- Studying Society and Social Life
- Social Groups and Social Control
- Social Inequality
- Social Institutions
- Social Dynamics and Social Change
- Digital Stories
Welcome to Sociology
The Study of Society.
Sociology focuses on identifying, explaining, and interpreting patterns and processes of human social relations. This introductory course is designed not just to teach you some of the major findings of sociology, but to help you master fundamental sociological skills, including the ability to think with a "sociological imagination" as well as integrate "technological fluency" with "informational literacy" utilizing basic computer-based data analysis—skils which have broad applicability in a range of educational and work settings.
Our goal in this class is for you to gain a different perspective of a diverse world often taken for granted and to gain new insight into the ways that society shapes people and the way people shape their society. Our objectives are directed at building competence as a critical thinker and change agent so that you will better able to raise relevant questions about the direction in which society is moving, interpret social trends, and examine significant social problems.
It is my hope that this hands-on experience of "doing" sociology will both enliven your interest in sociological analysis and help you develop practical skills that you can use in other contexts as well. We can best understand the process of social interaction when we understand the person in place and in time. Our syllabus sets the place, time and process of this course for you the person.
Welcome to my world, your world, our world.
Dr. Michael Thompson
Teens Why Do They Smoke and The Effects Of smoking
By Brandon Parson
Smoking is a major health concern in young adults between the ages of 18 and 25. In a 1998-2008 national health interview survey showed that adults between ages 18 years current smokers was averaged at 21.4%. Also, in another survey showed. Young adults between the ages 21-25 show that while they were in school 39.9% of them received a GED, 45.7% received no high school diploma, and 48.8% received a high school diploma. Teenage smokers in the U.S aren’t born smokers, there're reasons why this group individual get the habit of smoking. These teens are affected by the following role models who smoke, friends and peer pressure, and media influence. Teens don’t understand how harmful it is to smoke; it kills their body and ages them. Young teenager smokers are affected by the people and environment around them.
Teenagers are encouraged by role models that carry bad smoking habits. Role models can be parents, siblings, other family members, and idols. Parents that have bad smoking habits tend to smoke around there kids in the house and in the car. These parents do not notice that internally they’re killing their children. Tobacco smoke can contribute to an increased risk of respiratory infections, cancer, and even death in children. Children tend to get the tobacco smoking habits from family members that smoke like siblings, cousins, aunts, and uncles. Theses family members could even let their young teenage kin smoke with them and not even say anything to their parents. Idols like singers, rappers, and actors can also be a reason why young teens pick up smoking tobacco. Being a young age without maturity, you can be influenced by your favorite hip-hop artist videos of them smoking and drinking. Also, watching movies of your favorite actors smoking during their scenes can also influence teens to become tobacco users. Young adults are influenced by the closest people to them and also ones they look up to.
Going to school and being around friends that smoke can have a big toll on teens and smoking.
Teens are peer pressured by other teenage smokers when they’re out and about. For instance, when teens are together hanging out at a park or at a friend’s house teens can be pressured to experience smoking tobacco. Also, when teens see how their friends are stress free and relaxed from smoking tobacco can trigger for them to reach for a cigarette. Peer pressure can be forced by your peers and also by their actions. Actions do speak louder than words.
Smoking tobacco can be harmful to teenagers’ bodies. According to the American Lung Association smoking can lead teens to 87% of lung cancers, emphysema, and chronic Bronchitis. Cigarettes contain 19 known cancer increasing chemicals. If teenagers become long term smokers they can develop a risk of life threatening diseases. They can develop all types of cancerous diseases like, cancer of the lungs, mouth nose, lip, tongue, esophagus, throat, bone marrow, kidney, cervix, liver, bladder, and stomach can be caused from smoking. In female tobacco users the reproductive system is affected from the use of tobacco. The risk of cervical cancer can increase due to how much and how long females smoke. Tobacco smoking can decrease bone density, increasing the risk of osteoporosis. Teenage males and females are killing their selves. No matter how stresses relieving smoking cigarettes are they’re very dangerous and harmful to the body, they can kill and shut down your body.
Teenage students and young adults are being tested by our society, some fail and some pass move on and succeed in life. Our teenagers are manipulated by others that know how to break down their young raw minds into doing what they want. Smoking tobacco at a young age can be a risk and it can cost them their life. Hanging around the wrong crowds and becoming a part of their clique can be the down fall of our teens and their futures. Cigarettes are harmful to anyone that abuse and use the substance on a regular basis. Some don’t know and some just can’t fight the urge to some the disease causing product. Our society needs to be more aware of what is happening to our young and stand up and do something to slow down theses habits that our teens our picking up from the role models.
Brandon Parson Mind Mapping On Relationships
By Brandon Parson
AIDS is a disease that has effected and is still affecting the country in many detrimental ways. When first discovered in the country of Africa, the seriousness was unheard of. As the AIDS virus reached the United States, the devastating effects became more obvious. This was the point when the United States government felt that something should be done about the HIV/AIDS virus.
According to the Office of AIDS research, AIDS, or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a serious illness that originates as HIV. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. AIDS can take anywhere between seven and ten years to develop after being diagnosed with HIV. The AIDS virus damages the immune system, the part of the body that fights off infection. Over year AIDS will cause that immune system to become very weak. Eventually the individual with the AIDS virus will become very sick, and most often die. It is important that individuals with the AIDS virus take very good care of themselves. It is also important that they receive the support and care they need and deserve.
In 1986 the Government realized the seriousness of the AIDS virus and elected to take a series of important measures to tackle the epidemic, and also to offer help and support to those in need who are fighting this tragic disease. By this time AIDS had already attained epidemic proportion in the African region and was spreading rapidly in many countries worldwide. The Government of the United States realized this, and without wasting anytime began the initial steps to help individuals with the AIDS virus. By 1986 a high-powered National AIDS committee was formed. Then in 1987 the National AIDS Control Program was launched.
The purpose of the National AIDS Committee was to formulate a strategy and plan for the implementation of prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in the United States. In the initial years of the committee, the focus was based in public awareness. The individuals on the committee also introduced blood screening for people with HIV/AIDS.
In the year 1989, a medium term plan was developed using a ten million dollar budget by the United States. These ten million dollars went to awareness programs, blood safety measures, control of hospital infection, and condom promotion to help prevent HIV/AIDS. Due to these procedures in 1992 clinical services strengthened in both the HIV and AIDS areas. Soon after these developments, the committee also began strengthening management of HIV/AIDS at the state level. Many state governments began to establish their own organizations of HIV/AIDS control. At the state level an empowered committee is elected by either the Chairman of Chief Secretary or an additional Chief Secretary. These state organizations often pair up with the National AIDS Control Board to discuss future actions.
The National AIDS Program founded by the National AIDS Committee had two different phases. The first phase lasted from 1992 to 1999. The National AIDS Control Project was the first in the United States to develop a national program in the HIV/AIDS control and prevention. The ultimate objective of the project was to slow the spread of HIV, and to reduce mortality. This plan also had many specific objectives. The first was to involve all the states in developing HIV/AIDS prevention activities with a special focus in the major epidemic. The second objective was to attain a satisfactory level of public awareness of HIV transmission and prevention. The third objective was to develop health promotion interventions among risk behavior groups. The fourth objective was to screen all blood units collected for blood transfusions. The fifth objective was to decrease the practice of professional blood donations. The sixth was to develop skill in clinical management, health education, and counseling. The seventh objective was to strengthen the control of sexually transmitted diseases in the Unites States. The eighth and final objective was to monitor the development of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United.
