Other things you can do in this game is run around the streets killing people at will, if you ask me that isn’t something a ten year old should be doing on Saturday mornings. After your done cleaning up the streets of people, you can head into the local strip club. You can choose what you would like to do in the strip club, either stay out on the main floor, or go in the back for a private lap dance. Now the makers off this game didn’t hold anything back, letting you to be able to see fully naked woman.
This was just a few of the many things that kids can do on video games, we need to go back to the days were there were no violence on video games. and were things to do to kill time are play out in the street with your friends. Studies have shown the children can come immune or numb to the horror of violence, they will start to imitate the violence they see, and start to show more aggressive behavior. Also children and adolescents can become overly involved and addicted to videogames. When becoming overly involved with videogames children, can start to have poor social skills, lower grades, less exercise which will lead to obesity, and also more aggressive thoughts and behavior.
I believe that if we could some how fix this problem it could potentially make our country a safer place. There would be less kids growing up through life without anger and aggression problems. Them thinking that a videogame is no different than in real life. Not knowing that killing someone in real life is a serious crime and you will be punished for your actions unlike in a game.
The Influence that video games have on Children
Have you ever questioned what influence video games have on your children? Well, I have the facts that tell you just how video games affect the youth of America.
First, one negative influence that video games have is that they can foster violence. This means that when kids play these games and see their favorite character commit some type of violent action, they want to repeat it. Second, video games influence youth negatively by supposedly giving children a negative image of women. Women are not usually used in video games, and when they are, their purpose is usually sex appeal. Lastly, social isolation is a negative influence of video games. It causes the student not to care about grades or learning and to want to stay as far away from the real world as possible because of how much the player likes the videogame world.
What possible positive influences can video games have? They are an activity that captures kids’ fascination, even the educational ones that resemble a game. For example, Pac Man was a fantastically popular game when it came out. However, this game was an educational game that put puzzles into the game and caused you to have to use your brain to solve each puzzle to reach the next level. Video games are also extremely motivating and generate interest in a certain topic in the game. To illustrate, the videogame I Love Math causes children to become fascinated with and motivated to do math.
Some video games have a positive influence on children. There are learning games for children to play like Leap Frog. Leap Frog is a company that makes video games, especially for kids up to ten years old. There are also learning games for teens through age 18. However, other games may not even be suitable for adults to play let alone kids. These games include Grand Theft Auto and the Playboy Mansion. They could have a negative effect on kids, especially in the future. They may think it is okay to commit crimes that are played out in Grand Theft Auto or any other games that follow that basic plot.
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, of the 33 most popular video games chosen by children in grades four through eight, 21 percent of them featured violence against women, in addition to other violent acts against other forces.
That's fairly significant. It's also important to note that the video game industry is counting up over $10 billion worth of sales in the United States each year. Time and time again, the most popular video games prove to be the ones containing violent acts, and the ones making the video game manufacturers the most money.
In a recent study performed by Dr. Vincent Mathews, professor of radiology at Indiana University School of Medicine, and his research team, it was proven that adolescents' brain functions are actually altered as a result of playing violent video games.
The study proved that after playing a violent video game for just 30 minutes, the adolescents experienced increased activity in the part of the brain involved with emotional arousal, the amygdala. In addition to this, a decrease of activity in the parts of the brain associated with self-control was observed.
This study is important because it proves a link between brain activity and the type of video games children play. While this isn't conclusive evidence that violent video games produce violent children, it definitely opens up the potential for more research.
In conclusion, some games might be suitable for kids, and then some games should not have been made. I hope you have learned something about video games and monitor your children closer when they are playing their games.
only one reference
By: Kyle Spencer
From, the day sin was created by man, and upon the day of human extinction, social division will incumber us. The strong will dominate the weak, the rich will be viewed higher than the poor, and others will mingle in middle. Several sociologists such as the ones we learned about in class Blau, Goldthorp, and Glass as well as other researchers, understood the concept of social classes. Society and time has shaped multiple classes through wealth, race and gender, and lastly age.