HIV/AIDS is a difficult problem to undertake. As of right now there is still no cure for AIDS. It is not the government’s goal to find a cure for AIDS. The United States government is simply trying to prevent the HIV/AIDS epidemic from spreading. They are trying to communicate with the American people on how easy it is to contract the virus. Without the efforts of the United States government who knows what the world of HIV/AIDS would be like.
Social isolation refers to a complete or near-complete lack of contact with society for members of social species. It is usually involuntary, making it distinct from isolating tendencies or actions consciously undertaken by a person, all of which go by various other names. It is also not the same as loneliness rooted in temporary lack of contact with other humans. Social isolation can be an issue for anyone despite their age, each age group may show more symptoms than the other as children are different from adults.
In the early 18th century, many Amish and Mennonites immigrated to Pennsylvania for a variety of reasons. Today, the most traditional descendants of the Amish continue to speak Pennsylvania German, also known as Pennsylvania Dutch.
Amish church membership begins with baptism, usually between the ages of 16 and 25. It is a requirement for marriage, and once a person has affiliated with the church, he or she may marry only within the faith. Church districts average between 20 and 40 families, and worship services are held every other Sunday in a member's home. The district is led by a bishop and several ministers and deacons.
The rules of the church must be observed by every member. These rules cover most aspects of day-to-day living, and include prohibitions or limitations on the use of power-line electricity, telephones, and automobiles, as well as regulations on clothing. Many Amish church members may not buy insurance or accept government assistance such as Social Security. As Anabaptists, Amish church members practice nonresistance and will not perform any type of military service.
Members who do not conform to these expectations and who cannot be convinced to repent are excommunicated. In addition to excommunication, members may be shunned, a practice that limits social contacts to shame the wayward member into returning to the church. Almost 90% of Amish teenagers choose to be baptized and join the church. During adolescence in some communities, nonconforming behavior that would result in the shunning of an adult who had made the permanent commitment of baptism, may meet with a degree of forbearance. Amish church groups seek to maintain a degree of separation from the non-Amish (English) world. There is generally a heavy emphasis on church and family relationships. They typically operate their own one-room schools and discontinue formal education at grade eight. They value rural life, manual labor, and peace.
The new series, Breaking Amish on TLC depicts the life of the ten percent of kids who decide to break away from the Amish lifestyle to live in the city and pursue modern careers and lifestyles. As stated earlier, many families shun their children from their homes due to them breaking the rules of the Amish ways. No one in Amish communities are allowed to associate with anyone from the "outside world", and if anyone does, it can result in excommunication from their church, and even shunning from the community, even if it does include their friends and family. In the Amish life, religion comes first, obeying the rules comes second, and your family takes a backseat.
source- http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/tv/breaking-amish www.pittsburg.about.com
by Loretta Harmison
There are many parents or caregivers that have failed to fulfill their responsibilities of being a parent and place their children in isolating situations. Many sociologists have documented cases where children have been deliberately raised in isolation. When the children are put into this situation, unhealthy issues appear. The isolated child could slowly develop learning disabilities, slow brain development, and bad social skills. Here are some stories about children in isolation and what happened to them and the ending effects.
Danielle was seven years old when she was found in a small closet that had four foot deep pile of diapers soiled with feces and urine. The small girl was malnourished with her ribs and collarbone jolting out. The investigator found the girl lying on a mattress that was covered with bugs and feces, the only thing the girl had on was a soiled diaper. She was covered in rashes and sores, lice and bugs. When she was taken to the hospital, they found out that she couldn’t chew food, so they had to give her IV solutions and a bottle, and when she soothed herself she sucked on her fist like an infant. She would not make eye contact, or react to hot, cold, or pain. They discovered that she would stand and walk sideways on her toes, like a crab. Though she could walk, she could not talk and did not know how to nod her head for yes and no. Investigators also found that she never went to a school or a doctor. They performed some tests to see if she was autistic or deaf, they all came up negative. What they did find out was that from never being socialized or messed with, Danielle did not grow and did not expand her learning ability.
Genie was thirteen when she was found by authorities. She had been kept in a small room in her parent’s house from the age of twenty months. When they put her in there, she never left that room, they kept her naked and restrained, with a harness that her father designed, attached to a small potty-chair. Her father forbade her almost blind mother from speaking to the child. Her father who was psychotic, had put Genie older sibling in the garage to avoid hearing the child cry. That was where she stayed until she died of pneumonia at the age of two months.
Genie who was harnessed on the potty, could only move her hands and feet. She was only fed milk and baby food. When authorities found her, she weighed 59 pounds, could not straighten her arms and legs, and had no idea how to chew, recognize words, or speak. She had no control of her bowels or bladder. Soon after Genie was discovered her father killed himself. Over the next six years with being socialized into the world, things got better for Genie. She learned how to talk at the level of a two or three year old, to draw, and to get from one place to another. Her language never improved and she made errors that normal two year olds never made.
From the stories that were discussed, these show the importance of socialization in the learning stages in life. The neglect that was put on these children hindered their learning behavior and prevented them from advancing in life. When kids go out and play with others their age, they learn how to make friends, how to play together and be social. Danielle and Genie’s isolation played a huge role in why they never learned the things normal socialized children know. They were physically and mentally stunted when they were put into those small lonely places.
DeGregory, Lane. "The Girl in the Window." Tampa Bay Times. Times Staff Writer, June-July 2008. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.tampabay.com/features/humaninterest/article750838.ece>.
"Genie: The Story of a Child Kept in Extreme Isolation." Genie: The Story of a Child Kept in Extreme Isolation. Audiblox, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.audiblox2000.com/genie-isolation.htm>.
Eulo, Joseph. "3 Socialization." Scribd. N.p., 2012. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.scribd.com/doc/15789561/3-Socialization>.
By Loretta Harmison
American and Mexican Culture
What is culture? Culture is the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society. There are many different characteristics, such as, people, religion, language, cuisine, and festivals.
The American Culture is the culture is different from Mexican culture. The first, American people are a blend of Native Americans, also with a large number of immigrants. Immigrants come from places like Germany, Ireland, Italy, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. America today has four main races Native American, European American, African-American, and Asian. Secondly, there are a few different religions in America. The most common religion in the United States is Protestant Christians; a few of them are Catholics. Also the USA has had a number of people adopt other religions, such, as Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism. Next, America does not have an official language; a majority of American population speaks English. The next largest number of immigrants from Mexico and Spain speak Spanish. There are other languages also spoken in the United States like Greek, German, Italian, and Polish. Then there is a difference in the cuisine that American’s eat. American cuisine has a strong European influence. Popular cuisine in America is banana split, brownies, hamburgers, hotdogs, lobster, clam chowder, cheesecake, and pizza. Last, American’s have different festivals then the Mexican culture. Some of the more traditional festivals that take place in American are New Years, Christmas, and Good Friday. A few other festivals that American celebrates are St. Patrick’s Day, Thanksgiving, Easter, and Halloween.
The Mexican Culture has it differences with all other cultures like the American culture. The people of Mexican cultures are normally warm and gracious and believe in their families. They are hard-working and they are not very rich but money does not stop them from anything. The Mexican religion is manly catholic. “Christianity was introduced to the residents by the colonial masters.” The language that most Mexican speaks is known as Spanish. Mexican Spanish is different from Castilian Spanish which is the language of Spain. About 50 indigenous languages are spoken by around seven million people in Mexico. Mexican cuisines are not like the ones found in Mexican restaurants in other countries. Chili peppers, beans, tortillas are staple food of Mexican people. Tortillas are a very thin round patties, they are made from corn or wheat-flour dough, and they are normal cooked on a griddle. There are many different varieties of beans (frijoles) and the beans are commonly boiled and not fried. The Mexican culture has many festivities that they celebrate throughout the year. The first, Mexican festivity is Cinco de Mayo which means May 5th, Cinco de Mayo is a celebration of independence, liberty and freedom. The second festivity is El Grito de Independencia, it means Independence Day, which is celebrated on September 16th. The next festivity is Los Dias de Los Muertos and it means Day of the Dead but it is a Mexican celebration of both life and death, it is held on November 1st and 2nd. The last festivity is Las Posadas and it begins on December 16th and continues for the next nine nights, this is a remembrance of the long journey undertaken by Joseph and May and their search for Bethlehem.
These are just two different cultures that are in the world, but there are many different cultures in our world and society that everyone is experiencing every day.
Kendall, Diana Elizabeth. Sociology in Our times. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning, 2003. Print
Rumors & Gossip
Just like playing telephone when you were little with your friends is just how fast rumors and gossip can travel. There are so many different ways that they can be transported now that our society is all about technology. Twitter, Facebook, texting are some of the select few ways that they can be transported which is way some of the teens are having a hard time with bullying and suicide is from these awful things that can potentially ruin someone’s life. Sometimes however a rumor can be a series of true events then it might change to things that aren’t true which makes it difficult and hard on the person its about. Rumors can also be a good, such as if a big event happens like the presidency, earth quake, and maybe even a death of a celebrity that everyone will find out about on twitter, or Facebook. In the olden days rumors took a while to find out about because you’d have to read about it in the newspaper or someone else; however, now they happen right when the event happens, which can be a good thing. Rumors can help with getting people to want to help with things that can happen such as a hurricane or anything that’s disaster relief so they can help. Rumors can just be very helpful in our society today, because that’s how information travels fast, or from people. Once a rumor begin to circulate, it seldom stops unless compelling information’s comes to the forefront that either proves the rumor false or makes t obsolete. So many different types of rumor variety from media, electronic media, fax machines, cellular networks, satellite systems, and internet aid move rumors all around the world. Gossip is a whole other topic, gossips definitions refers to rumors about the personal lives of individuals. Gossip is usually a talk between friends, or small groups of people. They can be talking about others, what others are doing, and who did this to another person. Gossip can be very hurtful for people; if maybe friends are talking about friends then it can be rude, and lead to not being friends anymore. Sometimes it can simply just be gossiping about people that they haven’t met, which isn’t a bad thing. Gossip is very common you might be gossiping and not even knows it, just happens, it’s just how our society talks today. Gossip is all over tabloids and magazines about the celebrities in all our movies and what they are doing with their lives. Gossip will always be in our lives, because I don’t think that anyone could go a day and not talk about someone else, which can be a shame but that’s how it goes sometimes. Rumors also are really common, not as bad as gossip but it’s always going to happen.
Fads & Fashion
Our society today is all about change and how what to wear, and how to look the best and who has the best and newest thing out there. A fad, a temporary but widely copied activity followed enthusiastically by large numbers of people, is just that. There are many kinds of fads; first there are object fads, which is items that people purchase despite the fact that they have little use of intrinsic value. There are activity fads, which are pursuits such as body piercings, surfing the internet, and free hugs campaign. Last, there are personality fads, with is those surrounding celebrities, or if you want to be someone else for a change. Fads are very common and really now a bad thing at all. They can be bad for Wal-Mart say if Wal-Mart got a big shipment of Furbies and they are popular for a week then no one wants them because they are that fad of the week, then they will lose money. Fashion on the other hand is a currently valued style or behavior, thinking, or appearance that is longer lasting and more widespread than a fad. So Fashion can last a while, like it said say a clothing store, or a new hair style. Fashion is very popular around the whole entire world, you see if everywhere from magazines, on TV, and even on the internet. The most popular form of fashion would most definitely be women’s apparel. Fashion became more important as people embraces the modern way of life. Of course there are some low points of fashion just because it’s so expensive and the upper class are usually the ones that has the most recent form of fashion. The lower class can also have fashion just have to work a little bit harder and look at different places. Fashion shows take place all around the world, but Paris is one of the biggest Fashion places all around the world, any girl would die to go there during Fashion Week to see all the latest trends. Fads can be in Fashion because if there is a brand of clothing that month that is the best, that is sort of like a fad because if it only lasts a certain amount of time that’s okay and that can be considered a fad. Fashion and fads will always be around the world, and in our society because there is always going to be something going out of style and something coming in that’s knew, that’s just how the world works.
Agents of Socializing Mind Map
Social groups are very beneficial to everyone all across the entire world. If we didn’t have so many social groups across the countries, some certain people would suffer because they help them. I can relate to a social group helping me and my family and other people I know.
I have worked in a social group called the Ronald McDonald house. The Ronald McDonald house is very providing and helpful to so many people. There are several Ronald McDonald houses around the entire United States. The Ronald McDonald houses provide a place that helps make you feel like you are at home.
Ronald McDonald houses are located at various Children’s Mercy Hospitals. What the Ronald McDonald house is, is a place where families who have children in the hospital go. There are people who volunteer at these houses to prepare you dinner. When parents or even families have children in the hospital, it can be very stressful. It can also be hard if they are not close to home and not have everything they would be used to having at home.
Ronald McDonald houses are usually just like a normal home. They have a kitchen where you can go whenever you want and get whatever you want, and they have rooms and bathrooms. To stay in these houses, it is usually free. If there is a charge, which there usually isn’t, it is about twenty five dollars. This charge covers room costs. You also get to eat breakfast, lunch or dinner while you are there.
When I was in the hospital for over a week, the Ronald McDonald house was very helpful and accommodating to my parents and my sister. They could go there and eat or rest, or just to get away from the hospital and it was really good. They got a home cooked meal and could get away from the chaos of the hospital. You also meet a lot of families at the Ronald McDonald house where you can relate to them. Sometimes you even start to feel grateful because you realize that someone out there is having a worse time than you, and is going through more than you or your family is.
As well as my parents and sister staying in the Ronald McDonald house, I have helped volunteer there. Ever since I have started volunteering at a place, I usually never stop and make an effort to go there at least once a month, and at some places even twice a week. Once you look at how bad some other people have it, you realize how lucky you are and it makes you grateful.
You learn so many people’s stories and have a greater appreciation for everything. When I volunteered, and had talked to some families staying at the Ronald McDonald house, some brought tears to my eyes. It makes you feel really good once you cook them dinner, make them a decoration, or even just talk to them.
The Ronald McDonald house is a great organization and is very helpful. Not only does the hospital provide these places for you, others also donate a lot of money or volunteer their time to try and make your night better.
Sources: rmhc.com, childrensmercy.org
“Social group is a collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another, share a sense of belonging, and have a feeling of interdependence (Sociology in Our Times, 115).” Throughout our lives people will participate in groups, such as, our families and our childhood friends, to our friends that we make in college, to work and our community and even society. Social groups are broke down into two basic groups: primary group and secondary group. Then those social groups are broke down into category, such as, aggregate, category, in-group, out-group, and reference group, small group, dyad, and triad.