Social division, is the most commonly related by wealth. In todays society and hundreds of years before, money and riches has put a staple on people. They are either rich, wealthy or poor, leading people to be sorted like cattle into the high, middle and low classes. The high class is the richer parts of communities who inherited their wealth. This would be like royalty or a family who passes along large sums of inheritance. The Second or middle class is people who are average. These people make enough money to get by, typically are attending or have attended college and work for what they have. They are provided opportunities to better themselves and keep moving along through life. Lastly, there is the poor or lower class. These types of people are stuck in debt and just a “hole” that is drastically hard to get out of. The lower or poor class could be provided with some money or help and it would either not be enough, or they would return to their “poor or lower” positions after awhile.
However, social division can be broken up in other ways besides wealth. Our ancestors demonstrated this and places among the world still demonstrate this with the act of slavery. Race, color, and sex is a huge social division factors. For many among many years whites discriminated blacks, Chinese and Indians forcing them into lower social classes. Those three races were pushed to the bottom as servants to the whites raising Caucasians levels in these social classes. With their social level increase came more wealth, power and respect. During this time as well women were basically slaves to men. Women had no rights to do anything outside of the house, leaving men, particularly white men at the top of the social classes.
Among, wealth, race, and gender, is another very influential social division of classes developed by age. Age has had a huge view point that society sorts people by. In many cultures the elderly is highly respected and seen above anyone else. Next would in line would be adults. These would be people seen as grown men or women by others who could support their family as a day-to-day task. The last social level derived by age would be children/infants. These are generally the kids who are to young to care for themselves and are unable to provide for themselves and others.
All in all, people have carved their way through time shaping society to place better than others. It is common that people now a days view social classes such as those derived by wealth, race, gender and age worthless and less promoted. There are some who still try and hold the power to better themselves as if life is a game, and in every game there is a winner and a loser; thus, leaving those in the middle to study these behaviors like Blau, Goldthorp, Glass and others.
*Amanda Miller** Inequality, poverty, and Wealth
There are three different classes that people live in upper class, middle class, and lower class. The people in upper class seem to get all off the praise, worship, and glory. Why? because they have money which middle and lower class have very little of. Therefore the lower and middle class get treated unequal in society. There are many things that separate all the classes from each other.
First I will talk about lower class. People that are in lower class seem to have less money which makes them look different in society eye. Most of lower class people live in poverty while others in upper class are living in million dollar homes. Lower class people also don't have many job options. Most of the lower class people either work at a fast food chain or clothing store. The lower class people have a hard life but middle class is somewhat similar to them.
Second is the middle class, which also can be called the working class. Middle class doesn't have it all but enough to live on. Some of the middle class could also live in poverty according to the our sociology book. Middle class people could have a good job if they work long enough but by that time they will be old and not have enough time to live there life. You could say that the middle class life is a bit easier than the lower class but, not as good as the upper class.
Finally there is the upper class. The upper class has many jobs and make plenty of money. The upper class also looks at the lower and middle class people like that don't even deserve to be on the same earth as them. The upper class live in big homes with no worries of anything while there are others out there starving and homeless. According to our sociology book there average in come each year is almost 75 million a year. People who live in upper class really don't have it hard and don't work as much as middle class or even lower class does.
There is a big difference between the upper, middle, and lower class. The lower class is very poor and most of the lower class live in poverty. The middle class have to work for almost everything they have its not easy to get a good job. The upper class work but, not as much as those in the lower class or middle class. There are several different things that separate all the classes from each other.
only one reference
http://www.ahsmidwest.org/defining-americas-lower-middle-and-upper-class/ & James Fulcher & John Scott Sociology Textbook
Sandra & Katie
Daniel Valdez & Chantee Luna
Marci Scripter And Heather Tole
Brittany Wilson & Arielle Gil-Sanz
Anthony Farrington II
Deja Cato, Deandra Williams, Victoria Biddle, Ariel Hutchinson, Amanda Miller
Luke Whitfield, Nick Silva
Bruce Watkins Jr.