Primary group is a small group of members who share personal and enduring relationships over an extended period of time. Primary groups are: families, school and work peer groups, and also close friends. Normally these groups of people are the groups we experience first in our lives. These groups of people are usually the ones we have an emotional attachment with and our relationships end in itself.
A secondary group is a larger and more specialized group in which members has a more impersonal relationship with their group of people. Examples of secondary groups are churches, corporations, and schools. In a secondary group the relationships are less emotional ties with another person in that group of people. This kind of group is more focused on the goals that they have set to achieve.
Aggregate is a group of people who are in the same place at the same time but do not have anything in common. Social groups of people that are in a mall or at an airport are examples of aggregate. A category is a number of people that have never met one another and share a few characteristic, for example, age, race, educational level, and gender. In-group and out-group are described to people’s feelings toward other members of a group or another group. In-group is where a person belongs and that person feels they have a sense of identity. An out-group is where a person feels like they do not belong in that certain group. A reference group is a group that strongly influences a person’s behavior and social attitudes, whether that individual is a member. Group sizes are also in a small group, for all members to be familiar with one another. The next group size is, dyad, which is a group of only two members. The last group size is triad. A triad is a group of only three people.
There are many differences type of social groups in our society and they are described above in the paragraphs. There are also different types of social networks, such as, Facebook, Tumbler, Twitter, Instagram, and many different kinds of dating sites.
Kendall, Diana Elizabeth. Sociology in Our times. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning, 2003. Print
Digital story basketball
Social groups are a great thing that many countries have. They have them all over the place and there are several different types of social groups. One thing about them is the same in every organization though. That is that they are all about helping others. Whether it be by donating money, paying for hospital bills, or giving people food, they all are helping in some way.
I know of one group that is very special to me and that I will always be grateful for. This group would be an organization called Harvesters. “Harvesters” does a lot of different things. Some of the things are collecting food items, sending less fortunate kids to school with snack and food items they can eat. Other things they do are raise awareness of hunger, and help collect household items such as cleaning products to give to those in need of them.
Harvesters has many volunteers that do all sorts of things. When I went there I sorted through eggs, helped make kids snack packs, and threw out old food. Going to Harvesters made me feel better about myself because I realized how many people were hungry in the world and how I shouldn’t waste so much food. There are a lot of hungry people in the world, and although America has so many obese people, there are people out there who are malnourished. Many people probably think that there are not really any people who need help with getting food, but there are several. This is why Harvesters raises awareness. Because people don’t know how in need some families, and even children are.
There are people out there who cannot afford to pay for the food they need to eat to be healthy. So many people need better nutrition, but it is hard to get the proper nutrition when most healthy foods are more expensive. This is where Harvesters can help. Harvesters get several donations from a bunch of different places such as grocery stores, or people. Harvesters also gets donations of money from people. Harvesters distribute the food they collect to people or certain places in need. Inside of Harevesters’ building, there are several different areas where volunteers work. Some jobs are more demanding than others, but there are several different things you can do.
Harvesters is a non-profit organization. They donate or come to those in need in ways such as emergency food pantries, soup kitchens, and homeless shelters. They don’t just donate food though. They also help provide cleaning products, or anything from toothpaste to laundry detergent.
If it wasn’t for social groups and organizations like these, there would be many people in need. Luckily, besides all the negative and selfish people in the world, there are people who will donate supplies, or money. Volunteers are very important in social groups because sometimes it is hard to pay people to work and still donate all sorts of different things. Volunteers donate their time which is just as important as whatever is being donated to people in need.
Having organizations like we do is very important. If it wasn’t for these social groups, the world would be hard to live in. The people who get help from social groups are really appreciative and it makes everything all the worth while. Source-www.harvesters.org www.worldhunger.org
** Social Inequality**
Social inequality is questioned about if it is harmful to society or not. According to the sociologist Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore, inequality is not only inevitable bit also necessary for the smooth functioning of society. All societies have important tasks that must be accomplished and certain positions that must be filled. Some positions are more important for the survival of society than others. The most important positions must be filled by the most qualified people. The positions that are the most important for society and that require scarce talent, extensive training, or both must be the most highly rewarded. The most highly rewarded positions should be those that are functionally unique and on which other positions rely for expertise, direction, or financing.
From a conflict perspective, people with economic power are able to shape and distribute the rewards, resources, privileges, and opportunities in society for their own benefit. Conflict theorists do not believe that inequality serves as a motivating force for people: they argue that powerful individuals and groups use ideology to maintain their favored positions at the expense of others. Conflict theorists also note that laws and informal social norms support inequality in the United States. Functionalist perspectives believe some degree of social inequality is necessary for the smooth functioning of society and thus is inevitable. Conflict perspectives believe that powerful individuals and groups use ideology to maintain their favored positions in society at the expense of others, and wealth is not necessary in order to motivate people.
Symbolic interctionists focus on micro level concerns and usually do not analyze larger structural factors that contribute to inequality and poverty. However, many significant insights on the effects of wealth and poverty on people’s lives and social interactions can be derived from applying a symbolic interactionist approach. Using qualitative research methods and influenced by a symbolic approach, researchers have collected the personal narratives of people across all social classes, ranging from the wealthiest to the poorest people in the United States. A few studies provide rare insights into the social interactions between people from vastly divergent class locations. A study of the relationship between household workers and their employers is one example. Symbolic interactionist perspectives their beliefs and actions of people reflect their class location in society.
Social inequality refers to the ways in which socially-defined categories of persons, like gender, age, ‘class’ and ethnicity, are differently positioned with regard to access to a variety of social goods. For example, the labor market and other sources of income, the education and healthcare systems, and forms of political representation and participation. These and other forms of social inequality are shaped by a range of structural factors, such as geographical location or citizenship status, and are often underpinned by cultural discourses and identities defining, for example, whether the poor are deserving or undeserving. Understanding the changing patterns, causes and consequences of social inequality in the post-Socialist countries of Eastern Europe, both within and outside of the borders of the European Union. This is because comparative evidence form the Western Europe and elsewhere in the world suggests a strong link between social inequality and a variety of soci-economic and political ills. In the sphere of health, for example, high death rates and stress-related illnesses all appear to be closely correlated with high levels of income inequality, as does violet crime. With regard to democratic development, deepening inequalities within and between different groups in society are associated with low levels of social cohesion and participatory citizenship. In addition, social inequality can impede democratic consolidation by stimulating social conflict and political instability, and in turn may act as a support for the establishment of authoritarian regimes.
Sources: http://google.com//, Sociology book
by - Jay Kapadia
If you are born into poverty in America, with all the inherent disadvantages, the overwhelming tendency is to remain there. Social mobility is almost unheard of, the Economic Mobility Project found, Huffington Post report, that “the United States has lower, not higher, mobility than other wealthy countries… very depressing for those who subscribe to the notion that America is a meritocracy and a “land of opportunity.” Economic inequality is a worldwide social poison not just in the US, who lays claim to an often cited, Hollywood fashioned, rarely achieved ‘American dream’ of opportunity and material success, whilst simultaneously following political/economic and social ideologies that strengthen inequality and encourage division.
In fact, as Why Poverty show, the 400 richest people in America “control more wealth than the bottom households combined, that’s 150 million people” A staggering shameful statistic, in a country overflowing with resources that espouses democratic principles of freedom, equality and justice to all and sundry. A country with, according to Noam Chomsky 25% of the worlds wealth, down from an unprecedented 50% in 1948, that, whilst 50 million of its citizens languish in poverty and with a fiscal cliff looming, somehow manages to spend and justify so doing, $1 trillion on it’s armed forces, more than the military expenditure of the rest of the world combined. To one unfamiliar with the ways of corporate political life and the complexities of democracy, this sounds like collective, or State madness, does it not.
Other nations seem to face the same challenge: either inclusive, or economically just. Europe has maintained much more economic equality but is struggling greatly with inclusiveness and discrimination, and is far less open to minorities than is the United States.
European countries have done a better job of protecting workers’ salaries and rights but have been reluctant to extend the benefits of their generous welfare state to new immigranhttp://snippets.wikidot.com/ts who look and act differently from them. Could America’s lost enthusiasm for income redistribution and progressive taxation be in part a reaction to sharing resources with traditionally excluded groups?
The long history of racial discrimination represented an embarrassing contradiction — and a serious threat — to our national story of equal opportunity. With Jim Crow laws firmly in place it was hard to seriously argue that everyone had an equal chance. Civil rights leaders like the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. were able to use this tradition to draw support to their causes. “Given our culture of equality of opportunity, these kinds of rights-based arguments are almost impossible to refute,” Professor Karabel said. “Even in today’s conservative political climate, opponents of gay rights are losing ground.”
The removal of traditional barriers opened up the American system. In 1951 blacks made up less than 1 percent of the students at America’s Ivy League colleges. Today they make up about 8 percent. At the same time, America’s elite universities are increasingly the provinces of the well-to-do. “Looking at the data, you see that the freshman class of our top colleges are more and more made up of the children of upper- and upper-middle-class families,” said Thomas J. Espenshade of Princeton, a sociologist.
In the United States, the stratification of wealth followed several decades where economic equality was strong. The stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression that followed underscored the excesses of the roaring ’20s and ushered in an era in which the political climate favored labor unions, progressive taxation and social programs aimed at reducing poverty.
From the 1930s to the 1960s, the income of the less affluent Americans grew more quickly than that of their wealthier neighbors, and the richest 1 percent saw its share of the national income shrink to 8.9 percent in the mid-1970s, from 23.9 percent in 1928. That share is now back up to more than 20 percent, its level before the Depression.
Inequality has traditionally been acceptable to Americans if accompanied by mobility. But most recent studies of economic mobility indicate that it is getting even harder for people to jump from one economic class to another in the United States, harder to join the elite. While Americans are used to considering equal opportunity and equality of condition as separate issues, they may need to reconsider. In an era in which money translates into political power, there is a growing feeling, on both left and right, that special interests have their way in Washington. There is growing anger, from the Tea Party to Occupy Wall Street, that the current system is stacked against ordinary citizens. Suddenly, as in the 1930s, the issue of economic equality is back in play.
The subject of same-sex marriage is widely discussed and quite controversial. To clarify, sexual orientation refers to an individual’s preference for emotional-sexual relationships. Homosexuality is the same sex, and bisexuality is both sexes. It’s a lifestyle. Because of an overall understanding of this particular lifestyle’s behaviors, much of society gets confused as to what is real and what is “Hollywood’s” definition. Homosexuality is considered taboo in many cultures.
Culturally, the main focus is on gender. Not to be confused with sex, gender refers to the meanings and beliefs behind femininity and masculinity. Gender is what makes you buy a truck for a boy and a doll for a girl. Gender is considered a human invention, such as language or technology. When people see a man and a man walking together, they will naturally assume these two men are simply friends taking a stroll. It’s culture that makes it difficult to see these two men as a couple. Much of our culture here in America is gendered. Men are expected to be aggressive and tough, while women supposed to be soft and nurturing. In my own experiences, I have found that when these gender roles are switched, society attributes the switch to homosexuality.
In another aspect, society tries to label homosexuals by a “Hollywood” definition. By that I mean that not all homosexual males walk around in pink, leather chaps and talk with a lisp; the same way that not all lesbians have short hair and want to me a man. Society spends a lot of time attempting to gender this group of people, instead of humanizing them. The truth is that you can’t tell someone’s sexuality just by looking at them. There are a lot of factors that come into play.
Some scientists believe that the sexual orientation is determined at birth. Others believe that it has biological and social components and is not determined at birth. Either way, there have been many studies done on the subject. There are three parts when it comes to sexual orientation: sexual attraction, sexual involvement, and self-identification. Because of these three aspects, many people involved in the study said that although they had at least one homosexual encounter when they were younger, they were no longer involved in homosexual conduct or didn’t identify themselves as such. The experience varies on the person. Lady GaGa says, “I was born this way”, whereas other people had an experience that shifted their identities. Although the root of sexual orientation is unknown, many homosexuals in these studies did state that from an early age, they felt different.
This “different” feeling that many young homosexuals feel is often met by ridicule and discrimination. Words like “fag” and “dyke” are considered extremely derogatory and offensive, but are often thrown around as if they have no weight at all. The discrimination against this group of people is so wide that it actually has a name. Alongside racism and sexism, there is “homophobia”. The discrimination against homosexuals is on a very large scale. In most states, gays and lesbian couples are not allowed to marry. One of the largest forms of discrimination was the “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy implemented in 1993. Under this policy, gays and lesbians were not allowed to serve their country openly. This policy was repealed under the Obama administration. And there are currently nine states that allow same-sex marriage.
Fifty years ago, the topic of interracial marriage would have been just as controversial as same-sex marriage is today. We now can walk down the street and see an African American man holding a Caucasian woman’s hand and not take a second look. As time changes, people will soon see two women holding hands and not give them that same second glance.
Sociology in Our Times. 8th Edition.
www.The Huffington Post
Technology and Dating
The connotation of dating in present-day society differs than it did 80 years ago. In our grandparent’s time, you took a girl you were keen on down to the soda shop. This is where you told her you thought she was swell, and she told you that you were the cat’s meow. On the weekends, you went to the drive in and if you were really gutsy, you put your arm around her and hopefully got a goodnight kiss on the cheek. Needless to say, this is not the case in present-day America. When it comes to dating, asking a girl out involves hours of Facebook stalking and some daring text messages. Chivalry and couth are lost in America’s youth. Technology has played a major part in the cultural shift when it comes to dating.
Online dating sites, such as Match.com and eHarmony have taken dating to a whole new level. For the people who are finding themselves unlucky in love, the easiest part is filling out an online profile. Statistics show 94% couples that emailed and chatted before meeting met a second time. After all, what are the chances of finding true love in a town of 5,000 people? Online dating opens doors and allows an individual to meet far more people than before. Like with anything that seems simple, there is a dark side to online dating sites. There’s the obvious things like people lie and they aren’t going to take the site seriously, but studies have shown that some men use these sites for a one-stop Booty Call Shop.
There used to be a special kind of anxiety that came with calling a girl at home, while trying to figure out what you were going to say to her. Not to mention what you were going to say if her parents answered the phone. Phone calls have become rare and to an extent, unwanted. How many time does someone call you, and you simply ignore them and text them later. Texts are more convenient, but the messages can get misconstrued. Texting provides instant gratification, but morphs into an emotional roller coaster of waiting for messages and receiving them. Texting is great for short bits of information, but it can be difficult to truly bond.
Facebook is the double edged sword of today’s dating world. It allows access to a certain amount of information when it comes to a stranger, but as we all know, that can easily become TOO much information. Often times, things aren’t official until its “Facebook Official”. A recent study showed that people who remained Facebook friends with their exes often checked up on their activities, making the recovery from the breakup harder. It can also create unnecessary jealousy. After just meeting someone, it’s tempting to Facebook stalk them. Those with lower self-esteem will see pictures that trigger jealous feelings, although they really have no place to feel that way. God forbid if another girl likes your boyfriend’s picture or status.
We live in an era of instant gratification. We expect all of the information we crave to be in one place. Whether it’s on Facebook, or a dating profile, or even through a ballsy text conversation, we need to know everything. What is really getting lost here is a communication. Cyber conversations make it easy to keep from getting too close to others. Without that bonding, you are simply keeping yourself from the joy of a fulfilling connection. All this technology makes it really easy for things to be misinterpreted. There needs to be a balance. While texting is fun, make sure serious conversations are done face-to-face. Technology is meant to be used as a tool, not as the center of your dating universe.
Seperate but Equal
In today’s society, there’s an abundance of changes underway dealing with various types of social inequality. One of them that has recently affected America in positive and negative ways is the Separate but Equal laws. Up until the late 1950s, the United States was relatively racist. For instance, African American’s and Caucasian citizens had different places of interest such as restaurants, water fountains, parks, bathrooms, schools etc. These laws didn’t only describe how corrupt society once was, but also how prejudice (especially in the southern states) people once were. Up until the early 1960s, black housekeepers working for whites couldn’t even use the bathrooms in their homes because blacks carried “diseases” that whites didn’t have or want to catch. In Montgomery, Alabama Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus, resulting in her arrest, and furthering to the bus boycotts. Martin Luther King Jr. protested about the unfairness our country possessed, but he did not use aggression and violence to do so. Instead, he spoke in a very calm, and collected way of what should be expected of this country.
The “normal way of life” was problematic because the United States was the only country in the world to have Separate but Equal Laws. 1948 marked the first chapter of this sociological change. President Truman desegregated the military, followed by the 1957 court case Brown vs. Board of Education which took place in Topeka, Kansas, and struck down Separate but Equal laws in the school system. Not to mention the Little Rock Nine, who went attended high school in Little Rock, Arkansas. The public was so out of control that President Eisenhower sent 1,000 members of the National Guard to stand outside of the school.
Since then, there have been several laws passed regarding the integration of separate races. Looking back at how things use to be, America seemed rather horrid. Through the years, our society has always been racist. Until the Civil War, it was constitutional to have slaves. After the war, blacks could vote, but only if they met the requirements of the Grandfather laws. If a black citizen wanted to vote, their grandfather had to have owned land. This wasn’t only a racist law, however, it was also impossible for them to vote due to the fact that their grandfathers were all slaves, therefore, no black person would be voting.
During the 1930s, anti-lynching movements were underway. Unfortunately, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt did not pass any of them. This was because there were many democratic voters in the southern states, and if he were to pass any anti-racist laws, the end result would be losing votes. Although he was a very successful president, he was also exceptionally racist as well, but the sad part is, that it was politically correct back in that time period.
On the other hand, during President Nixon’s term, racism took on a different form known as the silent majority. Although America was now “race integrated”, people were still just as racist as they were 20 years prior, but instead of expressing it through laws, and separating themselves in society, they just expressed prejudice from their own point of view, also known as “The Silent Majority.”
With courage, many people stood up to these laws, fighting for fairness, and absolute equality with no separation, or discrimination. Surely not one person forty years ago would have thought we would have a black president in today’s America. Although time has expressed many trials and triumphs throughout America’s history, racism is definitely one immense sociological inequality, not so much in today’s world, but it was once an ethical way of life at one period.
Same Sex Marriages
By Kelsi Conway
Gay. Lesbo. Fag. We have all heard these slangs been thrown around to people whose sexual orientation is not like everybody else’s. That does not make it right. Discriminating against those finding love with the same gender is not right!
“Sexual orientation refers to an individual’s preference for emotional-sexual relationships” (Sociology 312). There are three types of sexual orientation. Opposite sex is heterosexuality. Same sex is homosexuality. And both sexes are bisexuality. In many states, same sex couples cannot have a marital status because there is laws that have been passed that only marriage can be between a man and a woman. Currently, only nine states allow same sex marriage. Those states include: Connecticut, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, Washington and the District of Columbia.
In 1996, California laws defined marriage as “a union between a man and a woman.” That law makes it so same sex couples do not get the same martial benefits as heterosexual couples- joint tax filing, Social Security survivor payments and immigration sponsorship. According to Bob Egelko of the SF Gate, 100,000 or more couples in just the nine states that have already allowed same sex marriage could be waiting on a hearing about the definition of marriage. In March or April the cases will be heard. The ruling will be by the end of June. The cases will be heard before a court widely regarded as “the most conservative”, but had ruled in the favor of homosexual rights twice.
Recently, an Illinios, same sex, couple was happy that Illinois would allow civil unions. The couple tried to find a venue for their event. Because they are a homosexual couple, it was not as easy for them as it would be for a heterosexual couple. Two venues sent emails to the couple that read:
"In an e-mail reply from the Beall Mansion, Wathen was told, “At this point we will just be doing traditional weddings.” Beall’s definition of traditional weddings: “Weddings as opposed to civil unions.”
TimberCreek, was more emphatic in its denial. An e-mail reply from Jim Walder stated: “We will never host same-sex civil unions. We will never host same-sex weddings even if they become legal in Illinois. We believe homosexuality is wrong and unnatural based on what the Bible says about it. If that is discrimination, I guess we unfortunately discriminate.”
When informed by Todd Wathen of the new law, Walder replied in an e-mail, “The Bible does not state opinions, but facts. It contains the highest laws pertinent to man. It trumps Illinois law, United States law, and global law should there ever be any.”"
My heart goes out to this couple and many others just like them. My heart would ache if I could not celebrate my love for the man of my dreams. Many states are trying to define that marriage should only be between one man and one woman. Is this fair to those who cannot help which “sex” they fall in love with? The answer is simple. No! I’m not saying whether it is right or wrong. I am just saying the heart wants what the heart wants.
Sociology in Our Time by Kenndall
A Century of Segregation
By Kelsi Conway
Even before the Emancipation Proclamation given by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863, African Americans suffered hardships, but even after the thirteenth amendment was added, they had to live through a century of segregation. 1865 to 1877 is known as the Reconstruction Period for the United States. This period refers to the time of history right after the Civil War. The federal government would set conditions for the rebel Southern states to once again join the Union. In 1875, Congress passed a civil-rights bill. This was saying that no matter race, everyone could enjoy many public facilitites. The two clauses read the following: "Be it enacted, That all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement; subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law, and applicable alike to citizens of every race and color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude." Except, that was not the case. There was still going to be a century of segregation in public places.
Eight years later, in 1883, The United States Supreme Court ruled that the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was unconstitutional. They say it was
not authorized by the thirteenth and fourteenth Amendments. The ruling said the following: "The XIVth Amendment is prohibitory upon the States only, and the legislation authorized to be adopted by Congress for enforcing it is not direct legislation on the matters respecting which the States are prohibited from making or enforcing certain laws, or doing certain acts, but it is corrective legislation, such as may be necessary or proper for counteracting and redressing the effect of such laws or acts."
In 1892, Homer Plessy was arrested for riding on the “white” car of the train. He had fair skin, but under Louisiana law was considered black. That meant he had to sit in the “color” car. That same year, Louisiana passed the Separate Car Act. An African American civil rights organization wanted to challenge the law in the court system. Plessy purposely sat in the white section. And in 1896, there was the Supreme Court case Plessy v. Fergusion.
In 1923, the case Moore v. Dempsey was a major victory for all African Americans. During a riot, five white men had been killed. Over 700 African Americans had been arrested, sixity-seven in prison, and twelve farmers would be tried for the killings. The jury was all white men. A mob surrounded the court house yelling that if those being accused were not sentenced to death, the mob would lynch them (pbs.org).
We all know the case of Brown v. the Board of Education. But little did I even know that in 1962 Ole Miss was not segregated and it would be a battle for even an Air Force retiree to enroll in school. James Meredith wanted to integrate the University of Mississippi. It was a battle. Riots broke out. Students even fighting the US Marshalls and other federal officers. Even the governor of Mississippi said the school would not integrate while President Kennedy signed protection for Meredith to enroll. Finally, on October 1st, Meredith would be allowed to start classes. He even graduated the next fall with his degree.
It is hard to believe that segregation was only fifty years ago. It is sad to look at our countries past, but look where we have come. And look how far we have to go. Sadly, racism is still here, but I have faith that our generation and generations after will all live as one.
Anything can be classified as a social institution. For example a school or even a church can be classified as a social institution. The true definition of a social institution is a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its social needs. Every part of the world has social institutions whether it be a school, church, job etc. We cannot survive without them. When people are interacting with each other, it is most likely to be a social institution. Functional theorists say that social institutions exist because they perform five essential tasks. 1) Replacing members: when members of the organization or institution move away of die they must have a way of replacing them with new members. 2) Teaching new members: when someone is born into a society or move into it, they must learn the groups ways of life, values and customs. 3) Producing, distribution, and consuming goods and services: all societies must have a way of providing and distributing goods and services. 4) Preserving order: making sure they preserve order within their society and preventing attack from outsiders. 5) Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose: to motivate people to cooperate with one another, a sense of purpose is needed. These five tasks are important to keep a social institution together. Even though every society follows these tasks, they all perform these tasks in different ways depending on their specific cultural values and norms.
In the past, needs have usually centered on the five basic social institutions: the family, religion, the economy, and the government or politics. Another form of social institution is a formal organization, which is a highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals. An example of a formal organization is the Salvation Army. This organization was founded in 1865 by a man named William Booth as a revival society and renamed in 1878. It is a Christian denomination and international movement known for its charity shops and other charity work in 126 countries. They help gather donations for people in need everywhere. They help care for the poor and the homeless in many ways such as: feeding the hungry, providing relief for disaster victims, assistance for the disabled, outreaching to the elderly and ill, providing clothing and shelter to the homeless and opportunities for underprivileged children. Here in the United States, the Salvation Army is the second largest charity. This is considered to be a social institution because they have certain rules and beliefs that meets its social needs.
Schools are a big part of social institutions. Schools are everywhere in the world. There is several different types of schooling such as private school, public school, charter schools, catholic schools, Christian schools, home school, and online school. They all have a certain set of rules you have to follow in order to stay in them and succeed. Each of these schools have a different set of beliefs that they teach, but in the end, you are pretty much getting the same education.
Another form of social institution is a federal prison. Prisons are designed to meet multiple functions. Some of these functions are shown in realistic detail by legislators, court decisions and prison officials, but some of these functions must be inferred. Of course prisons are social institutions; they have a set of organized beliefs and rules that they follow, while also trying to resocialize the inmates in case they are released back into society. Socializing the inmates is the only way to help them survive in the real world, if they are ever released.
In 1991 117 per 1,000 girls between the ages 15 to 19 were pregnant. Those numbers have declined to 67.8 per 1,000 girls in 2008. In 2010 the birth rate was at 34.3 births per 1,000 compared to 61.8 births per 1,000 in 1991. Fewer babies were born to teenage mothers than any other year since 1946. Even though that is true, teen birth rates are still nine times higher in the United States than any other developed countries.
Teen pregnancies have many medical risks, such as not enough prenatal care. Prenatal care is critical in the first months of pregnancy. Prenatal care screens for medical problems in both the mother and the baby. Another risk is high blood pressure, it could harm the baby and may even cause the mother to go into early labor. If so depending on how far along in the pregnancy the baby may be born premature. A full term pregnancy is 40 weeks and a baby born before 37 weeks is considered premature. Also teen moms have a higher risk of having a baby with a low birth weight. A low birth weight baby only weighs 3.3 to 5.5 pounds.
To prevent health risks teenage mothers should get early prenatal care. Also stay away from drugs, alcohol and cigarettes. These harm a growing baby along with a growing teenager. Also ask for emotional support. Motherhood bring untold emotional and practical challenges.
There are many options for teen mothers and their babies. One being parenthood, the mother keeps the baby and raises him or her. The down falls to this is that it is hard for a teen mother to finish school once she has had her baby and has to care for it on her own. Also closed adoption, this is where the mother has the baby and as soon as the baby is born the adopted parents take it and the mother does not see it again. Then there is open adoption, which is where the mother gives the baby up for adption, but can still see the baby whenever the adoptive parents are okay with it.
In a society, there are social institutions, which are a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how society will attempt to meets its need. Sociologists have discovered that these needs have been centered on five basic institutions: family, religion, education, the economy, and government. People in the society must do certain tasks to survive. The adults set up ways to rear and educate the children, so they can grow up and do their part in the society. The adults produce and distribute goods and services, maintain order, and have a sense of purpose. These are just certain expectations that society has for the members involved. The expectations help members of the society understand what acceptable behavior is. The five basic institutions can be managing agents that interact with each other.
Education is the process of preparing societies’ young people for a place in an adult life. It’s an important agent of socialization, especially in towns or countries with really diverse populations. The education program combines a large variation of culture backgrounds to interact with mainstream culture. The teachings include formal knowledge like reading, writing, and arithmetic, along with other things like morals, values, and ethics that they learn from the home. This prepares children for entry into the society. There is a macro-level where different social forces like politics, economics, and culture which gives variation in schools. This variation means that every school has different teaching methods and practices that lead to different educational level of each student. The different education levels show how much knowledge a person knows. Many students will extend their knowledge and go on to college after high school. By doing this, they will have a better chance of getting a job, than someone who has little knowledge.
Religion answers questions and explains the unexpected. It helps with the explanations for the ideas of birth and death, and for why things happen. Religion can be formal or informal. Formal religion would be going to church weekly and observing the traditional holidays. When the family gathers together and reads the bible or prays at home that is considered informal religion. Religion gives peace and stability in the family. Families teach their children about religion and that by engaging in religious activities and traditions help with socialization and the stability of a society.
Family has three functions; to transmit culture between generations, to provide a sense of identity or belonging, to provide for the rearing of children. A nuclear family consisted of a mother, father, and children living under the same roof. Before societies modernized families consist of several generations of extended family living in the same house or town. Now kids move away from where they were raised in search of bigger opportunities and jobs. They move to cities, while meeting new people along the way, people they would never meet in the little town they were raised at. The modernization of people has changed to where they meet their own marital partner, other than being introduced by family members.
"Social Institutions." SparkNotes. SparkNotes, 2012. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sparknotes.com/sociology/social-institutions/section5.rhtml>.
Eulo, Joseph. "4 Social Structure and Interaction in Everyday Life." Scribd. Scribd, 2012. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://www.scribd.com/doc/15789599/4-Social-Structure-and-Interaction-in-Everyday-Life>.
At the macro level of all societies, certain basic activities routinely occur-children are born and socialized, goods and services are produced and distributed, order is preserved, and a sense of purpose is maintained. Social Institutions are the means by which these basic needs are met. A social institution is a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs. In the past these needs have centered around 5 basic social institutions: religion, the family, the government, and the economy or politics. Today, mass media, science, medicine, sports, and the military are also considered to be social institutions.
When we refer to family as a social institution, we are talking about ideologies and standardized patterns of behavior that organize family life. For example, the family as a social institution contains certain statuses organized into well-defined relationships, such as husband-wife, parent-child, and a brother-sister. Specific families do not always conform to these ideologies and behavior patterns. Functional theorists emphasize that social institutions exist because they perform five essential tasks: 1. Replacing members: societies and groups must have socially approved ways of replacing members who move away or die. 2. Teaching new members: People who are born into a society or move into it must learn the group’s values and customs. 3. Producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services: all societies must provide and distribute goods and services for their members. 4. Preserving orders: every group or society must preserve order within its boundaries and protect itself from attack by outsiders. 5. Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose: in order to motivate people to cooperate with one another, a sense of purpose is needed.
Although this list of functional prerequisites is shared by all societies, the institutions in each society perform these tasks in somewhat different ways depending on their specific cultural values and norms.Politics is the social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups. In contemporary societies, the government is the primary political system. Politics is something more than what politicians do when they run for office. Politics is concerned with the struggles that shape social relations within societies and affairs between nations. The taxes and prices we pay and the jobs available to us, the chances that we will live in peace or perish in war, the costs of education and the availability of the scholarships, the safety of the airliner or highway we travel on, the quality of the food we eat and air we breathe, the availability of affordable housing and medical care the legal protections against racial and sexual discrimination- all things that directly affect the quality of our lives are influenced in some measure by politics… to say you are not interested in politics, then, is like saying you are not interested in your own well-being. Politics is important because legislation shapes how we live.
Government is the formal organization that had the legal and political authority to regulate and the relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders. Without government and laws, people would run wild over society. The purpose of government is to maintain order and prevent social chaos. The rules are to protect from harms or something bad. Government protects its people from harm as well. Government sets guidelines for its people and they are expected to follow the law. Government comes from the consent of the people. We pay taxes and the government does things for us. They do things like: having police to protect and serve for our communities, schools to educate the people of our country, and roads for us to transport on.
By Kelsi Conway
People are judged by their social status everyday. Some times it may be that they have a lot of money or that they have no money. Social status' define people young and old everywhere. In the work place, at home and even at school. There are differenet social status' such as: wealth and income, gender, political status, religion, ethnicity and race.
During school children experience many of these different social groups. Children many be choosen over because they do not have the name brand clothes or the newest technology. This social status group is the wealthy and income group, even though they do not have the money they do not fall into the wealthy and income group, even though it is not their fault that their parents are not as wealthy as others. They still may not get treated like everyone else. Also if they are of another race than the rest of the children they may not be choosen either. There is also those children that are religious so they may fit into a social group with other religious children.
Adults also have a hard time excepting everyone the way they are, and they may also pick people over others by their social groups. Some adults may not fit into the wealth and income group because they do not make thousand upon thousands a year but it does not mean they are poor. Another social status group that is very common amoung adults is the political group. Politics is a major topic for adults and if you do not know what is going on during election time and a with anything politically related you are an outcast to them.
Sociology in our times The essentials
Social dynamics can refer to the behavior of groups that result from the interactions of individual group members as well to the study of the relationship between individual interactions and group level behaviors. There are so many different social dynamics out there it’s a big topic to talk about.
The Dynamics of Marxism Human relationships have always been dynamic. Change and adaptability have gone hand in hand with the passing of time for human society. Karl Marx’s views on Industrialization and the bourgeoisie had a major impact on how we view our industrial alignment today. Marx and Engel’s The Communist Manifesto gives broad views on the subject of the middle class and how they fit into a society that was ruled by feudalism and aristocracy. Capitalism becomes a major topic in a socialist-based society that underwent many changes as industrialization progressed.
The Dynamics of Alcohol and Marijuana Initiation Alcohol and Marijuana are the most popular substances among adolescents in the United States. To prevent our youth from ever using marijuana or using alcohol too early, we must find out the exact age they are most likely to be initiated to it. Alcohol and Marijuana are often considered as gateway substances to other deadlier drugs. By delaying the onset of use by youths, we can prevent them from ever using other drugs. Many factors play into whether one adolescent is more at risk than another to be a future drug or substance abuser….
Social Control of Prostitution Prostitution is ambiguous to define. The Macquarie dictionary defines prostitution as 1. The act or practice of engaging in sexual intercourse 2. any base or unworthy use of talent, ability, etc. But the act of prostitution involves many other associated facets that are included under this extensive act. There’s the act itself, soliciting, advertising, pimping, house brothels, street prostitution, phone sex and even computer sex. Sweden treats prostitution as legal, however pimping is illegal….
Team dynamics managing individual performance the steps a team leader takes to select workable teammates for a project can be challenging and frustrating task. A team leader will always have to be working the hardest and keeping everybody in order. A team leader needs to lead by example and show everybody else how the job gets done.
The dynamics of personal hygiene are important. People understand that they need to be in control of their body odor. It is necessary that you keep yourself clean so you can get a good job and not be known as a scrub in society.
In conclusion to what I wrote there are all kinds of different social dynamics. People have strong traditions and common views on big topic subjects.
References (cliffsnotes.com wikipedia.org)
Social change refers to an alteration in the social order of a society. The base of social change is change in the thought process in humans. Think about the different changes that have happened or are going on now in our society. Social change will never have an ending. People are always coming up with a new style. People from different places have different rules and traditions. Cultures are always mixing together forming different rituals making social change. The United States has a lot more social change then other countries do because it’s a free country and there is a wide variety of different cultures from all over the world that live and interact with each other every day.
Social revolution -As you grow older the older generation will die out leaving it up to each generation to keep us going in the correct direction. When the old generation crumbles, there is no guarantee that more human-centered structures will replace them. In fact, conservatives have their own ideas about how the new world should be organized, and it's not pretty. That is why we all must participate in the transformation of society to ensure that human values replace the values of the old elite. Because destruction is also creation, the methods we use to pull down the ruins will determine what kind of world arises from the rubble. Our struggle should not be completely political because political revolutions simply deliver concentrated power into new hands, rather than dispersing it. Furthermore, political thought is rarely innovative. Political change usually originates from social conditions, rather than the other way around.
We are living in an historical era of unlimited of possibility. The old world is dying and a new one has not yet been conceived. Yet the leading candidates for architects of this new world are the same wealthy elites who designed the old one. Truly new ideas that can lead to a more humanized society are not easy to find. In the U.S., corporations, governments and churches are able to tightly manage and manipulate collective consciousness. The new, the revolutionary, the latest and the greatest are really just the old and moldy dressed up in new clothes. In the thinking of both the left and the right, the dead ideas of the dominant culture go largely unquestioned. Cultural precepts like patriarchy, hierarchy, the authoritarian family, religious ideology, fixed roles, alienated work, consumerism and militarism are all accepted without serious challenge.
In conclusion to what I have said is that there is always a new generation things will change. Social change will be going on forever traditions will slowly change and technology is improving greatly.
References (wikipedia.org, cliffsnotes.com)
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